Relationship between African-American or Caucasian origin and outcomes in the olanzapine treatment of acute mania: A pooled analysis of three adult studies conducted in the United States of America

ArticleinInternational clinical psychopharmacology 26(3):141-5 · December 2010with2 Reads
DOI: 10.1097/YIC.0b013e32834228af · Source: PubMed
The aim of this study was to explore the role of ethnic origin in the treatment of acute bipolar mania. Treatment outcomes were studied in a post-hoc analysis of African-American (AA, n=41) and Caucasian (CA, n=190) adults treated with olanzapine in three studies conducted in the United States of America. Baseline demographics were similar except that the AA cohort had fewer women compared with the CA cohort (37 vs. 58%; P=0.01). Daily mean modal olanzapine dose and study discontinuation rate for AA and CA were: 16.2 mg vs. 16.6 mg and 41.5 vs. 25.3% (P=0.03), respectively. There were four (23.5% of discontinuers) and 19 (39.6% of discontinuers, P=0.14) discontinuations because of a poor response in the AA and CA groups, respectively. Drug exposure for the AA cohort was 18.7 days and that of the CA cohort was 19.3 days. Both cohorts showed similar symptom improvements, and safety outcomes were not statistically significantly different except for the following treatment-emergent adverse event frequencies for AA and CA cohorts, respectively: agitation (24.4 vs. 10.5%, P=0.04); dysmenorrhoea (20.0 vs. 3.6%, P=0.04); and dizziness postural (7.3 vs. 1.1%, P=0.04). Although study findings [limited by a smaller (18% of total population) AA cohort] need replication, they suggest that while many outcomes were similar in both cohorts, clinicians could benefit from the awareness of factors in the AA population that possibly influence study discontinuation rates, treatment-emergent adverse event reporting, and participation by sex.
    • "In studies assessing lithium red blood cell to plasma ratio in Caucasians and African Americans, African Americans had a higher lithium red blood cell to plasma ratio and also reported more side effects, suggesting African Americans may need lower doses to have better lithium tolerability (Strickland et al., 1995Strickland et al., , 1993). Degenhardt et al. (2011) studied olanzapine to treat bipolar mania and found no differences in dosing or outcomes for African Americans compared to Caucasians; however, African Americans were more likely to discontinue treatment early and had some side effects at higher rates (Degenhardt et al., 2011). No studies have specifically investigated lithium red blood cell to plasma ratios or response to lithium in U.S. Hispanics. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few prospective studies examine the impact of ethnicity or race on outcomes with lithium for bipolar disorder. This exploratory study examines differences in lithium response and treatment outcomes in Hispanics, African Americans, and non-Hispanic whites with bipolar disorder in the Lithium Treatment Moderate Dose Use Study (LiTMUS). LiTMUS was a six-site randomized controlled trial of low-dose lithium added to optimized treatment (OPT; personalized, evidence-based pharmacotherapy) vs. OPT alone in outpatients with bipolar disorder. Of 283 participants, 47 African Americans, 39 Hispanics, and 175 non-Hispanic whites were examined. We predicted minority groups would have more negative medication attitudes and higher attrition rates, but better clinical outcomes. African Americans in the lithium group improved more on depression and life functioning compared to whites over the 6 month study. African Americans in the OPT only group had marginal improvement on depression symptoms. For Hispanics, satisfaction with life did not significantly improve in the OPT only group, in contrast to whites and African Americans who improved over time on all measures. Attitudes toward medications did not differ across ethnic/racial groups. African Americans show some greater improvements with lithium than non-Hispanic whites, and Hispanics showed more consistent improvements in the lithium group. The impact of low-dose lithium should be studied in a larger sample as there may be particular benefit for African Americans and Hispanics. Given that the control group (regardless of ethnicity/race) had significant improvements, optimized treatment may be beneficial for any ethnic group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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