Pyrimidine Derivatives as Potent and Selective A(3) Adenosine Receptor Antagonists
Combinatorial Chemistry Unit (COMBIOMED), Institute of Industrial Pharmacy, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, 15782, Spain.Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (Impact Factor: 5.45). 01/2011; 54(2):457-71. DOI: 10.1021/jm100843z
Two regioisomeric series of diaryl 2- or 4-amidopyrimidines have been synthesized and their adenosine receptor affinities were determined in radioligand binding assays at the four human adenosine receptors (hARs). Some of the ligands prepared herein exhibit remarkable affinities (K(i) < 10 nm) and, most noticeably, the absence of activity at the A(1), A(2A), and A(2B) receptors. The structural determinants that support the affinity and selectivity profiles of the series were highlighted through an integrated computational approach, combining a 3D-QSAR model built on the second generation of GRid INdependent Descriptors (GRIND2) with a novel homology model of the hA(3) receptor. The robustness of the computational model was subsequently evaluated by the design of new derivatives exploring the alkyl substituent of the exocyclic amide group. The synthesis and evaluation of the novel compounds validated the predictive power of the model, exhibiting excellent agreement between predicted and experimental activities.
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ABSTRACT: The crystal structure of the human A(2A) adenosine receptor, a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, is used as a starting point for the structural characterization of the conformational equilibrium around the inactive conformation of the human A(2) (A(2A) and A(2B)) adenosine receptors (ARs). A homology model of the closely related A(2B)AR is reported, and the two receptors were simulated in their apo form through all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Different conditions were additionally explored in the A(2A)AR, including the protonation state of crucial histidines or the presence of the cocrystallized ligand. Our simulations reveal the role of several conserved residues in the ARs in the conformational equilibrium of the receptors. The "ionic lock" absent in the crystal structure of the inactive A(2A)AR is rapidly formed in the two simulated receptors, and a complex network of interacting residues is presented that further stabilizes this structural element. Notably, the observed rotameric transition of Trp6.48 ("toggle switch"), which is thought to initiate the activation process in GPCRs, is accompanied by a concerted rotation of the conserved residue of the A(2)ARs, His6.52. This new conformation is further stabilized in the two receptors under study by a novel interaction network involving residues in transmembrane (TM) helices TM5 (Asn5.42) and TM3 (Gln3.37), which resemble the conformational changes recently observed in the agonist-bound structure of β-adrenoreceptors. Finally, the interaction between Glu1.39 and His7.43, a pair of conserved residues in the family of ARs, is found to be weaker than previously thought, and the role of this interaction in the structure and dynamics of the receptor is thoroughly examined. All these findings suggest that, despite the commonalities with other GPCRs, the conformational equilibrium of ARs is also modulated by specific residues of the family.
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ABSTRACT: Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reaction with 2-heteroarylboronic acids is generally challenging due to these acids easy decomposition. To overcome this problem, we developed a coupling method that uses 2-heteroaryl pinacol boronates in the presence of 1.0mol% Pd(OAc)2 and 2.0mol% S-Phos with 4equiv amount of LiOH in dioxane and H2O at 80°C for 30min. This developed method allowed for the synthesis of a wide variety of 2-heteroaryl pyrimidines from 2-chloropyrimidyl derivatives in high yields, and is also useful in the preparation of various biaryl derivatives from heteroaryl chlorides.
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