Soraphen A, an inhibitor of acetyl CoA carboxylase activity, interferes with fatty acid elongation

Department of Nutrition and Exercise Sciences, The Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, United States.
Biochemical pharmacology (Impact Factor: 5.01). 03/2011; 81(5):649-60. DOI: 10.1016/j.bcp.2010.12.014
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC1 and ACC2) generates malonyl CoA, a substrate for de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and an inhibitor of mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO). Malonyl CoA is also a substrate for microsomal fatty acid elongation, an important pathway for saturated (SFA), mono- (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthesis. Despite the interest in ACC as a target for obesity and cancer therapy, little attention has been given to the role ACC plays in long chain fatty acid synthesis. This report examines the effect of pharmacological inhibition of ACC on DNL and palmitate (16:0) and linoleate (18:2, n-6) metabolism in HepG2 and LnCap cells. The ACC inhibitor, soraphen A, lowers cellular malonyl CoA, attenuates DNL and the formation of fatty acid elongation products derived from exogenous fatty acids, i.e., 16:0 and 18:2, n-6; IC(50)∼5nM. Elevated expression of fatty acid elongases (Elovl5, Elovl6) or desaturases (FADS1, FADS2) failed to override the soraphen A effect on SFA, MUFA or PUFA synthesis. Inhibition of fatty acid elongation leads to the accumulation of 16- and 18-carbon unsaturated fatty acids derived from 16:0 and 18:2, n-6, respectively. Pharmacological inhibition of ACC activity will not only attenuate DNL and induce FAO, but will also attenuate the synthesis of very long chain saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    • "In humans exist two ACC isoforms (ACC1 and ACC2, a cytosolic and mitochondrial isoform , respectively) that are encoded by separate genes[19]. As soraphens are known to alter the lipid metabolism of treated cells[20], and the HCV life cycle critically depends on lipids[10], we tested soraphen A (SorA) for its anti-HCV activity. Here, we show that SorA is a highly potent HCV inhibitor that is active in the low nanomolar range. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Soraphen A (SorA) is a myxobacterial metabolite that inhibits the acetyl-CoA carboxylase, a key enzyme in lipid biosynthesis. We have previously identified SorA to efficiently inhibit the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the capacity of SorA and analogues to inhibit hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. SorA inhibition capacity was evaluated in vitro using cell-culture derived HCV, HCV pseudoparticles and subgenomic replicons. Infection studies were performed in the hepatoma cell line Huh7/Scr and in primary human hepatocytes. The effects of SorA on membranous web formation were analyzed by electron microscopy. SorA potently inhibits HCV infection at nanomolar concentrations. Obtained EC50 values were 0.70 nM with a HCV reporter genome, 2.30 nM with wild-type HCV and 2.52 nM with subgenomic HCV replicons. SorA neither inhibited HCV RNA translation nor HCV entry, as demonstrated with subgenomic HCV replicons and HCV pseudoparticles, suggesting an effect on HCV replication. Consistent with this, evidence was obtained that SorA interferes with formation of the membranous web, the site of HCV replication. Finally, a series of natural and synthetic SorA analogues helped to establish a first structure-activity relationship. SorA has a very potent anti-HCV activity. Since it also interferes with the membranous web formation, SorA is an excellent tool to unravel the mechanism of HCV replication. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Hepatology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acetyl-CoA carboxylase catalyzes the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA. This reaction constitutes the first committed step of fatty acid synthesis in most organisms, while its product also serves as a universal precursor for various other high-value compounds. The important regulatory and rate-limiting role of acetyl-CoA carboxylase makes this enzyme a powerful tool in a variety of biotechnological and medical projects. This review presents the current knowledge on structural and functional features of the enzyme and focuses on its divergent applications. Different metabolic engineering attempts that lead to the production of various compounds, such as fatty acids, polyketides or flavonoids, are presented and their advantages and limitations discussed. The importance of studies on acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity for design and development of new herbicides and antibiotics as well as for medical intervention is also highlighted.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Biotechnologia
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (PGG), a polyphenolic compound isolated from Rhus chinensis Mill. PGG has been known to have anti-tumor, anti-angiogenic and anti-diabetic activities. The present study revealed another underlying molecular target of PGG in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by using Illumina Human Ref-8 expression BeadChip assay. Through the Beadstudio v3 micro assay program to compare the identified genes expressed in PGG-treated MDA-MB-231 cells with untreated control, we found several unique genes that are closely associated with pyruvate metabolism, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and tyrosine metabolism, including PC, ACSS2, ACACA, ACYP2, ALDH3B1, FBP1, PRMT2 and COMT. Consistent with microarray data, real-time RT-PCR confirmed the significant down-regulation of these genes at mRNA level in PGG-treated MDA-MB-231 cells. Our findings suggest the potential of PGG as anticancer agent for breast cancer cells by targeting cancer metabolism genes.
    No preview · Article · May 2011 · Moleculer Cells
Show more