Article

Atypical EEG Power Correlates With Indiscriminately Friendly Behavior in Internationally Adopted Children

Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
Developmental Psychology (Impact Factor: 3.21). 03/2011; 47(2):417-31. DOI: 10.1037/a0021363
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

While effects of institutional care on behavioral development have been studied extensively, effects on neural systems underlying these socioemotional and attention deficits are only beginning to be examined. The current study assessed electroencephalogram (EEG) power in 18-month-old internationally adopted, postinstitutionalized children (n = 37) and comparison groups of nonadopted children (n = 47) and children internationally adopted from foster care (n = 39). For their age, postinstitutionalized children had an atypical EEG power distribution, with relative power concentrated in lower frequency bands compared with nonadopted children. Both internationally adopted groups had lower absolute alpha power than nonadopted children. EEG power was not related to growth at adoption or to global cognitive ability. Atypical EEG power distribution at 18 months predicted indiscriminate friendliness and poorer inhibitory control at 36 months. Both postinstitutionalized and foster care children were more likely than nonadopted children to exhibit indiscriminate friendliness. Results are consistent with a cortical hypoactivation model of the effects of early deprivation on neural development and provide initial evidence associating this atypical EEG pattern with indiscriminate friendliness. Outcomes observed in the foster care children raise questions about the specificity of institutional rearing as a risk factor and emphasize the need for broader consideration of the effects of early deprivation and disruptions in care.

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Available from: Amanda R Tarullo, Aug 21, 2014
    • "Нарушения связывают в первую очередь с отсутствием ма теринской заботы и близких взрослых, а такк же с таким фактором как обедненная среда детского дома (однообразная обстановка, маа лое количество игрушек, недостаток впечатт лений и т.д.) [Прихожан, Толстых, 2005]. Влии яние указанных факторов на развитие высс ших психических функций может быть опосредовано задержками в созревании структур ЦНС [Tarullo et al., 2011]. Как из вестно, в период раннего детства должен проо исходить резкий скачок речевого, умственноо го и двигательного развития, обусловленный созреванием неокортекса. "
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated whether the electroencephalogram (EEG) during visual fixation in institutionalized children shows the altered oscillation properties. EEG was recorded in the “eyes open” situation with visual attention fixed on a cartoon in 51 2–3.5 years old children living in Simferopol orphanage, Crimea and in 53 age-matched children living in families. Oscillation properties were measured using the relative power (RP) indices of theta, alpha, beta and gamma rhythms. Institutionalized children showed higher RP of alpha rhythm in seven loci (frontal polar, anterior temporal, posterior temporal and left occipital derivations), lower RP of theta rhythm in eight loci (frontal polar, frontal, anterior temporal and posterior temporal derivations). In addition, RP of beta- and gamma rhythms were decreased in the left anterior temporal area. These results suggest that institutionalized children show impaired development of CNS, in particular development of limbic system and neocortex, probably are caused by early social deprivation.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Pavlov journal of higher nervous activity
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    • "Using laboratory assessments such as the Stroop, go-no-go, or Bear-Dragon task, independent studies have demonstrated predicted inverse associations between inhibitory control and indiscriminate social behaviors in young children, though the convergence has been modest to moderate (Bruce et al., 2009; Gleason et al., 2011; Pears et al., 2010). Tarullo et al. (2011) assessed in three groups of children: 18-month-old adopted postinstitutionalized children, nonadopted children, and children adopted internationally from foster care. Postinstitutionalized children had an atypical EEG power distribution, with relative power increased in lower frequency bands compared with nonadopted children. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Though noted in the clinical literature for more than 50 years, attachment disorders have been studied systematically only recently. In part because of the ubiquity of attachments in humans, determining when aberrant behavior is best explained as an attachment disorder as opposed to insecure attachment has led to some confusion. In this selective review, we consider the literature on reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder and describe an emerging consensus about a number of issues, while also noting some areas of controversy and others where we lack clear answers. We include a brief history of the classification of the disorders, as well as measurement issues. We describe their clinical presentation, causes and vulnerability factors, and clinical correlates, including the relation of disorders to secure and insecure attachment classifications. We also review what little is known and what more we need to learn about interventions.Methods We conducted a literature search using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library databases, using search terms ‘reactive attachment disorder,’ ‘attachment disorder,’ ‘indiscriminate behavior,’ ‘indiscriminate friendliness,’ ‘indiscriminate socially disinhibited reactive attachment disorder,’ ‘disinhibited social engagement disorder,’ and ‘disinhibited social behavior.’ We also contacted investigators who have published on these topics.FindingsA growing literature has assessed behaviors in children who have experienced various types of adverse caregiving environments reflecting signs of putative attachment disorders, though fewer studies have investigated categorically defined attachment disorders. The evidence for two separate disorders is considerable, with reactive attachment disorder indicating children who lack attachments despite the developmental capacity to form them, and disinhibited social engagement disorder indicating children who lack developmentally appropriate reticence with unfamiliar adults and who violate socially sanctioned boundaries.Conclusions Although many questions remain to be answered, especially regarding appropriate interventions, we know considerably more about attachment disorders than we did only a decade ago.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
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    • "The second step of this " experiment " was international adoption of many of these children into very positive home environments with dedicated foster parents. The results are broadly published (Audet & LeMare, 2010; Beckett et al., 2006; Hawk & McCall, 2011; McCall et al., 2011; McCall, van IJzendoorn, Juffer, Groark, & Groza, 2012; Nelson, 2007; O'Connor, Ruer, Beckett, Kreppner, & English/Romanian Adoptees Study Team, 2000; Rutter et al., 2010; Tarullo, Garvin & Gunnar, 2011). "

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