Executive clock drawing correlates with performance-based functional status in people with combat-related mild traumatic brain injury and comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder

ArticleinThe Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 47(9):841-50 · January 2010with13 Reads
DOI: 10.1682/JRRD.2009.10.0162 · Source: PubMed
Executive Clock Drawing Tasks (CLOX parts 1 and 2) can predict functional impairment. This study determined the correlation between CLOX and other psychometric screening instruments with the Structured Assessment of Independent Living Skills (SAILS)-defined performance-based functional status in people with combat-related mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) and comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We hypothesized that CLOX would correlate significantly with functional performance. This prospective, cross-sectional study design determined the correlation between a structured neuropsychological battery and functional status assessment. We calculated Pearson correlation coefficients between neuropsychological instruments and functional status scores. We entered neuropsychological measures correlating p < 0.1 with functional status into a linear regression model to determine independent contributions. Fifteen Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans participated. Only CLOX1 correlated significantly with functional competency and efficiency. Only mean CLOX1 scores were significantly lower in those scoring below the median for SAILS competency and in those scoring above the median for SAILS efficiency. CLOX1 contributed significant variance to functional status independent of mood or anxiety symptoms and was not affected by age or time since injury. Executive dysfunction per the brief, easily administered CLOX1 is sensitive to functional status following combat-related mild TBI, independent of PTSD anxiety with or without depression.
  • Article · Jun 2012
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) has long been recognized as a useful component for the screening of cognitive disorders. It provides a user-friendly visual representation of cognitive functioning that is simple and rapidly administered, making it appealing to clinicians and patients alike. The ease of use and wide range of cognitive abilities required to successfully complete the CDT has made this test an increasingly popular cognitive screening measure in both research and clinical settings. This chapter summarizes and compares the numerous CDT scoring methods that have been described in the literature. Also, psychometric properties are presented for the CDT when used for cognitive screening in a variety of neurologic conditions, including: Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, vascular disease, schizophrenia, stroke and traumatic brain injury. Cultural, ethnic and educational considerations for the CDT are also discussed.
    Full-text · Chapter · Jul 2012 · Psychogeriatrics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: There has been a growing need for a cognitive assessment tool that can be used for older adults with schizophrenia in clinical settings. The clock-drawing test (CDT) is a brief cognitive test that covers a wide range of cognitive function. Although it is widely used to assess patients with dementia, limited data are available on its usefulness in older patients with schizophrenia. Thus, we investigated the psychometric properties of the CDT and their relationship with life functions to examine the test's usefulness for assessing cognitive function in older adults with schizophrenia. Methods: Seventy-three older adults with chronic schizophrenia who had been hospitalized for over 1 year participated in the study. We adopted the executive clock-drawing task for administration and scoring of the CDT, which consists of free-drawn and copy conditions. The Mini-Mental State Examination and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia were administered. Symptom severity and life functions were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Life Skills Profile, respectively. Results: Both free-drawn and copy scores significantly correlated with the Mini-Mental State Examination score and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia composite score. These scores also significantly correlated with symptom severity and length of current hospitalization. Stepwise regression analysis showed that only the copy score, together with symptom severity, predicted the Life Skills Profile score. Conclusions: The CDT can assess cognitive function in older adults with schizophrenia. Moreover, CDT performance is associated with life functions independent from other clinical variables. These results suggest that the CDT is a useful cognitive assessment tool for this population.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012
Show more