Consequences of Daily Administered Parathyroid Hormone on Myeloma Growth, Bone Disease, and Molecular Profiling of Whole Myelomatous Bone

Pennsylvania State University, United States of America
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 12/2010; 5(12):e15233. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015233
Source: PubMed


Induction of osteolytic bone lesions in multiple myeloma is caused by an uncoupling of osteoclastic bone resorption and osteoblastic bone formation. Current management of myeloma bone disease is limited to the use of antiresorptive agents such as bisphosphonates.
We tested the effects of daily administered parathyroid hormone (PTH) on bone disease and myeloma growth, and we investigated molecular mechanisms by analyzing gene expression profiles of unique myeloma cell lines and primary myeloma cells engrafted in SCID-rab and SCID-hu mouse models. PTH resulted in increased bone mineral density of myelomatous bones and reduced tumor burden, which reflected the dependence of primary myeloma cells on the bone marrow microenvironment. Treatment with PTH also increased bone mineral density of uninvolved murine bones in myelomatous hosts and bone mineral density of implanted human bones in nonmyelomatous hosts. In myelomatous bone, PTH markedly increased the number of osteoblasts and bone-formation parameters, and the number of osteoclasts was unaffected or moderately reduced. Pretreatment with PTH before injecting myeloma cells increased bone mineral density of the implanted bone and delayed tumor progression. Human global gene expression profiling of myelomatous bones from SCID-hu mice treated with PTH or saline revealed activation of multiple distinct pathways involved in bone formation and coupling; involvement of Wnt signaling was prominent. Treatment with PTH also downregulated markers typically expressed by osteoclasts and myeloma cells, and altered expression of genes that control oxidative stress and inflammation. PTH receptors were not expressed by myeloma cells, and PTH had no effect on myeloma cell growth in vitro.
We conclude that PTH-induced bone formation in myelomatous bones is mediated by activation of multiple signaling pathways involved in osteoblastogenesis and attenuated bone resorption and myeloma growth; mechanisms involve increased osteoblast production of anti-myeloma factors and minimized myeloma induction of inflammatory conditions.

    • "In vivo studies using daily administered parathyroid hormone (PTH) in SCID-rab and SCID-hu mouse models demonstrated that PTH treatment increased bone mineral density and reduced tumor burden [109]. PTH also increased the number of osteoblasts and other bone formation parameters and pre-treatment with PTH before injecting tumor cells also increased bone mineral density and delayed tumor progression. "
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple myeloma is a B-cell malignancy characterized by the unrelenting proliferation of plasma cells. Multiple myeloma causes osteolytic lesions and fractures that do not heal due to decreased osteoblastic and increased osteoclastic activity. However, the exact relationship between osteoblasts and myeloma cells remains elusive. Understanding the interactions between these dynamic bone-forming cells and myeloma cells is crucial to understanding how osteolytic lesions form and persist, and how tumors grow within the bone marrow. This review provides a comprehensive overview of basic and translational research focused on the role of osteoblasts in multiple myeloma progression and their relationship to osteolytic lesions. Importantly, current challenges for in vitro studies exploring direct osteoblastic effects on myeloma cells, and gaps in understanding the role of the osteoblast in myeloma progression are delineated. Finally, successes and challenges in myeloma treatment with osteoanabolic therapy (i.e. any treatment that induces increased osteoblastic number or activity) are enumerated. Our goal is to illuminate novel mechanisms by which osteoblasts may contribute to multiple myeloma disease progression and osteolysis to better direct research efforts. Ultimately, we hope this may provide a roadmap for new approaches to the pathogenesis and treatment of multiple myeloma with a particular focus on the osteoblast. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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    ABSTRACT: The majority of patients with multiple myeloma develop bone osteolytic lesions, which may lead to severe complications, including pain and fractures. The pathogenesis of bone disease depends on uncoupled bone remodeling, characterized by increased bone resorption due to upregulation of osteoclast activity and decreased bone formation due to osteoblast inhibition. In myeloma, impaired osteoblast differentiation and increased apoptosis have been described. Responsible for these effects are integrin-mediated adhesion to tumor cells and soluble factors, including WNT antagonists, BMP2 inhibitors and numerous cytokines. Based on the evidence of osteoblast suppression in myeloma, bone anabolic agents have been developed and are currently undergoing clinical evaluation. Due to bidirectional inhibitory effects characterizing tumor cells and osteoblasts interactions, agents targeting osteoblasts are expected to reduce tumor burden along with improvement of bone health. This review summarizes the current knowledge on osteoblast inhibition in myeloma and provides an overview on the clinical grade agents with bone anabolic properties, which represent new promising therapeutic strategies in myeloma.
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