Jello Shot Consumption Among Older Adolescents: A Pilot Study of a Newly Identified Public Health Problem

ArticleinSubstance Use & Misuse 46(6):828-35 · December 2010with30 Reads
DOI: 10.3109/10826084.2010.538886 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
We investigated the extent of jello shot consumption among underage youths. We conducted a pilot study among a nonrandom national sample of 108 drinkers, aged 16-20 years, recruited from the Knowledge Networks Internet panel in 2010 by using consecutive sampling. The prevalence of past 30-day jello shot consumption among the 108 drinkers, aged 16-20 years, in our sample was 21.4%, and among those who consumed jello shots, the percentage of alcohol consumption attributable to jello shots averaged 14.5%. We concluded that jello shot use is prevalent among youths, representing a substantial proportion of their alcohol intake. Surveillance of youth alcohol use should include jello shot consumption.
    • "Youth tend to prefer a fairly narrow set of alcohol brands Gentile et al. (2001) Tanski et al. (2011) Siegel, DeJong, et al. (2013) Siegel, Ayers, et al. (2014) While there is overlap in the brands that are popular among adult drinkers and underage youth, youth do prefer some brands that adults consume far less frequently Siegel, Chen, et al. (2014) Siegel, DeJong, et al. (2013) Youth often consume alcohol brands that are not the cheapest available, despite more affordable alcohol options present in every beverage category Albers et al. (2014) DiLoreto et al. (2012). Youth drink a wide range of alcoholic beverages, from beer to spirits to malt beverages, and including caffeinated alcoholic beverages, flavoured alcoholic beverages, and novelty drinks like Jello shots Kponee et al. (2014) Fortunato et al. (2014) Binakonsky et al. (2011) Siegel, Galloway, et al. (2014) Siegel, DeJong, et al. (2013) Youth may be heavily exposed to brand-specific alcohol references in music and social media, through television and magazine advertisements, and via corporate sponsorships Primack et al. (2012) Siegel, Johnson, et al. (2013) Nhean et al. (2014) There is an association between the specific alcohol brands underage drinkers are exposed to in magazine and television advertisements, the alcohol brands they prefer, and the number of drinks they consume of those brands Ross, Maple, et al. (2014) Ross, Ostroff, Siegel, et al. (2014) DOI: 10.3109/16066359.2015.1051039 Underage drinkers brand research findings 3 "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Alcohol research focused on underage drinkers has not comprehensively assessed the landscape of brand-level drinking behaviors among youth. This information is needed to profile youth alcohol use accurately, explore its antecedents, and develop appropriate interventions. Methods: We collected national data on the alcohol brand-level consumption of underage drinkers in the United States and then examined the association between those preferences and several factors including youth exposure to brand-specific alcohol advertising, corporate sponsorships, popular music lyrics, and social networking sites, and alcohol pricing. This paper summarizes our findings, plus the results of other published studies on alcohol branding and youth drinking. Results: Our findings revealed several interesting facts regarding youth drinking. For example, we found that: 1) youth are not drinking the cheapest alcohol brands; 2) youth brand preferences differ from those of adult drinkers; 3) underage drinkers are not opportunistic in their alcohol consumption, but instead consume a very specific set of brands; 4) the brands that youth are heavily exposed to in magazines and television advertising correspond to the brands they most often report consuming; and 5) youth consume more of the alcohol brands to whose advertising they are most heavily exposed. Conclusion: The findings presented here suggests that brand-level alcohol research will provide important insight into youth drinking behaviors, the factors that contribute to youth alcohol consumption, and potential avenues for effective public health surveillance and programming.
    Article · Jun 2015
    • "Further, adolescents show a higher rate of binge drinking (25.6%) than the general population of adults (15.2%) [2]. Adolescents also typically favor sweetened/flavored alcohol solutions [3] and show a disproportionate consumption of ''jello shots'' compared to adults, representing a substantial proportion of their total alcohol intake [4] . Animal models of adolescent alcohol consumption demonstrate a repertoire of behaviors similar to adolescent humans [5,6], including the preferential consumption of alcohol in gelatin form on a g/kg body weight basis [7]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alcohol use is common in adolescence, with a large portion of intake occurring during episodes of binging. This pattern of alcohol consumption coincides with a critical period for neurocognitive development and may impact decision-making and reward processing. Prior studies have demonstrated alterations in adult decision-making following adolescent usage, but it remains to be seen if these alterations exist in adolescence, or are latent until adulthood. Here, using a translational model of voluntary binge alcohol consumption in adolescents, we assess the impact of alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during adolescence. During adolescence (postnatal day 30-50), rats were given 1-hour access to either a 10% alcohol gelatin mixture (EtOH) or a calorie equivalent gelatin (Control) at the onset of the dark cycle. EtOH consuming rats were classified as either High or Low consumers based on intake levels. Adolescent rats underwent behavioral testing once a day, with one group performing a risk preference task, and a second group performing a reversal-learning task during the 20-day period of gelatin access. EtOH-High rats showed increases in risk preference compared to Control rats, but not EtOH-Low animals. However, adolescent rats did a poor job of matching their behavior to optimize outcomes, suggesting that adolescents may adopt a response bias. In addition, adolescent ethanol exposure did not affect the animals' ability to flexibly adapt behavior to changing reward contingencies during reversal learning. These data support the view that adolescent alcohol consumption can have short-term detrimental effects on risk-taking when examined during adolescence, which does not seem to be attributable to an inability to flexibly encode reward contingencies on behavioral responses.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014
    • "In research to date, the gelatin's palatability and calories come from sucrose for humans and from the polysaccharide polycose for rats313233. Outside of the lab, " jello shots " are a popular way of consuming alcohol among youth [26]. To our knowledge, how eating ethanol in fruity, calorie-laden gelatin affects later flavor-based choice behavior has not been experimentally examined. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Naïve humans and rats voluntarily consume little ethanol at concentrations above ~6% due to its aversive flavor. Developing procedures that boost intake of ethanol or ethanol-paired flavors facilitates research on neural mechanisms of ethanol-associated behaviors and helps identify variables that modulate ethanol intake outside of the lab. The present study explored the impact on consumption of ethanol and ethanol-paired flavors of nutritionally significant parametric variations: ethanol vehicle (gelatin or solution, with or without polycose); ethanol concentration (4% or 10%); and feeding status (chow deprived or ad lib.) during flavor conditioning and flavor preference testing. Individual differences were modeled by testing rats of lines selectively bred for high (HiS) or low (LoS) saccharin intake. A previously reported preference for ethanol-paired flavors was replicated when ethanol had been drunk during conditioning. However, indifference or aversion to ethanol-paired flavors generally obtained when ethanol had been eaten in gelatin during conditioning, regardless of ethanol concentration, feeding status, or caloric value of the vehicle. Modest sex and line variations occurred. Engaging different behavioral systems when eating gelatin, rather than drinking solution, may account for these findings. Implications for parameter selection in future neurobiological research and for understanding conditions that influence ethanol intake outside of the lab are discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013
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