Article

Sex Differences in the Likelihood of Arrest

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Abstract

Using data from the new National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), this study analyzed the impact of a criminal offender's sex on the likelihood of arrest for 555,752 incidents of kidnapping, forcible rape, forcible fondling, robbery, aggravated assault, simple assault, and intimidation in nineteen states and the District of Columbia during 2000. The data used in this study advanced the literature by enabling the authors to determine the likelihood of arrest for males and females based on sex-specific offending as reported by crime victims. Controlling for offense seriousness and a variety of other factors, logistic regression results showed that the probability of arrest for females was 28 percent lower for kidnapping, 48 percent lower for forcible fondling, 9 percent lower for simple assault, and 27 percent lower for intimidation than for males. A supplemental analysis also revealed that Black females had a higher probability of arrest than did White females for aggravated and simple assault. No discernable impact of an offender's sex on the prospect of arrest was noted for the crimes of forcible rape and robbery. Overall, these findings suggest that the lower arrest rate for females is partly the result of leniency shown women by law enforcement personnel.

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... Indeed, existing research on the victim-offender relationship suggests that an arrest is more likely in crimes between people who know one another. Using NIBRS data from 2000, Stolzenberg and D'Alessio (2004) report that arrest is less likely in stranger kidnappings. This relationship has also been observed in studies examining homicide, rape, robbery, simple assault, and aggravated assault (Addington, 2006;Eitle, Stolzenberg, & D'Alessio, 2005;Lee, 2005;Regoeczi, Jarvis, & Riedel, 2008;Roberts, 2008;Taylor, Holleran, & Topalli, 2009). ...
... Beyond the victim-offender relationship, the present study examines the influence of various situational factors on the dependent variables. Previous research focused on crime types other than kidnapping demonstrate that situational factors influence crime event outcomes (e.g., Addington & Rennison, 2008;Bachman & Carmody, 1994;Brecklin & Ullman, 2002Kleck & DeLone, 1993;Martin & Bachman, 1998;Melde & Rennison, 2008;Schnebly, 2002;Stolzenberg & D'Alessio, 2004;Tillyer & Tillyer, in press;Tillyer et al., 2011). Cooccurrence of burglary/robbery indicates whether or not one or both of these crimes occurred within the kidnapping incident (0 = No; 1 = Yes). ...
... Consistent with prior research, arrest was more likely to occur in kidnappings perpetrated by non-strangers (Stolzenberg & D'Alessio, 2004), presumably because suspect identification is easier in these cases. It is important to note, however, that the data analyzed in the present study are limited to crimes known to the police. ...
... Although the number of female offenders convicted and incarcerated has increased dramatically in recent years, the biased lenient approach toward them has persisted and has been empirically demonstrated at practically every stage of the judicial process. Studies have shown that wherever discretionary decisions are made, women are usually less likely than men to be detected, arrested, charged, convicted, and sentenced (e.g., Daly & Tonry 1997;Demuth & Steffensmeier 2004;Spohn 1999;Spohn & Beichner 2000;Stolzenberg & D'Alessio 2004). If sentenced, women are likely to receive milder sentences than men (e.g., O'Neil 1999;Steffensmeier, Kramer, et al. 1993;Steffensmeier, Ulmer, et al. 1998). ...
... The theory suggests that patriarchal cultures tend to identify women as weak, submissive, childlike, and defenseless, and as not being fully responsible for their actions. In this context, ''well''-socialized individuals come to believe that female offenders need to be protected rather than punished (e.g., Kulik et al. 1996;O'Neil 1999;Scheider 2000;Steffensmeier, Kramer, et al. 1993;Stolzenberg & D'Alessio 2004). Contrary to how these individuals would view a male offenderFas an independent and mature individual who is responsible for his actionsF female offenders are often considered victims of an environment that has failed to provide the necessary guidance and supervision LSR 334 that women generally deserve (Steffensmeier 1980). 1 Thus chivalry theory suggests that society's view of women as weak and defenseless leads to an overall lenient approach toward female offenders. ...
... Our study centered on the differential treatment of offenders based on gender and adherence to normative sex roles; however, studies in the United States have found crime seriousness judgments to be influenced by the offender's race as well. The majority of these studies found a main effect, as well as an interaction effect, with race (Chesney-Lind & Shelden 2004; Steffensmeier, Ulmer, et al. 1998;Stolzenberg & D'Alessio 2004). Nevertheless, the effect of gender is generally not conditioned by race, and more-lenient treatment of women is found for both racial minorities and whites (Spohn & Beichner 2000). ...
Article
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Previous studies have shown that female offenders frequently receive more lenient judgments than equivalent males. Chivalry theories argue that such leniency is the result of paternalistic, benevolent attitudes toward women, in particular toward those who fulfill stereotypical female roles. Yet to date, studies have not examined whether such leniency is indeed associated with paternalistic societal attitudes toward women. The present study goes beyond the investigation of demographics and employs Glick and Fiske's (1996) concepts of hostile and benevolent sexism. We use these concepts to highlight the role of individual differences in attitudes toward women as a key to our understanding of lenient attitudes toward female offenders. Eight hundred forty respondents from a national sample of Israeli residents evaluated the seriousness of hypothetical crime scenarios with (traditional and nontraditional) female and male offenders. As hypothesized, hostile and benevolent sexism moderate the effect of women's “traditionality” on respondents' crime seriousness judgments and on the severity of sentences assigned.
... Social psychologists have usually examined discriminatory behaviour in connection with studies of its psychological background, like stereotypes (Fiske, 1998). This research has often been carried out in social systems where discriminatory behaviour may take place, like the justice system (Albonetti, 2002;Stoltzenberg & D'Alessio, 2004). ...
... Study 3 was a conceptual replication of Study 2. As Study 2 had shown that Weiner's model of social conduct worked also when the ethnicities of the target persons varied, the two levels of responsibility used in Study 2 were left out. We added gender to this study because it is a strong factor behind length of sentences and likelihood of arrest (Albonetti, 2002;Stoltzenberg & D'Alessio, 2004). The status difference seems to work differently for gender than ethnicity. ...
... responsibility (partial r = -.22, p = .01), sympathy (partial r = .23, p = .01), and anger (partial r = -.21, p = .02). This implies that regardless of their ethnicity, women were attributed with less responsibility than men and they also evoked less anger, more sympathy and received less punishment than men. This is in line with previous findings (Stoltzenberg & D'Alessio. 2004). However, because there was no SDO × Gender interaction, participants' SDO did not significantly contribute to this difference in reactions towards male and female targets. SDO has earlier been found to correlate with sexism (Bates & Heaven, 2001) but it does not seem to have any correlation with benevolent sexism (Glick & Fiske, 2001) ...
Thesis
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The thesis is built on three quantitative studies on aspects of prejudice and discrimination from a social cognitive perspective
... Researchers have used linked the NIBRS data to examine such issues as the effects of social disorganization and police resource variables on clearance outcomes (Roberts 2008), the racial threat hypothesis (Stolzenberg et al. 2004), the interaction between the racial composition of a city's police force and the offender's race in assault clearance (Eitle et al. 2005), and the effects of state law and agency-level policies on individual officers' arrest behavior in domestic violence incidents (Eitle 2005; Pattavina, Buzawa et al. 2007; Pattavina, Hirschel et al. 2007). It is useful to look at these studies in more detail. ...
... Other researchers suggest that social control experienced by blacks declines as the black population exceeds the size of white population, due to political mobilization of black citizens (Horowitz 1985). Previous research typically measured social control directed against blacks at the aggregate level, using, for instance, police force size, police expenditures , or the arrest rate (Stolzenberg et al. 2004). However, Quillian (1996) argued that social control imposed upon blacks should be measured at the micro-level, with measures such as arrest outcomes of individual black offenders . ...
... However, Quillian (1996) argued that social control imposed upon blacks should be measured at the micro-level, with measures such as arrest outcomes of individual black offenders . Following this suggestion, Stolzenberg et al. (2004) used hierarchical models to examine how the odds of an individual black offender being arrested depended on the size of the city's black population. Stolzenberg et al.'s (2004) results did not support the claim of racial threat theory. ...
Article
The National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) data have been available to the research community for about a decade. The advantages of NIBRS over other official statistics such as summary Uniform Crime Reports, Supplementary Homicide Reports, and the National Crime Victimization Survey have contributed to better evaluation of a number of theoretical perspectives in criminology and criminal justice, and have helped in suggesting possible policy implications. This paper reviews studies using the NIBRS data in the areas of crime clearance, crime rates disaggregated by situational context (including domestic violence, race-specific crime, and gun crime), and lethal and non-lethal outcomes of violent encounters. The paper also discusses limitations of the NIBRS data and cautions for its use, along with future research possibilities.
... Numerous studies support the chivalry hypothesis by showing that females have consistently lower incarceration odds than males convicted of similar offenses. This is true even when controlling for factors known to influence sentencing severity, such as age, race, crime seriousness, and trial versus plea bargain, as well as across different measures of incarceration (Griffin & Wooldredge, 2006;Hamilton & Worthen, 2011;Smith et al., 2006;Stolzenberg & D'Alessio, 2004;Van Slyke & Bales, 2013). In addition, laboratory studies have confirmed this tendency (Austin, Plumm, Terrance, & Terrell, 2013). ...
... This tendency was more evident among men than among women. These findings corroborate prior offender sex sentencing literature by indicating that females have consistently lower incarceration odds than males convicted of similar offenses (Griffin & Wooldredge, 2006;Hamilton & Worthen, 2011;Smith et al., 2006;Stolzenberg & D'Alessio, 2004;Van Slyke & Bales, 2013). The findings are compatible with the chivalry hypothesis and patriarchal views (e.g., Crew, 1991;Daly, 1987): Female offenders receive lenient judgments due to a patriarchal protective approach stemming from sex-based stereotypes (Curry et al., 2004;Fernando Rodriguez et al., 2006). ...
Article
The chivalry hypothesis and attractiveness bias were evaluated among 323 police officers and 364 students, serving as a control group. The participants were asked to read a description of a swindle, where the offender was either physically attractive or unattractive. They then had to assign a punishment to the offender and judge the blame ascribed to both offender and victim. The findings showed that the offender’s sex, more than his or her external appearance, affects differences in punishment severity. Female offenders were treated more forgivingly than male offenders. Nonetheless, analysis of blame attributions shows that attractive offenders are blamed more than unattractive offenders. Women were also found to dispense severe punishments more than men.
... Women are processed by the criminal justice system at substantially lower rates than men, and although women make up approximately half of the population of the United States, they make up only 23% of arrestees and account for only 7% of incarcerated inmates (Bureau of Justice Statistics (BOJ), 2015). Furthermore, evidence has shown that police are more lenient with female offenders (Gabbidon et al., 2011;Steffensmeier & Allan, 1988;Stolzenberg & Alessio, 2004;Visher, 1983). For example, research has demonstrated that police give fewer citations (Blalock, DeVaro, Leventhal, & Simon, 2007;Engel, Calnon, Liu & Johnson, 2004;Farrell, McDevitt, Bailey, Andresen, & Pierce, 2004) and search and arrest women less frequently (Engel et al., 2004(Engel et al., , 2008Farrell et al., 2004;Novich & Hunt, 2017;Smith, Makarios, & Alpert, 2006). ...
... The men and women in the study reported that females were targeted, stopped, and searched less frequently. They were also treated with more leniency than their male counterparts, often escaping detection and/ or arrest (Gabbidon et al., 2011;Steffensmeier & Allan, 1988;Stolzenberg & Alessio, 2004). On the other hand, the men described being the focal point of gang and drug suppression efforts reporting a greater number of stops, searches, and arrests than the women (Durán, 2008;Egley, 2002). ...
Article
Research suggests that gender imbalances in police forces can significantly affect individuals’ experiences when interacting with police. Of importance, yet rarely examined, is the extent to which predominantly male police forces, in conjunction with adherence to gendered departmental policies, can simultaneously send signals of procedural justice and procedural injustice. Drawing on data from 253 in-depth interviews of San Francisco–based male and female drug-dealing gang members, we investigated how interactions with a male-dominated police force, who were required to search only suspects of the same gender, affected perceptions of fair policing. Our findings revealed that the study participants raised concerns that the police unfairly enforced the law to the detriment of the men in the study. The gang members were aware that male officers could only search same-sex suspects, and this exacerbated the gendered experiences of the gang members. Specifically, it contributed to the perception that male officers targeted male gang members to the omission of women and, if women were stopped, they were frequently released. These findings suggest that the gender composition of the police force is important in shaping attitudes toward equitable enforcement of the law and procedural fairness. Of theoretical importance, these findings highlight a contradiction that compliance with rules can contribute, counter intuitively, to perceptions of procedural injustice. Procedurally unfair police behavior may be a systemic problem where the gender composition of the police force itself creates an inherently unfair system.
... 28). Differential law enforcement responses to male and female offenders also may influence the result of arrest (see e.g., Bishop and Frazier 1992;Hagan et al. 1987;Monahan 1970;Stolzenberg and D'Alessio 2004). Particularly, earlier scholars argued for a general reluctance to apprehend women (DeFleur 1975;Johnson et al. 1977;Goethals et al. 1997). ...
Article
Objectives Prior theoretical scholarship makes strong assumptions about the invariance of the age-crime relationship by sex. However, scant research has evaluated this assumption. This paper asks whether the age-crime curve from age 12–30 is invariant by sex using a contemporary, nationally representative sample of youth, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort (NLSY97). Methods To address the limitations of the existing empirical literature, a novel localized modeling approach is used that does not require a priori assumptions about the shape of the age-crime curve. With a non-parametric method—B-spline regression, the study models self-report criminal behavior and arrest by sex using age as the independent variable, and its cubic spline terms to accommodate different slopes for different phases of the curve. Results The study shows that males and females have parallel age-crime curves when modeled with self-report criminal behavior variety score but they have unique age-crime in the frequency of self-report arrest. Group-based trajectory analysis is then used to provide a deeper understanding of heterogeneity underlying the average trends. The onset patterns by sex are quite similar but the post-peak analyses using the early onset sample reveal different patterns of desistance for arrest by sex. Conclusions The study found evidence of relatively early and faster desistance of arrest among females but little difference exists for the variety of criminal behaviors. Implications and future directions are discussed.
... Pollack (1950) more than 60 years ago pointed to the notion of chivalry in the criminal justice system. That is, the criminal justice system shows greater "leniency" and "chivalry" toward females; this may account for a portion of the lower official arrest rates of women, especially for less serious offenses (Smith & Visher, 1981;Stolzenberg & D'Alessio, 2004). Another possibility is that when males and females consume marijuana together, males might be the ones who purchase and carry the marijuana, hence putting themselves at greater risk of arrest than females. ...
Article
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Arrest rates per capita for possession of marijuana have increased threefold over the last 20 years and now constitute the largest single arrest offense category. Despite the increase in arrest numbers, rates of use have remained stable during much of the same period. This article presents the first estimates of the arrest probabilities for marijuana, conditional on use in the previous 12 months; this is an appropriate measure of the intensity of enforcement against users. We analyze differences by age, race, and gender from 1982 to 2008. The probabilities of arrest for a marijuana user were similar across age and race categories until 1991. By 2006, that had changed sharply. Arrest rates among current marijuana users are disproportionately high for adolescents, Blacks, and males. The rate has varied between 0.8% and 1.8% across years; the rate per incident of use has ranged between about 1/3,000 and 1/6,000. There is no compelling account of why marijuana arrest probabilities have increased nationally or why the focus has been on youth, minorities, and males but the disproportionate increase for young Black males raises issues of disparate impact.
... Men are less satisfied with the police than women, which is contrasting the findings by Braga et al. (2014). This finding might be due to the nature for which they were contacted, as men are more often criminal suspects than women (Stolzenberg and D'Alessio 2004). Of the people who were contacted by the police, those who consider themselves as more right wing have a more positive attitude toward their encounter. ...
Article
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Is the delegation of public services to semi-autonomous agencies associated with increased citizen satisfaction? This article assesses three theoretical routes that might link the two: responsiveness, credible commitment, and blame deflection. The article draws on data from the European Social Survey and an expert survey about delegation of tax and police services to semi-autonomous agencies in 15 countries. No supporting evidence was found for the responsiveness and credible commitment theories. Yet semi-autonomous agencies sometimes can absorb or deflect blame for bad performance. In the tax case, dissatisfied service users blame the agency, rather than the government. The presence of an agency worked as a scapegoat for dissatisfied service users and resulted in less dissatisfaction with the government in countries where tax services were delegated.
... Theoretically speaking, feminist criminology developed because (primarily liberal) feminist scholars objected to the exclusion of gender from criminological analyses, an omission that seemed particularly glaring given that gender is such a strong predictor of offending (Blumstein, Cohen, Roth, & Visher, 1986;Steffensmeier & Allan, 1996), arrest (Stolzenberg & D'Alessio, 2004), and sentencing outcomes (Daly, 1994;Daly & Tonry, 1997). Feminist scholars were dissatisfied with the failure of mainstream criminology to recognize issues of gender inequality at all, as well as with the failure of critical and radical criminology to consider the relationship between inequality and crime outside of the narrow context of economic disparities, under which were subsumed issues of race and gender (see Beirne & Messerschmidt, 2000). ...
Article
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More than 30 years after the first scholarship of its kind was produced, feminist studies of crime are more commonplace than ever before. Two recent milestone events—the 20th anniversary of the American Society of Criminology’s Division on Women and Crime and the creation of this journal, the official publication of the division—provide the perfect opportunity to reflect on what lies ahead for feminist criminology. In this article, the author argues that the future of feminist criminology lies in our willingness to embrace a theoretical framework that recognizes multiple, intersecting inequalities. Specifically, the author maintains that to advance an understanding of gender, crime, and justice that achieves universal relevance and is free from the shortcomings of past ways of thinking, feminist criminologists must examine linkages between inequality and crime using an intersectional theoretical framework that is informed by multiracial feminism.
... Unsurprisingly and in line with previous research (Lytle, 2013;Stolzenberg & D'Alessio, 2004), males were substantially more likely to be placed in classes with higher arrest probabilities than females. Sex was a strong, consistent predictor of class membership across all but one of the models. ...
Article
Objectives: Criminal involvement is non-randomly distributed across individuals and across groups, resulting in differential probabilities of arrest. Thus, various predictors of arrest probability across time were examined for different groups. Methods: Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, the current study examined latent class membership in the probability of arrest over a 15-year time span starting when participants were 12–16 years-old and ending when they were 28–31 years-old. Latent class regressions were employed to prospectively investigate whether demographic and criminological risk factors from the base wave could predict class membership. Results: Results from the latent class growth analyses resulted in three to four classes characterized by an abstainer group, a stable, low-level group, an adolescent-limited group, and a stable moderate-level chronic group. In general, race, poverty, and other risk factors exhibited weak and inconsistent effects in predicting class membership. In contrast, being male and self-reported delinquency were consistent predictors of class membership. Conclusion: Across model comparisons and net of other predictors, self-reported delinquency was a strong predictor of class membership, suggesting that differential arrest probability is predominantly explained by time-stable delinquent behavior.
... Women are less likely to be arrested than men, according to the "chivalry hypothesis," but only some evidence is consistent with this hypothesis. Visher (1983) proposed the more refined hypothesis that such lenience is extended to women whose behavior is compatible with sex role expectations, for which she found support in offense-specific, contingent effects of suspects' sex (also see Stolzenberg & D'Alessio, 2004). ...
Article
In early 2016, Albany police launched its law-enforcement-assisted diversion (LEAD) program, providing for discretionary prebooking diversion for low-level offenders whose offending was driven by drug addiction, mental illness, homelessness, or poverty. We examine the exercise of officers' discretion in making LEAD diversions by analyzing eligible incidents to estimate the effects of offense-, suspect-, and officer-related variables on discretionary decisions, and by analyzing semistructured interviews with officers. We find that in the first year of LEAD, diversions were few in number, and the individuals diverted to LEAD were not generally people with a high level of previous justice involvement. Officers' attitudes toward diversion and toward LEAD were mixed, and those attitudes influenced the exercise of their discretion. Overall, we find evidence of the same kinds of challenges that have confronted the implementation of new programs in many police agencies, particularly challenges to "pluralized" drug control.
... According to the chivalry or paternalism argument, gender stereotypes (e.g., females are delicate and naïve wives, daughters, and mothers) may lead to preferential treatment of female offenders [69]. Empirical research supports this notion by showing that female offenders receive more lenient treatment than similarly situated male offenders [69,70] and have consistently lower incarceration odds than males convicted of similar offenses [70][71][72][73][74]. Legal professionals may also be biased. ...
Article
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Objective The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of deliberative vs. intuitive thinking styles on forensic judgments of legal professionals. Two hypotheses were tested: (a) that low deliberative thinking would be related to judgmental biases (b) that lawyers would report a greater tendency and preference toward deliberative thinking in comparison to students and make more rational judgments. Method Ninety-one lawyers and 120 undergraduate students, who served as controls, were asked to read a criminal case depicting sexual harassment (SH) and judge victim and offender blame, whether the case constitutes SH, and the damage for the victim. Results Deliberative thinking of lawyers was higher than students, and higher than their intuitive thinking style, supporting the more rational blame attributions of the former. In addition, higher deliberative thinking was related to a stronger perception of the event as SH. Nevertheless, all the participants were more inclined to perceive the case as SH when the victim was a woman instead of a man. Conclusions The results suggest that gender stereotypes and bias may persist despite high deliberative thinking and may even be manifested through deliberative thinking processes. Awareness of legal professionals of these biases as well as the development of more objective tools which will help make the judging process less subjective—will ensure more accurate assessment of victims, offenders, and cases.
... We examine potential reciprocal effects from adolescence to midlife for men and women separately because men have both higher rates of substance use disorders (Hasin et al., 2007;Kessler et al., 1994), as well as higher rates of criminal behavior and criminal justice involvement than women (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2015). Also, there are gender differences in how people become involved in substance use and crime (Chassin et al., 2002;Jang et al., 2005;Wasilow-Mueller and Erickson, 2001;Windle, 1990) and in their consequences (Eaton et al., 2012;Stolzenberg and D'Alessio, 2004). ...
Article
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Background: African Americans are disproportionately burdened by substance use consequences and criminal justice system involvement, yet their interrelationship over the life course is not well understood. This study aimed to assess how substance use, crime, and justice system involvement may influence one another from adolescence to midlife. Methods: Data come from a community cohort of urban African Americans first assessed in childhood and followed up into midlife (n = 1242, 606 males, 636 females). We draw on interview data and local, state, and federal criminal records. Participants were assessed at ages 6, 16, 32, and 42, with additional record retrieval at age 52. Utilizing structural equation modeling, we estimate pathways between substance use, criminal behavior, and arrests over time by gender. Results: For males, significant paths were found between childhood behavioral problems and adolescent substance use, delinquency, and police interactions. For females, a significant path was found between childhood behavioral problems and only adolescent delinquency. We observed continuity between substance use and between arrest constructs from adolescence through midlife for men only. Direct paths were found between substance use and later arrests for both males and females. Paths were also observed between arrests and later substance use for both genders. Conclusions: Findings of reciprocal relationships highlight the critical need to break the cycle of substance use and crime and point to specific times in the life course when intervention is necessary. Findings introduce the potential role of the criminal justice system as a key intervention agent in redirecting substance use careers.
... Men might be at greater risk for engaging in illegal behavior while using substances (Bennett & Holloway, 2018). While arrest trajectories of male and female substance users are fairly similar, law enforcement officials might show more leniency to female offenders (Novich et al., 2018;Prendergrast et al., 2010;Stolzenberg & D'Alessio, 2004). As the legal status of cannabis continues to evolve, gender-based discrepancies in experiences of legal problems might dissipate. ...
Article
Background: Gender bias in measures of cannabis problems may differentially affect how men and women endorse items. This gender invariance might mask, exaggerate, or otherwise obscure true distinctions in experiences of cannabis consequences. Methods: The Cannabis-Associated Problems Questionnaire (CAPQ), a measure of interpersonal deficits, occupational impairment, psychological issues, and physical side effects related to cannabis use, contained items with gender-based differential item functioning (DIF) in previous work-a finding we aim to replicate and extend (Lavender, Looby, & Earleywine, 2008). Results: In a sample of 4053 cannabis users, gender differences were apparent in global scores on the CAPQ. A DIF analysis revealed two gender-biased items, including one identified previously. Removal of these items did not significantly alter the scale's relation to cannabis use. Gender differences on the CAPQ persisted after removal of the two problematic items, indicating true gender differences still exist in men and women's experiences of cannabis-related consequences. Gender appeared to significantly contribute to scores on the full CAPQ and the short-form of the CAPQ with biased item removed, even after controlling for indices of cannabis use. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the CAPQ evidences less gender bias than previously thought, perhaps due to diminishing gender-based stereotypes. Future work might opt to use the short form of the CAPQ to minimize gender-based DIF. In addition, potential biases in measures of substance use problems deserve more attention.
... Although arrests are commonly used to examine long-term offending patterns, they may have limitations when comparing men and women. For example, Stolzenberg & D'Alessio (2004), using data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System, argued that differences in the likelihood of arrest for a violent offense are influenced by the sex of the offender, with the police being less likely to arrest women, suggesting that sex-specific arrest rates do not provide a "quality indicator" of sex-specific crime rates. A better indicator might be criminal activity, that is, the number and types of crimes (collected by self-report), which is closer to actual behavior than arrest rates. ...
Article
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This paper examines the arrest trajectories of adult men and women, drawn from a sample of clients admitted to substance abuse treatment. Growth-mixture modeling was used to identify distinctive trajectories in arrests for men and women between ages 18 and 45. In addition, the characteristics of men and women in each of the trajectory groups were compared by gender, arrest trajectory, and the interaction of gender and arrest trajectory. Findings indicated that while the shape of the five trajectories was similar for men and women, higher percentages of men than women were in the High trajectory group (12.5% vs. 8.5%), the Moderate group (27.9% vs. 20.9%), and Slow Increase group (25.5% vs. 20.6%), with more women than men being in the Low group (34.1% vs. 27.1%). Although arrests declined as men and women aged, there did not appear to be many individuals who had terminated their criminal career by age 45. Overall, more similarities than differences were observed in the characteristics of men and women across trajectories. Additional research should examine whether the causal factors influencing arrest trajectories differ by gender.
... The results indicate women made up nearly one-fourth of all barroom assaults. Thus, women are not immune from assaultive behavior, yet theories of convergence have simply not been supported by this research or previous research (see Belknap, 1996;Kruttschnitt, 2001;Steffensmeier, 2001;Stolzenberg & DÊAlessio, 2004). As women have gained positions of status, their rate of offending still has not matched that of their male counterpart. ...
Article
This research assesses the prevalence, nature, and arrest patterns of barroom aggression; it includes a cross-national sample of men and women involved in simple or aggravated assault. Prior research indicates bars are a haven for assaults; however, little research has focused on female involvement in barroom assault. Data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System are used to assess differences between men (n=9262) and women (n=2787) involved in barroom assaults during 2005. Results shed light on an understudied population of barroom offenders. Specifically, women are younger than their male counterparts and more likely to use a weapon during a barroom altercation. Additionally, while barroom assault is intrasexual in nature, women are more likely than men to assault outside their sex.
Article
Duration models were used to investigate reconviction risks for a sample of 34,126 offenders released from prison in England and Wales during 1998. Different versions of the Cox proportional hazards model were applied to a comprehensive data set covering several offense types. Factors such as age (modelled using bands rather than a linear or quadratic format), gender, convictions-history, and offense type were found to be strongly associated with the risk of reconviction. Interactions between factors were also included and it was shown that the discrepancy between the risk of reconviction for males and females became weaker as the number of previous convictions increased. The study helped identify the subgroups of offenders for whom reconviction risks are greatest and the times when they seem to be most vulnerable to reconviction. Implications are explored for the design of prisoner resettlement programs and the prioritization of offenders for more intensive forms of intervention.
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Using data from the 2005 National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), this analysis focuses on the impacts that domestic violence mandatory arrest policies have on arrest outcomes in "situationally ambiguous" cases: cases where both the female and male partners have been identified by police as both a victim and an offender. Results indicate that although officers arrest male partners more frequently than female partners, after controlling for incident and individual factors, mandatory arrest policies disproportionately affect women. Furthermore, correlates of arrest differ for male-only arrests versus female-only arrests. These findings are discussed in the context of changing legal responses to domestic violence.
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This review represents the fifth in an annual special feature in Police Practice and Research: An International Journal. It provides a cross‐sectional analysis of the police literature for 2004, with a focus on the substantive categories, publication medium, and methodological typology of such literature. This paper also comments on reviews of years past, using the findings of Beckman, Lum, Wykoff, & Larsen‐Vanderwall (2003) as a basis for the discussion of the patterns of the aforementioned characteristics over time. A topically organized bibliography of the 2004 police literature reviewed is provided.
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The 2010 federal health insurance reform act includes an individual mandate that will require Americans to carry health insurance. This article argues that even if the mandate were to catalyze universal health insurance coverage, it will fall short on some of the policy objectives many hope to achieve through a mandate if implemented in a fragmented insurance market. To uncover this problem, this article sets forth a novel framework that disentangles three different policy objectives the individual mandate can serve. Namely, supporters of the mandate might hope for it to: (1) facilitate greater health and financial security for the uninsured (“paternalism”); (2) eliminate inefficiencies in health care delivery and financing (“efficiency”); and/or (3) require the healthy to buy insurance to help fund medical care for the sick (“health redistribution”). Health redistribution — the primary focus of this article — is a shifting of wealth from the healthy to the sick through the mechanism of risk pooling. Many see health redistribution as a means to enable all Americans to more equitably access medical care on the basis of need, rather than on the basis of ability or willingness to pay.
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This article examines the effect that collective bargaining had on official crime statistics compiled between 1998 and 2009 in Montreal, Canada. Police officers collectively decided to reduce their use of record-discretion on two occasions, to increase administrative workload and pressure their employers. Considerable increases of recorded assaults and mischief were observed, despite no apparent variation of reported infractions measured by calls for service. Recorded and reported car thefts and burglaries displayed no significant variation. Results suggest that observed variations can be explained in terms of temporary differential treatment of specific incidents rather than increases of reported criminality or proactive police activity. This research challenges the reliability of official statistics as measures of crime and demonstrates that external circumstances can influence police recording practices.
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Morality is reemerging into sociological analyses; however social psychological mechanisms are currently underutilized within Life Course studies. This paper examines a key potential life course turning point in the careers of adolescents who encounter the criminal justice system to demonstrate the moral dimension of desistance from criminal activity. We explore the relationship between social institutions and individual intentions by looking at cognitive and emotional reactions adolescents report encountering the criminal justice system, offering a hypothetical model highlighting the central place of shame–a quintessential moral emotion brought about either by institutional pressures or feedback from significant others–in the process of shifting life course intentions. We focus on these ways that individual ‘moral thresholds’ may shift, potentially leading to life course turning points.
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Routine activities theory (RAT) is traditionally drawn upon to highlight the role of offender motivation, target suitability, and effective guardianship in explaining victimization patterns. While an extensive literature base supports RAT, prior studies have neglected to examine the impact of offender motivation, target suitability, and guardianship on diverse outcomes of violent crimes. The current study extends prior research grounded in RAT by exploring the role of indicators of the central elements highlighted by the theory in understanding the likelihood that an offender will be arrested. As such, this study adds to the growing body of literature on RAT by exploring its relevance to a more diverse set of outcomes. To do this, we draw on the wealth of data on offender, victim, and incident characteristics available in the National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS). Results from the analysis offer a moderate to strong level of support for extending RAT to understanding variation in the likelihood that an offender will be arrested. The insights gained from a RAT framework were further discussed in relation to our findings.
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Theories of criminality have been concerned mainly with the role of men as both victims and offenders. This paper examines female participation in shoplifting, one of the few crimes in Barbados in which they are well-represented in the official statistics. Using police statistics, and the testimony of the police and shop proprietors/managers in Bridgetown, the paper shows that women's participation may, in fact, be underrepresented, as they appear to be benefiting from a form of intervention that is influenced by the fact that they are perceived as being integral to the family unit, particularly in their role as mothers. Though also sympathetic to the plight of the woman suspect, the police officers do not appear to have the power to intervene once they have been called to the scene of the alleged offence. Men, on the other hand, are disadvantaged by their aggressive behaviour once accosted, by perceptions of their motives, and of available acceptable alternatives.
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Background Most studies on offending heterogeneity have been conducted with general population samples. It is not clear to what extent these can inform such outcomes for individuals with substance use disorders specifically.AimsThe aim of this study is to compare the offending trajectories of individuals treated for substance use disorders in adolescence with a matched general population sample, and to test for gender differences in this respect.Method Growth mixture models were applied to identify offending trajectories from age 15 to 33 of 1568 individuals treated for substance use disorders in adolescence, and in a matched population-based sample of 1500 individuals.ResultsSeveral parallel trajectories for men and for women were identified in both samples. The substance misuse treatment sample, however, had higher levels of offending, larger offender classes, longer careers and two additional, distinct trajectories. Although there were similarities between the men and women, the men were more heterogeneous offenders. There were two distinct offending trajectories among male substance misusers—decreasing high level and decreasing low level offending.Conclusions Differences between substance using and general population samples indicate that results from the latter could underestimate the severity, heterogeneity, and persistence of offending trajectories if merely generalised to individuals with substance use disorders. Our results also indicated that population-based samples might be underpowered for detecting female offending heterogeneity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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In an effort to upgrade and improve criminal justice statistics, the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) program is currently in the process of transitioning from the Summary Reporting System (SRS) to the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS). While this transition will increase the capacity for law enforcement agencies and analysts to make informed decisions regarding crime and policing policy, the detail of NIBRS increases analytic complexity. More specifically, NIBRS includes variables in six data segments, five of which can include multiple records per incident. As a result, analysts must decide how many records to use. However, there is currently no guidance for best practices in making this decision. This research addresses this gap by examining the impact of this decision on descriptive analyses and regression estimates. Results indicate some estimates are measured accurately using only one record, using three records reduces inaccuracy, and with some exceptions, using more than three records is methodologically unnecessary. As the NIBRS data become increasingly representative and useful in the coming years, it will be important that they are used both efficiently and effectively. Taken together, this research suggests that for most analyses there is substantial consistency when using at least three records per data segment but that there are some cases for which the number of records is consequential and researchers should consider the methodological and theoretical implications of each strategy when choosing between them.
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Adolescent involvement in risky behavior is ubiquitous and normative. Equally pervasive is the rapid decline in risky behavior during the transition to adulthood. Yet, for many, risky behavior results in arrest. Whereas prior research finds that arrest is associated with an increased risk of experiencing a host of detrimental outcomes, less understood is the impact of an arrest on the developmental course of offending compared to what it would have looked like if no arrest had occurred—the counterfactual. This study examines the developmental implications of an arrest early in the life course. The sample (N = 1293) was 37% female, 42% non-white, with a mean age of 13.00 years (SD = 0.82, range = 12–14) at baseline and followed annually for 15 years. Analyses combine propensity score matching and multilevel modeling techniques to estimate the impact of early arrest (i.e., 14 or younger) on the development of offending from adolescence into adulthood. The results indicate that early arrest alters the developmental course of offending in two primary ways. First, early arrest heightens involvement, frequency, and severity of offending throughout adolescence and into early young adulthood even after controlling for subsequent arrests. The detrimental influence of early arrest on the developmental course of offending is found regardless of gender or race/ethnicity. Second, even among youth with an early arrest, offending wanes over time with self-reported offending among all youth nearly absent by the mid- to late-twenties. The findings advance understanding of the developmental implications of early arrest beyond typical and expected offending.
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This study compared NIBRS arrest data in a statewide sample with arrest and summons data on the same cases collected directly from law enforcement agencies (LEAs). NIBRS matched LEA data in 84.1% of cases. However, 5.8% of LEA arrests and 52.9% of LEA summons were false negatives, that is, they were incorrectly represented as not cleared by arrest in NIBRS. False negatives were more likely when more than 1 day elapsed between incident and arrest and when the crimes were sexual assault or intimidation. False negatives were less likely in small LEAs (for summons) Recommendations are presented for improving accuracy.
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When the NIBRS data were introduced by the FBI, they were welcomed as representing a potential revolution in U.S. crime statistics. More than two decades later, however, participation in NIBRS remains limited. In the coming months and years, however, the FBI will transition from the UCR Summary Reporting System (SRS) to NIBRS. Once completed successfully, the ability for researchers and practitioners to use the data will be unprecedented. But the NIBRS data are incredibly useful for both agencies and researchers regardless of these changes. Within this context, the current article explores the past contributions and future promise of the NIBRS data.
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This study examined the effect of an offender's sex (male/female) on whether sexual-offense incidents reported to law enforcement culminated in an arrest. Two hypotheses, chivalry and evil woman, are relied upon and suggest that the probability of arrest differs for women and men, yet in differing directions. The chivalry hypothesis suggests women are treated more leniently than men and, therefore, less likely to be arrested. The evil woman hypothesis, however, suggests the opposite: Women are treated more harshly than men and, therefore, more likely to be arrested. Seven years of National Incident-based Reporting System [NIBRS] data were relied upon (National Archive of Criminal Justice Data, 2010-2016, National Incident-based Reporting System: Extract Files); all of the reported sexual-offense incidents committed by women were included, along with a matched sample of reported sexual-offense incidents committed by men, culminating in a sample of 22,744. Overall, women were 42% significantly less likely than men to be arrested when controlling for other known offense, offender, and victim characteristics. The odds for women to be arrested increased, however, when specific offender demographics, offense characteristics, and victim characteristics were taken into account. The implications of these findings are discussed in regard to their application of the chivalry and evil woman hypotheses.
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A unique dataset is analyzed to investigate the effect of a criminal suspect's prior criminal record on the probability of arrest. Multivariate logistic regression results show that a criminal suspect with a prior criminal record is approximately 29 times more likely than a suspect without a criminal record to be arrested by police. While findings also reveal that Black suspects and Black suspects with a prior criminal record do not have an enhanced proclivity of arrest, Black suspects with a prior criminal record who target White victims are almost three times more apt to be arrested. When juxtaposed with the finding in the baseline model of a substantive relationship between a suspect's race and the likelihood of arrest absent the control for prior criminal record, our results suggest that any correlation evinced between a criminal suspect's race and the likelihood of arrest without controlling for the suspect's prior criminal history may be spurious due to omitted variable bias.
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Purpose To document how age-graded social bonds, specifically employment and partnering, are timed and sequenced during the transition to adulthood among contemporary delinquent adolescents, and how these trajectories compare with those of non-delinquents to better inform contemporary desistance research. Methods Multiple sequence and cluster analyses were conducted using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (n = 8984) to describe the trajectories young adults take through the transition to adulthood. Multinomial logistic regression was used to predict cluster membership by adolescent criminal behavior and arrest history. Results Contemporary delinquent adolescents are significantly less likely to experience traditional sources of informal control (e.g., marriage, full-time employment) compared with their non-delinquent counterparts and past cohorts, and those who do experience similar age-graded controls tend to do so later during the transition to adulthood. Crime and arrests during adolescence are also more consequential in determining partnering and employment trajectories for women compared with men. Conclusions In comparison with past cohorts, contemporary delinquent adolescents are far less likely to experience the traditional social bonds that have been theorized to encourage desistance from crime as they transition to adulthood, and combine partnering and employment roles in a variety of trajectories. Future research in life course criminology searching for social determinants of long-term desistance and persistence in crime need to consider the new schedule of age-graded social bonds experienced by contemporary delinquent adolescents.
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Scholars have devoted significant attention to measuring the degree to which a driver’s personal characteristics affect police decisions to stop and sanction motorists. Following the pattern of research on gender and enforcement practices more broadly, traffic stop studies show that female drivers are less likely to receive formal sanctions such as a citation following routine traffic stops. Despite the consistency of these findings across places and times, we know little about the conditions under which female traffic violators are granted leniency. This article extends research on the effect of driver and stop characteristics on gender disparities in traffic enforcement decisions by examining 149,888 stops from across 37 communities in Rhode Island with different local needs and variation in police organizational culture and structure. The findings confirm that although women are less likely to be cited than men, community-level variation in police agency culture and structure, particularly the proportion of female officers in an agency, moderates the effect of driver sex on stop outcomes.
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This article examines the coverage of the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) arrest data as of 2016. We use NIBRS and Uniform Crime Report (UCR), Summary Reporting System on persons arrested. We examine the correspondence of arrests measures between the UCR and NIBRS for overall arrests, and arrests by sex, race, and age. We found that NIBRS arrest data are a close match to UCR data overall and the differences across demographic measures are very slight.
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Community-oriented policing’s (COP’s) influence and effect on policing has been significant in recent years with evidence suggesting that it increases police satisfaction, partially improves police legitimacy and reduces citizen’s fear of crime. It has also been hypothesized to influence the likelihood of an arrest; however, this possibility presents competing theoretical mechanisms and limited empirical assessment. The current study uses a multilevel analytic approach to merge data from the National Incident Based Reporting System data base with information from the Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics survey to investigate this possibility. Results indicate that agencies engaged in greater and specific COP activities experience an increased likelihood of arrest in violent crime incidents. This effect varies by the type of violent crime and the amount of COP activity undertaken.
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This study documents gender disparities in litigation-cost rulings in Israel. It expands on the existing literature on judicial bias in at least two important ways: by controlling for the merits of the cases and by focusing on civil litigation. The first improvement is methodological. The unique Israeli regime of litigation costs allows us to control for the merit of the cases, as well as for other typically unobservable variables, and thus to isolate and observe judicial bias. The second improvement on the existing literature on judicial bias involves focusing on outcome disparities in the civil (rather than criminal) justice system. Although numerous studies explore gender-based disparities in the criminal justice sphere, only a very small number of studies explore such disparities in the civil arena. We found clear disparities in the allocation of litigation costs between men and women. Male plaintiffs who lost were ordered to pay the winners' legal fees more often than were losing women as sole plaintiffs or as part of all-women plaintiff groups. Likewise, the fees women plaintiffs who lost a case were obliged to pay were less than those required of losing men, and women defendants who won cases received higher fee awards than similarly situated men.
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This study examines sex differences in assault, as well as the differences in arrest likelihood, for girls and boys in a sample of juvenile assaults from the National Incident-Based Reporting System. Using contingency tables, we compare dimensions of assault severity, victim characteristics, and victim–offender relationship across offender sex to identify patterns in boys and girls violence. Further, we employ logistic regression to analyze the effect of offender sex on the probability arrest, while controlling for these differences. The results indicated that the proportion of girls' offenses committed against older family members was greater than the proportion of boys' offenses. Furthermore, while controlling for victim, offender, and offense characteristics, log odds of arrest for girls were 11% higher than that for boys, a statistically significant effect. These results suggest that mandatory arrest policies for domestic violence may disproportionately affect girls, as a greater proportion of girls' offenses than boys' offenses take place at home, requiring the application of domestic violence policies with less discretion by police officers to respond with any response other than arrest. This study lends support to a selective chivalry model, where system actors treat women differentially depending on the circumstances of the offense.
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Criminal violence frequently increases within jurisdictions following the implementation of self-defense laws. One explanation for this finding is a firearm amplification effect, whereby criminal offenders increasingly use firearms as a direct response to the amplified threat engendered by citizens. Using longitudinal data drawn from the National Incident-Based Reporting System for 95 cities situated in 15 states, we investigate whether the passing of a stand your ground or castle doctrine law amplifies the likelihood of gun use by criminal offenders. Results from a panel analysis show a marked rise in gun use among criminal offenders following the imposition of both types of self-defense laws. These findings furnish empirical support for the firearm amplification thesis.
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The current research re-examines Hirschi’s (1969) omission of religion as a social bond by examining the impact of religious commitment and religious salience on substance use in National Youth Survey Family Study respondents, both in adolescence/early adulthood, and again in middle adulthood. This approach allows for a longitudinal examination of a large, nationally representative sample of respondents. Results challenge Hirschi’s decision, and suggest that, particularly in adolescence, a person’s religious service attendance, and belief in religion, do affect their likelihood of substance use. Further research is suggested.
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The effects of perceived coercion and motivation on treatment completion and subsequent re-arrest were examined in a sample of substance-abusing offenders assessed for California's Substance Abuse and Crime Prevention Act (SACPA) program. Perceived coercion was measured with the McArthur Perceived Coercion Scale; motivation was measured with the subscales of the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES). At treatment entry, clients were more likely to believe that they had exercised their choice in entering treatment than that they had been coerced into treatment. SACPA clients scored relatively low on Recognition and Ambivalence regarding their drug use but relatively high on Taking Steps to address their drug problem. Correlations between perceived coercion and motivation measures at treatment entry indicated that these are separate constructs. In logistic regression models, the Recognition subscale of the SOCRATES significantly predicted "any re-arrest," and Ambivalence and Taking Steps predicted "any drug arrest."
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This report examines female property crime trends since 1960. Previous research on this issue has suffered because of a failure to specify the major questions on female property crime and because of inappropriate use of UCR arrest statistics. In this study, the central questions about female property crime are clarified and arrest rates are computed to determine the extent of change in female property crime since 1960. The effects of the women's movement on female property crime are also examined. I conclude that female levels of property crime are rising. But it is only for the offenses of larceny—theft and fraud / embezzlement that female levels are increasing at a faster pace than male levels. Moreover, absolute differences still exist and have generally increased so that female property crime levels continue to lag far behind those of males. The pattern of the data also suggests that the upward trend in female property crime is not due to the women's movement; that women are still typically nonviolent, petty property offenders; and that the “new female criminal” is more of a social invention than an empirical reality.
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“Sex effects”—favoring women—typically found in criminal court pretrial release and sentencing outcomes have not been satisfactorily explained. Drawing on observational studies and interviews with court officials carried out by the author and others, a social control/social costs framework is presented. This framework revises Kruttschnitt's social control arguments and introduces the idea that there are social costs to punishment. Hypotheses are tested on the impact of a defendant's familial status and the interactive effects of gender and family for five court outcomes. The results show that initially significant sex effects are explained by defendants' familial situations. Implications are drawn for future research on gender discrimination in the criminal courts and for the problem of equal treatment of groups and individuals before the law.
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A recent review of the effect of sex on courtroom outcomes suggests both that paternalism is alive and well and that the demise of gender-based leniency will emerge as the criminality of women is seen to be increasingly like that of men. This research tests these hypotheses, and a complementary hypothesis, derived from the notion that sex-based differences in sanctioning are due to structural and cultural differences in the lives of male and female offenders. The hypotheses are tested with a sample of men (N = 1,558) and women (N = 1,365) who were convicted of the crimes of theft, forgery and drug law violations over a 16-year timespan (1965-1980). The analyses indicate that (1) the effect of sex on the decision to incarcerate can, in part, be accounted for by the pretrial release decision; and (2) with regard to the pretrial release decision, holding constant the social and cultural differences in the lives of male and female offenders significantly reduces evidence of gender-based leniency over the 16-year period.
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This report examines current conceptions of sex differences in adult crime trends and assesses continued differences in female relative to male criminality. Our analysis relies mainly on national arrest statistics of the Uniform Crime Reports, but our treatment of these statistics goes considerably beyond that of previous analysts. Our interpretation of the national data is supplemented by a variety of localized studies of police and court statistics as well as by autobiographical and case history studies of thieves. In contrast to popular and scientific claims, we question whether female crime is rising and whether women are catching up with males in the commission of masculine, violent, serious, male-dominated and white-collar types of crime. The arrest gains of females are in the category of vagrancy and in the petty-property crime categories of larceny, fraud, and forgery. Alternative views concerning female crime and the forces shaping it are suggested. It is proposed that the factors shaping sex differences in arrest patterns are changes in reporting procedures and law enforcement practices, economic factors, the maintenance of traditional conceptions of female roles, limited access to illegitimate opportunities due to restricted participation in the legitimate labor market, and the absence of viable female criminal subcultures or of access to male criminal subcultures.
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In this paper we examine variations in police arrest practices. Data collected in 1977 from police encounters with suspects indicate that arrest practices reflect legal and extra-legal factors. The decision to take a suspect into custody is influenced by such features of the situation as the dispositional preferences of victims, the race and demeanor of the suspect, and the presence of bystanders. Furthermore, the seriousness of the offense increases the chances of arrest. Contrary to much existing literature, males and females are equally likely to be arrested. The relevance of these findings to theoretical models of police behavior is discussed and the implications of our analysis for studies of criminal processing in general are considered.
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ABSTRACT* * *The extent of preferential treatment toward female offenders during arrest has been a neglected topic in research on female criminality. This article uses data collected in 1977 during police-suspect encounters with 785 males and females to explore the existence of chivalrous treatment of female offenders in the initial stages of criminal processing. These data indicate that chivalry exists at the stage of arrest for those women who display appropriate gender behaviors and characteristics. In general, the findings suggest that female suspects who deviate from stereotypic gender expectations lose the advantage that may be extended to female offenders. Specifically, older, white, female suspects are less likely to be arrested than their younger, black or hostile sisters. In addition, in the initial stage of criminal processing, female property offenders receive no leniency, and some evidence suggests that offenses against property weigh we heavily in arrest decisions for females than for males. Differences in the factors influencing police arrest decisions for male and female suspects are also examined.
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Scholarship in criminology over the last few decades has often left little room for research and theory on how female offenders are perceived and handled in the criminal justice system. In truth, one out of every four juveniles arrested is female, and the population of women in prison has tripled in the past decade. Co-authored by Meda Chesney-Lind, one of the pioneers in the development of the feminist theoretical perspective in criminology, The Female Offender: Girls, Women and Crime, Third Edition redresses these issues.In an engaging style, authors Meda Chesney-Lind and Lisa Pasko explore gender and cultural factors in women's lives that often precede criminal behavior and address the question of whether female offenders are more violent today than in the past. The authors provide a revealing look at how public discomfort with the idea of women as criminals significantly impacts the treatment received by this offender population. The text covers additional topics such the interaction of sexism, racism, and social class inequalities that results in an increase of female offenders, as well as the imprisonment binge that has resulted in an increasing number of girls and women being incarcerated.
Article
This paper examines factors which influence police arrest decisions in interpersonal disputes. We analyze data from direct observation of police-citizen encounters and find that decisions are influenced by situational exigencies of these encounters and that the effects of certain situational variables depend upon the type of neighborhood in which disputes occur. For example, disputes involving cohabiting individuals are more likely to result in arrest in poor neighborhoods. Arrest decisions are also influenced by organizational characteristics of police agencies, such as bureaucratization and professionalism. We discuss the implications of our findings for a general theory of police dispute settlement.
Article
This paper compares the case-gathering practices of a legal agency (a municipal police department) and a medical agency (an alcohol detoxification facility) in the context of public drunkenness control. The characteristics of case encounters and the factors affecting field processing in each setting are described. Observed differences in processing patterns are attributed to basic differences in the organizational elements of legal and medical control. The findings are discussed in terms of a sociological theory of law and medicine.
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The recent "discovery" of family violence, particularly violence between spouses, has elicited attention from social scientists and policy makers. Police intervention in domestic disputes is a primary focus. Critiques of police practice have often centered on police failure to arrest offenders in domestic violence incidents. Yet, the literature to date reveals little effort to examine systematically the discretionary role of police in domestic disputes. With data drawn from 262 official police reports concerning domestic disturbances, the propensity of police to make arrests is examined through a variety of exogenous variables. Police arrests, we find, reflect the immediate circumstances of police-citizen encounters.
Article
Incidence rates--rates of offending in personal crimes (rape, robbery, assault, and personal larceny)--are studied using data from the National Crime Survey (NCS) for 1973-1977, conducted by the U. S. Bureau of the Census. The NCS data reveal that victims' reports of offenders' sex, race, and age are strongly related to incidence rates of offending. The highest incidence rate in personal crimes is for male, black, 18 to 20 year olds. Arrest data at the national level for robbery yield comparable results. Household crimes--burglary, household larceny, and vehicle theft--in which the victims saw and were able to report offenders' sex, race, and age constituted about 5% of all household crimes. The patterns in incidence rates of offending in these household crimes closely parallel those for personal crimes.
Article
The available literature on the “chivalrous” treatment of the female offender by the criminal justice system is reviewed in an effort to ascertain the nature of such treatment. Three characterizations of the female offender which have influenced the perpetuation and survival of the “chivalry” proposition are discussed: the instigative female offender, the sexualized female offender, and the protected female offender. The author concludes that the notion of a “chivalrous” justice system is largely a myth, and directions for future research are presented.
Article
This paper examines factors influencing haw police handle violence between citizens. Police decision-making in violent encounters reflects styles of control, three of which are considered in this analysis: whether to mediate the problem, to arrest the combatants, or to resolve the matter by separating the disputing parties. Drawing on Black's theory of law and previous studies of police behavior, factors hypothesized to influence styles of control include characteristics of the parties involved such as race, sex, and relationship; aspects of the encounter itself, such as weapon use, location, and whether the citizens involved have been drinking; and the context in which the encounter occurs, such as the type of neighborhood. The analysis indicates that haw police handle these encounters reflects who is involved in addition to what has occurred. The implications of these findings for a more complete understanding of police decision-making are discussed.
Article
This article represents an analysis of the literature on sex‐based selection processes in the criminal justice system. It is only since the feminist wave of the sixties that sexual discrimination has been considered as an issue of importance in the study of the criminal justice system and that female criminality has been looked at more thoroughly. The article deals with the different assumptions and hypotheses which have come forward in the debate on the possible discrimination of men and women in the criminal justice process. In the first part of the article the various theoretical models are outlined: the chivalry and evil women hypotheses, the legal or etiological model, the social control theory, the family‐based justice model, and a multifactoral model. In the second part of the article, the results of empirical research relevant to these hypotheses are presented. American, British, Belgian, Dutch and some German literature has been taken into account. The review of the literature shows that the chivalry hypothesis cannot offer an all‐embracing explanation for the possibly perceived preferential treatment of women. Similar conclusions can be drawn for the explanatory value of the legal model. Although a more lenient treatment of women can sometimes be explained by legal factors, these factors can offer no more than a partial explanation for observed sex differences in the criminal justice system. Especially in the case of pre‐trial release and sentencing, more particularly when deciding whether or not to send a defendant to prison, a noticeable sex‐effect can still be found. In the literature we find strong suggestions — although not always confirmed — that an (initially observed) more lenient treatment of women at these stages can be explained by stereotypes and expectations about the personality of women as less dangerous and the specific role which women fulfill in western society.
Article
Using urban arrest statistics of the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Reports, we examine whether sex differences in crime have been diminishing in the past four to five decades. Our analysis reveals that women have made large gains on men in arrests for petty property crimes, especially larceny, and smaller gains in several other types of offenses. We discuss the potential effects of changes in reporting and statistical coverage on crime trends and also report the findings on trends from alternative sources of data. We believe female arrest gains are more apparent than real. There is little evidence of convergence in sex differences in crime.
Article
National victimization survey data for the years 1972 to 1976 are examined in order to investigate the extent to which they are in accord with Uniform Crime Report arrest data regarding the offender's sex. The results for common-law crimes–both the personal crimes of rape, robbery, assault, and personal larceny, as well as the household crimes of burglary, larceny, and motor vehicle theft–parallel arrest data in showing that male involvement in these crimes is proportionately much greater than is the involvement of females. Except for a slight recent increase in female involvement for larceny, there did not appear to be systematic changes in the proportionate involvement of females across the few years of victimization data now available. Victims of female-offender crimes reported them less often to the police than was true for victims of male-offender crimes. But the latter crimes are usually more serious and male-offenders dominate commercial robbery, almost always reported to the police. The chivalry hypothesis–that male victims of female offenders are reluctant to report female-offender crimes to the police–was not supported. Even with seriousness of victimizations controlled, males tended to report their victimizations to the police more when they were victimized by females; the opposite was true for female victims. Overall, the results are consistent with the argument that sex is an important nonartifactual correlate of involvement in criminal behavior. Theories that fail to recognize and accommodate the importance of sex–and other traditional demographic correlates (e.g., race) of involvement in common-law crimes–are ignoring important factors accounting for criminal activity.
Article
The effect of eight factors, thought to influence the incidence of crime, on indices based on Uniform Crime Reports and victim surveys, are examined. A comparison of the results reveals that different conclusions would be reached about the correlates of crime depending on the index used. Lacking evidence showing one measure as the more valid indicator of crime, we conclude that neither index is satisfactory for purposes of exploring the causes of crime.
Article
Employing a commonweal conception of police organizations, the central aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which routine police arrest practices suggest police abuse of the societal delegated privilege to exercise non-negotiable coercive force. Public drunkenness encounters occurring in a large midwestern city were analyzed; and it was found that significantly higher rates of arrest were associated with offense conspicuousness, offender powerlessness, and offender disrespect. The major conclusion drawn is that the police abuse this societal delegated privilege. The implications of this conclusion for the commonweal conception of the police are discussed.
Article
This paper examines the hypothesis that an identifiable factor exists within the criminal justice system which usually results in less harsh handling of female defendants than of male defendants. This factor, often referred to as the "chivalry factor," appears to be related to a more general political and social pattern of paternalistic treatment of women. The analysis focuses on disparities in the sentencing of male and female defendants. The data are drawn from a nationwide study of sentencing done in the early 1960s and from California Bureau of Criminal Statistics records for the period 1970-74. A pattern of less harsh sentencing of women is pervasive; and in the case of the California data, the pattern exists regardless of race, type of crime, or prior record.
Article
An apparent decrease in differences between the sexes in criminal behavior and law enforcement outcomes has been attributed to changes in attitudes toward sex roles and increasing female labor force participation. The research reported here addresses two related questions in this area: (1) Have there been changes over time in sex differences in the disposition of police contacts with juveniles and adults? and (2) Do any observed changes account for increases in the female crime rate? Our analysis of data from 10,723 police contacts in a mid-western city during the period 1948–1976 found a trend toward a diminished sex difference in police dispositions of juvenile and adult misdemeanors and adult felonies. There was no evidence for a similar trend for juvenile status offenses or juvenile felonies. The findings also suggest that part of the apparent increase in female crime may be due to changes in official reactions to female offenders.
Article
Though seldom considered together, class and gender are among the most frequently analyzed correlates of delinquency today. This paper formulates and test a neo-Marxian, class-based, power control theory of gender and delinquency. Using this theory and a prediction made by Bonger more than a half-century ago, the article demonstrates that the relationship between gender and common forms of delinquency declines with each step down the class structure. Furthermore, where this relationship is strongest, it can be statistically removed by taking theoretically predicted variables into account. A power-control theory does much to specify and explain the class structure of gender and delinquency, and in doing so it demonstrates the social bases of this relationship.
Article
This paper examines factors which influence police arrest decisions in interpersonal disputes. We analyze data from direct observation of police-citizen encounters and find that decisions are influenced by situational exigencies of these encounters and that the effects of certain situational variables depend upon the type of neighborhood in which disputes occur. For example, disputes involving cohabiting individuals are more likely to result in arrest in poor neighborhoods. Arrest decisions are also influenced by organizational characteristics of police agencies, such as bureaucratization and professionalism. We discuss the implications of our findings for a general theory of police dispute settlement.
Book
This study investigated 3 broad classes of individual-differences variables (job-search motives, competencies, and constraints) as predictors of job-search intensity among 292 unemployed job seekers. Also assessed was the relationship between job-search intensity and reemployment success in a longitudinal context. Results show significant relationships between the predictors employment commitment, financial hardship, job-search self-efficacy, and motivation control and the outcome job-search intensity. Support was not found for a relationship between perceived job-search constraints and job-search intensity. Motivation control was highlighted as the only lagged predictor of job-search intensity over time for those who were continuously unemployed. Job-search intensity predicted Time 2 reemployment status for the sample as a whole, but not reemployment quality for those who found jobs over the study's duration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Historically, women were excluded from policing because they were thought to be physically as well as temperamentally unsuited for the rigors of police work Despite the fact that most evaluations of behavior on the street reveal few differences in the way men and women perform most tasks, many police officers, as well as academicians and observers, believe that women bring a different set of attitudes and values to policing. However, there has been little research that either confirms or casts doubt upon these attitudinal differences. This study examines the conflicting predictions about gender and attitudes derived from theory about gender differences and sociological theory about occupational socialization, drawing upon the former to develop hypotheses about four dimensions of police attitudes: perspectives on the police role, attitudes toward citizens, evaluations of departments and coworkers, and occupational integration. These hypotheses are tested with data from the Police Services Study, which surveyed police officers in 24 departments. The results suggest that although men and women may not be equally integrated into their jobs as police officers, there are few differences in the ways men and women see their role, their clientele, or their departments.
Article
A large volume of criminological research uses either the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) or the National Crime Surveys (NCS) as a source for data on crime rates. The validity of both these measures, however, has been criticized. In this paper we assess the validity of these two indicators of the crime rate for six different types of crimes by examining their “convergent” and “nomological” validity. We find a moderate to high degree of convergent validity for motor vehicle theft, robbery and burglary. When we compare the UCR and NCS rates in terms of their “nomological” validity, we find that the NCS measure appears to be more valid, if all six crimes are considered as a single group. This finding, however, is based primarily on the crimes of personal larceny and rape.
Article
By articulating a general theory of crime and related behavior, the authors present a new and comprehensive statement of what the criminological enterprise should be about. They argue that prevalent academic criminology—whether sociological, psychological, biological, or economic—has been unable to provide believable explanations of criminal behavior. The long-discarded classical tradition in criminology was based on choice and free will, and saw crime as the natural consequence of unrestrained human tendencies to seek pleasure and to avoid pain. It concerned itself with the nature of crime and paid little attention to the criminal. The scientific, or disciplinary, tradition is based on causation and determinism, and has dominated twentieth-century criminology. It concerns itself with the nature of the criminal and pays little attention to the crime itself. Though the two traditions are considered incompatible, this book brings classical and modern criminology together by requiring that their conceptions be consistent with each other and with the results of research. The authors explore the essential nature of crime, finding that scientific and popular conceptions of crime are misleading, and they assess the truth of disciplinary claims about crime, concluding that such claims are contrary to the nature of crime and, interestingly enough, to the data produced by the disciplines themselves. They then put forward their own theory of crime, which asserts that the essential element of criminality is the absence of self-control. Persons with high self-control consider the long-term consequences of their behavior; those with low self-control do not. Such control is learned, usually early in life, and once learned, is highly resistant to change. In the remainder of the book, the authors apply their theory to the persistent problems of criminology. Why are men, adolescents, and minorities more likely than their counterparts to commit criminal acts? What is the role of the school in the causation of delinquincy? To what extent could crime be reduced by providing meaningful work? Why do some societies have much lower crime rates than others? Does white-collar crime require its own theory? Is there such a thing as organized crime? In all cases, the theory forces fundamental reconsideration of the conventional wisdom of academians and crimina justic practitioners. The authors conclude by exploring the implications of the theory for the future study and control of crime.
Crime and victimization data
  • R M O'brien
O'Brien, R. M. (1985). Crime and victimization data. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
The manners and customs of the police Cor-relates of city crime rates: Victimization surveys versus official statistics
  • D A Black
  • D R Johnson
  • H M Choldin
Black, D. (1980). The manners and customs of the police. New York: Academic Press. Booth, A., Johnson, D. R., & Choldin, H. M. (1977). Cor-relates of city crime rates: Victimization surveys versus official statistics. Social Problems, 25, 187 – 197.
Resident population estimates of the United States by sex, race, and Hispanic origin
  • U S Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau. (2001). Resident population estimates of the United States by sex, race, and Hispanic origin: April 1, 1990 to July 1, 999, with short-term projection to November 1, 2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Govern-ment Printing Office.
Minorities and the police: Confrontation in America Handling family vio-lence: Situational determinants of police arrest in domes-tic disturbances
  • D Bayley
  • H Mendelsohn
Bayley, D., & Mendelsohn, H. (1969). Minorities and the police: Confrontation in America. New York: Free Press. Berk, S., & Loseke, D. (1980 – 1981). Handling family vio-lence: Situational determinants of police arrest in domes-tic disturbances. Law and Society Review, 15, 317 – 344.
Capitalism, patriarchy and crime: Toward socialist feminist criminology
  • J Messerschmidt
Messerschmidt, J. (1986). Capitalism, patriarchy and crime: Toward socialist feminist criminology. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield.
Equality denied: The status of women in policing
  • P E Harrington
  • K Lonsway
Harrington, P. E., & Lonsway, K. (2001). Equality denied: The status of women in policing, 2000. Los Angeles: National Center for Women in Policing.
National Incident-Based Reporting System
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2000). National Incident-Based Reporting System, Volume 1: Data collection guidelines. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Crime in the United States
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2001). Crime in the United States, 2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Blueprint for the future of the Uniform Crime Reporting Program
  • Abt Associates
Abt Associates. (1985). Blueprint for the future of the Uniform Crime Reporting Program. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.
An empirical comparison of the validity of UCR and NCS crime rates
  • O 'brien
  • R M Shichor
  • D Decker
O'Brien, R. M., Shichor, D., & Decker, D. L. (1980). An empirical comparison of the validity of UCR and NCS crime rates. Sociological Quarterly, 21, 391-401.
Resident population estimates of the United States by sex, race, and Hispanic origin, with short-term projection to
  • U S Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau. (2001). Resident population estimates of the United States by sex, race, and Hispanic origin: April 1, 1990 to July 1, 999, with short-term projection to November 1, 2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Sex differences in urban crime patterns, 1934–1979
  • Steffensmeier