Oral magnesium supplementation reduces insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects—A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial

Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism (Impact Factor: 6.36). 03/2011; 13(3):281-4. DOI: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2010.01332.x
Source: PubMed


The incidence of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome correlates with the availability of magnesium (Mg). We studied the effect of oral Mg supplementation on insulin sensitivity and other characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in normomagnesemic, overweight, insulin resistant, non-diabetic subjects. Subjects were tested for eligibility using oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and subsequently randomized to receive either Mg-aspartate-hydrochloride (n = 27) or placebo (n = 25) for 6 months. As trial endpoints, several indices of insulin sensitivity, plasma glucose, serum insulin, blood pressure and lipid profile were determined. Mg supplementation resulted in a significant improvement of fasting plasma glucose and some insulin sensitivity indices (ISIs) compared to placebo. Blood pressure and lipid profile did not show significant changes. The results provide significant evidence that oral Mg supplementation improves insulin sensitivity even in normomagnesemic, overweight, non-diabetic subjects emphasizing the need for an early optimization of Mg status to prevent insulin resistance and subsequently type 2 diabetes.

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Available from: Walter Golf, Jun 27, 2014
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    • "Furthermore, it was demonstrated that Mg deficiency might lead to a decrease in insulin mediated glucose uptake [34,36]. On the other hand, Mg supplementation prevented insulin resistance and also reduced the development of diabetes in animal models [37]. Some studies reported low level of Mg in the blood serum and an increased urinary excretion of Mg in the diabetics relative to their healthy control subjects [36]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Minerals are one of the components of food, though they are not synthesized in the body but they are essential for optimal health. Several essential metals are required for the proper functioning of many enzymes, transcriptional factors and proteins important in various biochemical pathways. For example Zn, Mg and Mn are cofactors of hundreds of enzymes, and Zn is involved in the synthesis and secretion of insulin from the pancreatic beta-cells. Similarly, Cr enhances the insulin receptor activity on target tissues, especially in muscle cells. Insulin is the key hormone required to maintain the blood glucose level in normal range. In case of insulin deficiency or resistance, blood glucose concentration exceeds the upper limit of the normal range of 126 mg/dl. Persistent increase of blood serum glucose level leads to overt chronic hyperglycemia, which is a major clinical symptom of diabetes mellitus. Poor glycemic control and diabetes alters the levels of essential trace elements such as Zn, Mg, Mn, Cr, Fe etc. by increasing urinary excretion and their concomitant decrease in the blood. Hence, the main purpose of this review is to discuss the important roles of essential trace elements in normal homeostasis and physiological functioning. Moreover, perturbation of essential trace elements is also discussed in perspective of type 2 diabetes pathobiology.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
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    • "However, there are ongoing debates about whether magnesium supplementation has beneficial effects on metabolic parameters. Recent reports have shown that oral magnesium supplementation reduces insulin resistance even in non-diabetics (28), and improves borderline hypertension (29). Randomized controlled trials are warranted to provide additional evidence to settle this debate. "
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    ABSTRACT: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a strong predictor of postpartum prediabetes and transition to overt type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Although many reports indicate that low magnesium is correlated with deteriorated glucose tolerance, the association between postpartum serum magnesium level and the risk for T2DM in women with a history of GDM has not been evaluated. We analyzed postpartum serum magnesium levels and development of prediabetes and T2DM in women with prior GDM according to American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria using the Korean National Diabetes Program (KNDP) GDM cohort. During a mean follow-up of 15.6±2.0 months after screening, 116 women were divided into three groups according to glucose tolerance status. Ultimately, eight patients (6.9%) were diagnosed with T2DM, 59 patients (50.9%) with prediabetes, and 49 patients (42.2%) with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) after follow-up. The T2DM group had the lowest serum magnesium level (0.65 [0.63-0.68] mM/L) in the postpartum period, but there was no significant difference between the prediabetes group (0.70 [0.65-0.70] mM/L) and the NGT group (0.70 [0.65-0.70] mM/L) (P=0.073) Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that postpartum HOMA-IR was a significant predictor of both prediabetes and T2DM. Moreover, we found that postpartum serum magnesium level was also a possible predictor for T2DM development. Serum magnesium level in the postpartum period may be a possible predictor for T2DM development in women with a history of GDM.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Korean medical science
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    • "Studies over the years have demonstrated that Mg supplementation may decrease the risk of migraine [5] [6], and reduce blood pressure in particular risk groups [7]. Supplementation can also reduce the insulin resistance [8], and the risk of high blood pressure increase during pregnancy [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Magnesium supplementation is of value in several different medical disorders. Several kinds of Mg-salts are commercially available. Purpose: This review evaluates their bioavailability criteria such as solubility, urinary excretion, and plasma levels of magnesium from studies of different Mg-salts. Conclusion: Although methodology differences were large, the results consistently demonstrate a better bioavailability for Mg-citrate.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014
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