Human antiquitin: Structural and functional studies
Biochemistry Programme, School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong, China. Chemico-biological interactions
(Impact Factor: 2.58).
12/2010; 191(1-3):165-70. DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2010.12.019
Antiquitin (ALDH7) is a member of the aldehyde dehydrogenase superfamily which oxidizes various aldehydes to form the corresponding carboxylic acids. Human antiquitin (ALDH7A1) is believed to play a role in detoxification, osmoregulation and more specifically, in lysine metabolism in which alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde is identified as the specific, physiological substrate of the enzyme. In the present study, the structural basis for the substrate specificity was studied by site-directed mutagenesis. Kinetic analysis on wild-type human antiquitin and its mutants E121A and R301A demonstrated the importance of Glu121 and Arg301 in the binding as well as the turnover of alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde. On the functional aspect, in addition to the already diversified physiological functions of antiquitin, the recent demonstration of its presence in the nucleus suggests that it may also play a role in cell growth and cell cycle progression. In this investigation, the expression level of antiquitin was monitored in synchronized WRL68 and HEK293 cell culture systems. It was found that the protein was up-regulated during G(1)-S phase transition. Immunofluorescence staining of the synchronized cells demonstrated an increased expression and accumulation of antiquitin in the nucleus during the G(1)-S phase transition. Knockdown of antiquitin using shRNA transfection also resulted in changes in the levels of several key cell cycle-regulating proteins.
Available from: Chad Brocker
- "ALDH7A1 is part of a superfamily of aldehyde dehydrogenases involved in the NAD(P)+-dependent oxidation of reactive aldehydes to carboxylic acids, as well as the metabolism of other important molecules such as tetrahydrofolate, γ-aminobutyric acid, RA, and betaine . The gene is also suspected to play a role in regulation of hyperosmotic/oxidative stress and the cell cycle , , . As previously noted, ALDH7A1 is unique amongst this family in that it is localized to the cytosol, nucleus, and mitochondria and is highly conserved through evolution, implying one or more essential roles in cell physiology . "
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ABSTRACT: Uveal coloboma is a potentially blinding congenital ocular malformation caused by failure of the optic fissure to close during development. Although mutations in numerous genes have been described, these account for a minority of cases, complicating molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling. Here we describe a key role of aldh7a1 as a gene necessary for normal eye development. We show that morpholino knockdown of aldh7a1 in zebrafish causes uveal coloboma and misregulation of nlz1, another known contributor to the coloboma phenotype, as well as skeletal abnormalities. Knockdown of aldh7a1 leads to reduced cell proliferation in the optic cup of zebrafish, delaying the approximation of the edges of the optic fissure. The aldh7a1 morphant phenotype is partially rescued by co-injection of nlz1 mRNA suggesting that nlz1 is functionally downstream of aldh7a1 in regulating cell proliferation in the optic cup. These results support a role of aldh7a1 in ocular development and skeletal abnormalities in zebrafish.
Available from: André Hallen
- "Interestingly, AASDH accumulates maximally in the nucleus during the G 1 -S phase of replication, which is a time when oxidative stress is known to be most deleterious (Havens et al. 2006). However, its role in detoxification of aldehydes may not be its only function in the nucleus (Chan et al. 2011). We suggest that AASDH may also function in a similar manner to nuclear lactate dehydrogenase and glyceraldehyde-3- phosphate dehydrogenase, both of which are known to be part of the histone 2B transcription activation complex (Dai et al. 2008). "
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ABSTRACT: The lysine catabolism pathway differs in adult mammalian brain from that in extracerebral tissues. The saccharopine pathway is the predominant lysine degradative pathway in extracerebral tissues, whereas the pipecolate pathway predominates in adult brain. The two pathways converge at the level of ∆(1)-piperideine-6-carboxylate (P6C), which is in equilibrium with its open-chain aldehyde form, namely, α-aminoadipate δ-semialdehyde (AAS). A unique feature of the pipecolate pathway is the formation of the cyclic ketimine intermediate ∆(1)-piperideine-2-carboxylate (P2C) and its reduced metabolite L-pipecolate. A cerebral ketimine reductase (KR) has recently been identified that catalyzes the reduction of P2C to L-pipecolate. The discovery that this KR, which is capable of reducing not only P2C but also other cyclic imines, is identical to a previously well-described thyroid hormone-binding protein [μ-crystallin (CRYM)], may hold the key to understanding the biological relevance of the pipecolate pathway and its importance in the brain. The finding that the KR activity of CRYM is strongly inhibited by the thyroid hormone 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) has far-reaching biomedical and clinical implications. The inter-relationship between tryptophan and lysine catabolic pathways is discussed in the context of shared degradative enzymes and also potential regulation by thyroid hormones. This review traces the discoveries of enzymes involved in lysine metabolism in mammalian brain. However, there still remain unanswered questions as regards the importance of the pipecolate pathway in normal or diseased brain, including the nature of the first step in the pathway and the relationship of the pipecolate pathway to the tryptophan degradation pathway.
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ABSTRACT: Microcystins (MCs) are cyclic hepatotoxins produced by various species of cyanobacteria. Their structure includes two variable amino acids (AA) giving rise to more than 90 MC variants, however most of the studies to date have focused on the most toxic variant: microcystin LR (MC-LR). Ingestion is the major route of human exposure to MCs and several in vivo studies have demonstrated macroscopic effects on the gastro-intestinal tract. However, little information exists concerning the pathways affected by MC variants on intestinal cells. In the current study, we have investigated the effects of MC-RR and MC-LR on the human intestinal cell line Caco-2 using a non-selective method and compared their response at the pangenomic scale. The cells were incubated for 4h or 24h with a range of non-toxic concentrations of MC-RR or MC-LR. Minimal effects were observed after short term exposures (4h) to either MC variant. In contrast, dose dependent modulations of gene transcription levels were observed with MC-RR and MC-LR after 24h. The transcriptomic profiles induced by MC-RR were quite similar to those induced by MC-LR, suggestive of a largely common mechanism of toxicity. However, changes in total gene expression were more pronounced following exposure to MC-LR compared to MC-RR, as revealed by functional annotation. MC-LR affected two principal pathways, the oxidative stress response and cell cycle regulation, which did not elicit significant alteration following MC-RR exposure. This work is the first comparative description of the effects of MC-LR and MC-RR in a human intestinal cell model at the pangenomic scale. It has allowed us to propose differences in the mechanism of toxicity for MC-RR and MC-LR. These results illustrate that taking into account the toxicity of MC variants remains a key point for risk assessment.
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