Mortality Trends and the Epidemiological Transition in Nauru
This article aims to examine the epidemiological transition in Nauru through analysis of available mortality data. Mortality data from death certificates and published material were used to construct life tables and calculate age-standardized mortality rates (from 1960) with 95% confidence intervals. Proportional mortality was calculated from 1947. Female life expectancy (LE) varied from 57 to 61 years with no significant trend. Age-standardized mortality for males (15-64 years) doubled from 1960-1970 to 1976-1981 and then decreased to 1986-1992, with LE fluctuating since then from 49 to 54 years. Proportional mortality from cardiovascular disease and diabetes increased substantially, reaching more than 30%. Nauru demonstrates a very long period of stagnation in life expectancy in both males and females as a consequence of the epidemiological transition, with major chronic disease mortality in adults showing no sustained downward trends over 40 years. Potential overinterpretation of trends from previous data due to lack of confidence intervals was highlighted.
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- "In 2004, Tonga acted to recognize the extensive community burden on noncommunicable diseases by developing the first non-communicable disease strategy in the Pacific region
. This pattern of high adult mortality limiting LE is also consistent with recent findings elsewhere in the Pacific, such as in Fiji and Nauru
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Accurate measures of mortality level by age group, gender, and region are critical for health planning and evaluation. These are especially required for a country like Tonga, which has limited resources and works extensively with international donors. Mortality levels in Tonga were examined through an assessment of available published information and data available from the four routine death reporting systems currently in operation. METHODS: Available published data on infant mortality rate (IMR) and life expectancy (LE) in Tonga were sought through direct contact with the Government of Tonga and relevant international and regional organizations. Data sources were assessed for reliability and plausibility of estimates on the basis of method of estimation, original source of data, and data consistency. Unreliable sources were censored from further analysis and remaining data analysed for trends.Mortality data for 2001 to 2009 were obtained from both the Health Information System (based on medical certificates of death) and the Civil Registry. Data from 2005 to 2009 were also obtained from the Reproductive Health System of the Ministry of Health (MoH) (based on community nursing reports), and for 2005[EN DASH]2008, data were also obtained from the Prime Minister's office. Records were reconciled to create a single list of unique deaths and IMR and life tables calculated. Completeness of the reconciled data was examined using the Brass growth-balance method and capture-recapture analysis using two and three sources. RESULTS: Published IMR estimates varied significantly through to the late 1990s when most estimates converge to a narrower range between 10 and 20 deaths per 1,000 live births. Findings from reconciled data were consistent with this range, and did not demonstrate any significant trend over 2001 to 2009.Published estimates of LE from 2000 onwards varied from 65 to 75 years for males and 68 to 74 years for females, with most clustered around 70 to 71 for males and 72 to 73 for females. Reconciled empirical data for 2005 to 2009 produce an estimate of LE of 65.2 years (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 64.6 - 65.8) for males and 69.6 years (95 % CI: 69.0 [EN DASH] 70.2) for females, which are several years lower than published MoH and census estimates. Adult mortality (15 to 59 years) is estimated at 26.7 % for males and 19.8 % for females. Analysis of reporting completeness suggests that even reconciled data are under enumerated, and these estimates place the plausible range of LE between 60.4 to 64.2 years for males and 65.4 to 69.0 years for females, with adult mortality at 28.6 % to 36.3 % and 20.9 % to 27.7 %, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The level of LE at a relatively low IMR and high adult mortality suggests that non-communicable diseases are having a profound limiting effect on health status in Tonga. There has been a sustained history of incomplete and erroneous mortality estimates for Tonga. The findings highlight the critical need to reconcile existing data sources and integrate reporting systems more fully to ensure all deaths in Tonga are captured and the importance of local empirical data in monitoring trends in mortality.
Available from: Judith Mccool
Available from: Judith Mccool
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ABSTRACT: In the context of a globalised world, reports on health that extend personal or country borders have increasing relevance. Media can promote opportunities to identify and address gaps in important global health issues. In light of the potential role of media as an advocacy tool for global health, we examined how global health issues are represented in mainstream media in New Zealand.
We conducted a content analysis of media reports on global health issues in the four highest circulation newspapers in New Zealand between June 2007 and May 2009. Search terms included 'global health, 'international health' and 'world health'.
Communicable disease was the most frequently reported global health issue in New Zealand newspapers, followed by environment (e.g. climate change), general health risks (unsafe pharmaceuticals) and substance use (tobacco and alcohol). Chronic disease, injury or their determinants were less frequently reported.
Mainstream media favours health-related reports based on crisis, epidemic or acute conditions over chronic or non-communicable diseases or disability. Health issues facing the Asia Pacific region increasingly include chronic diseases, which would benefit from greater media coverage to increase advocacy and political awareness of global health challenges.
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