Lifetime maternal experiences of abuse and risk of pre-natal depression in two demographically distinct populations in Boston

Connors Center for Women's Health and Gender Biology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
International Journal of Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 9.18). 12/2010; 40(2):375-84. DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyq247
Source: PubMed


To investigate lifetime history of interpersonal abuse and risk of pre-natal depression in socio-economically distinct populations in the same city.
We examined associations of physical and sexual abuse with the risk of pre-natal depression in two cohorts in the Boston area, including 2128 participants recruited from a large urban- and suburban-managed care organization (Project Viva) and 1509 participants recruited primarily from urban community health centres (Project ACCESS). Protocols for the studies were designed in parallel to allow us to merge data to enhance ethnic and socio-economic diversity in the combined sample. In mid-pregnancy, the Personal Safety Questionnaire and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) were administered in both cohorts. An EPDS score ≥ 13 indicated probable pre-natal depression. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of pre-natal depression associated with lifetime abuse history.
Project ACCESS participants were twice as likely as Project Viva participants to report symptoms consistent with pre-natal depression: 22% of Project ACCESS participants had EPDS scores ≥ 13, compared with 11% of Project Viva participants. Fifty-seven percent of women in ACCESS and 46% in Viva reported lifetime physical and/or sexual abuse. In merged analysis, women reporting lifetime physical or sexual abuse had an OR for mid-pregnancy depression of 1.63 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.29-2.07], adjusted for age and race/ethnicity. Lifetime histories of physical abuse [OR 1.48 (95% CI 1.15-1.90)] and sexual abuse [OR 1.68 (95% CI 1.24-2.28)] were independently associated with pre-natal depression. When child/teen, pre-pregnancy adult and pregnancy life periods were considered simultaneously, abuse in childhood was independently associated with an OR of 1.23 (95% CI 1.00-1.59), pre-pregnancy adult abuse with an OR of 1.70 (95% CI 1.31-2.21) and abuse during pregnancy with an OR of 1.77 (95% CI 1.14-2.74). Further adjustment for childhood socio-economic position made no material difference, and there were no clear interactions between abuse and adult socio-economic position.
Physical and sexual abuse histories were positively associated with pre-natal depression in two economically and ethnically distinct populations. Stronger associations with recent abuse may indicate that the association of abuse with depression wanes with time or may result from less accurate recall of remote events.

Download full-text


Available from: Ken P Kleinman
  • Source
    • "The universal components are framed around safety planning and risk assessment, two interventions that have been shown to positively affect women's use of safety strategies, along with assessment of mental health and substance use patterns, and referral as appropriate. There is evidence that compared to women in the general population, women who are abused have higher prevalence rates of depression [68,69] including post-partum depression [70] and that a majority of women with substance use issues have experienced a history of abuse [68,71]. A key challenge in developing the intervention is that, although women's mental health may be a central resource that helps them address IPV and make changes in their lives [61], enhancing women's mental health is not a core focus of the NFP. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite an increase in knowledge about the epidemiology of intimate partner violence (IPV), much less is known about interventions to reduce IPV and its associated impairment. One program that holds promise in preventing IPV and improving outcomes for women exposed to violence is the Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP), an evidence-based nurse home visitation program for socially disadvantaged first-time mothers. The present study developed an intervention model and modification process to address IPV within the context of the NFP. This included determining the extent to which the NFP curriculum addressed the needs of women at risk for IPV or its recurrence, along with client, nurse and broader stakeholder perspectives on how best to help NFP clients cope with abusive relationships. Following a preliminary needs assessment, an exploratory multiple case study was conducted to identify the core components of the proposed IPV intervention. This included qualitative interviews with purposeful samples of NFP clients and community stakeholders, and focus groups with nurse home visitors recruited from four NFP sites. Conventional content analysis and constant comparison guided data coding and synthesis. A process for developing complex interventions was then implemented. Based on data from 69 respondents, an IPV intervention was developed that focused on identifying and responding to IPV; assessing a client's level of safety risk associated with IPV; understanding the process of leaving and resolving an abusive relationship and system navigation. A need was identified for the intervention to include both universal elements of healthy relationships and those tailored to a woman's specific level of readiness to promote change within her life. A clinical pathway guides nurses through the intervention, with a set of facilitators and corresponding instructions for each component. NFP clients, nurses and stakeholders identified the need for modifications to the existing NFP program; this led to the development of an intervention that includes universal and targeted components to assist NFP nurses in addressing IPV with their clients. Plans for feasibility testing and evaluation of the effectiveness of the IPV intervention embedded within the NFP, and compared to NFP-only, are discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · BMC Health Services Research
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study of 302 Israeli women sought to investigate the associations among stressful reproductive experiences (e.g. fertility problems, abortions, and traumatic births), chronic medical conditions, pain, and depression. The specific aims of the study were to examine (1) the effect of stressful reproductive experiences, chronic medical conditions, and pain on depressive symptoms and (2) the effect of stressful reproductive experiences, chronic medical conditions, and depressive symptoms on pain. Our findings corroborate with previous studies demonstrating that depression and pain are two interrelated, but different phenomena, which have both common and distinct risk factors. The findings are discussed in the light of stress and adaptation theories that point to the long-term effects of stressful life events on emotional and physiological aspects such as depression and pain.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · Psychology Health and Medicine
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of isolated psychological intimate partner violence and psychosocial factors (social support and alcohol or drug use by a partner/family member) on psychological well-being (depression or poor self-perceived health status) at 5 and 12 months post-partum. A longitudinal cohort study was carried out with a consecutive sample of 1,400 women in their first trimester of pregnancy, who attended the prenatal programme in the Valencia Region (Spain) in 2008 and were followed up at 5 months and 12 months post-partum. A logistic regression model was fitted using generalized estimating equations, to assess the effect of isolated psychological intimate partner violence, social support, alcohol consumption and illicit drug use problems by a partner or family member on subsequent psychological well-being at follow-up. We observed a decrease in the incidence of poorer psychological well-being (post-partum depression and poor self-perceived health status) at 12 months post-partum. The strongest predictor of poor psychological well-being was depression (AOR = 6.83, 95 % CI: 3.44-13.58) or poor self-perceived health status (AOR = 5.34, 95 % CI: 2.37-12.02) during pregnancy. Isolated psychological IPV increased the risk of a deterioration in psychological well-being. Having a tangible social network was also a predictor of both post-partum depression and poor self-perceived health status. The effect of functional social support varied according to the type of psychological well-being indicator being used. Problems of alcohol consumption or illicit drug use by a partner or family member were a predictor of post-partum depression only. Psychological well-being during the first year after birth is highly affected by isolated psychological IPV and psychosocial factors.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Show more