Optimized method for the synthesis and purification of adenosine - Folic acid conjugates for use as transcription initiators in the preparation of modified RNA

Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.
Methods (Impact Factor: 3.65). 12/2010; 54(2):260-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.ymeth.2010.12.007
Source: PubMed


We present an optimized synthetic strategy for the attachment of molecules to 5'-adenosine monophosphate (AMP), which can then be used to label the 5'-end of RNA by T7 RNA polymerase mediated in vitro transcription. Through the use of a boronate affinity gel, we have developed an efficient route to the preparation of folate conjugated AMP with high yields and purity. Affi-Gel boronate is an affinity resin that selectively binds nucleoside and nucleoside derivatives at pH>7.5 and releases them at pH<6.5. This resin is used to efficiently bind and purify ribonucleotides such as AMP. This allows for the addition of a large excess of reactants and reagents in order to drive the reaction to completion and then allow easy purification without HPLC. The synthesis can be successfully scaled up to produce large quantities of AMP conjugates.

Full-text preview

Available from:
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent advances in RNA nanotechnology have led to the emergence of a new field and brought vitality to the area of therapeutics [P. Guo, The emerging field of RNA nanotechnology, Nat. Nanotechnol., 2010]. Due to the complementary nature of the four nucleotides and its special catalytic activity, RNA can be manipulated with simplicity characteristic of DNA, while possessing versatile structure and diverse function similar to proteins. Loops and tertiary architecture serve as mounting dovetails or wedges to eliminate external linking dowels. Unique features in transcription, termination, self-assembly, self-processing, and acid-resistance enable in vivo production of nanoparticles harboring aptamer, siRNA, ribozyme, riboswitch, or other regulators for therapy, detection, regulation, and intracellular computation. The unique property of noncanonical base-pairing and stacking enables RNA to fold into well-defined structures for constructing nanoparticles with special functionalities. Bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor is geared by a ring consisting of six packaging RNA (pRNA) molecules. pRNA is able to form a multimeric complex via the interaction of two reengineered interlocking loops. This unique feature makes it an ideal polyvalent vehicle for nanomachine fabrication, pathogen detection, and delivery of siRNA or other therapeutics. This review describes methods in using pRNA as a building block for the construction of RNA dimers, trimers, and hexamers as nanoparticles in medical applications. Methods for industrial-scale production of large and stable RNA nanoparticles will be introduced. The unique favorable PK (pharmacokinetics) profile with a half life (T(1/2)) of 5-10h comparing to 0.25 of conventional 2'-F siRNA, and advantageous in vivo features such as non-toxicity, non-induction of interferons or non-stimulating of cytokine response in animals will also be reviewed.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Methods

  • No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Methods
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Polyethylenimine (PEI) was conjugated to oleic acid (PEI-OA) and evaluated as a delivery agent for LOR-2501, an antisense oligonucleotide against ribonucleotide reductase R1 subunit. PEI-OA/LOR-2501 complexes were further coated with folic acid (FA/PEI-OA/LOR-2501) and evaluated in tumor cells. The level of cellular uptake of FA/PEI-OA/LOR-2501 was more than double that of PEI/LOR-2501 complexes, and was not affected by the expression level of folate receptor (FR) on the cell surface. Efficient delivery was seen in several cell lines. Furthermore, pathway specific cellular internalization inhibitors and markers were used to reveal the principal mechanism of cellular uptake. FA/PEI-OA/LOR-2501 significantly induced the downregulation of R1 mRNA and R1 protein. This novel formulation of FA/PEI-OA provides a reliable and highly efficient method for delivery of oligonucleotide and warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Colloids and surfaces B: Biointerfaces