Decision Aids: Evolving From Novelties to Effective Communication Tools
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In chronic illness, day-to-day care responsibilities fall most heavily on patients and their families. Effective collaborative relationships with health care providers can help patients and families better handle self-care tasks. Collaborative management is care that strengthens and supports self-care in chronic illness while assuring that effective medical, preventive, and health maintenance interventions take place. In this paper, the following essential elements of collaborative management developed in light of behavioral principles and empirical evidence about effective care in chronic illness are discussed: 1) collaborative definition of problems, in which patient-defined problems are identified along with medical problems diagnosed by physicians; 2) targeting, goal setting, and planning, in which patients and providers focus on a specific problem, set realistic objectives, and develop an action plan for attaining those objectives in the context of patient preferences and readiness; 3) creation of a continuum of self-management training and support services, in which patients have access to services that teach skills needed to carry out medical regimens, guide health behavior changes, and provide emotional support; and 4) active and sustained follow-up, in which patients are contacted at specified intervals to monitor health status, identify potential complications, and check and reinforce progress in implementing the care plan. These elements make up a common core of services for chronic illness care that need not be reinvented for each disease.0Comments 782Citations
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the cancer disease trajectory, from diagnosis and treatment to remission or end of life, patients and their families face difficult decisions. The provision of information and support when most relevant can optimize cancer decision making and coping. An interactive health communication system (IHCS) offers the potential to bridge the communication gaps that occur among patients, family, and clinicians and to empower each to actively engage in cancer care and shared decision making. This is a report of the authors' experience (with a discussion of relevant literature) in developing and testing a Web-based IHCS-the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System (CHESS)-for patients with advanced lung cancer and their family caregivers. CHESS provides information, communication, and coaching resources as well as a symptom tracking system that reports health status to the clinical team. Development of an IHCS includes a needs assessment of the target audience and applied theory informed by continued stakeholder involvement in early testing. Critical issues of IHCS implementation include 1) need for interventions that accommodate a variety of format preferences and technology comfort ranges; 2) IHCS user training, 3) clinician investment in IHCS promotion, and 4) IHCS integration with existing medical systems. In creating such comprehensive systems, development strategies need to be grounded in population needs with appropriate use of technology that serves the target users, including the patient/family, clinical team, and health care organization. Implementation strategies should address timing, personnel, and environmental factors to facilitate continued use and benefit from IHCS.0Comments 43Citations
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Self-management is an essential but frequently neglected component of chronic illness management that is challenging to implement. Available effectiveness data regarding self-management interventions tend to be from stand-alone programs rather than from efforts to integrate self-management into routine medical care. This article describes efforts to integrate self-management support into broader health care systems change to improve the quality of patient care in the Chronic Illness Care Breakthrough Series. We describe the general approach to system change (the Chronic Care Model) and the more specific self-management training model used. The process used in training organizations in self-management is discussed, and data are presented on teams from 21 health care systems participating in a 13-month-long Breakthrough Series to address diabetes and heart failure care. Available system-level data suggest that teams from a variety of health care organizations made improvements in support provided for self-management. Improvements were found for both diabetes and heart failure teams, suggesting that this improvement process may be broadly applicable. Lessons learned, keys to success, and directions for future research and practice are discussed.0Comments 224Citations
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