Article

Demographics and beef preferences affect consumer motivation for purchasing fresh beef steaks and roasts

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Surveys completed by 1370 consumers determined the motivational factors affecting consumer purchasing decisions for fresh beef steaks and roasts in three regions in the United States. Females placed greater importance on tenderness, ease of preparation, and nutritional value of steaks and roasts when compared to males. Age influenced tenderness, product consistency, and nutritional value of steaks, but influenced flavor, product consistency, and nutritional value of roasts. Consumers felt juiciness, nutritional value, and natural products were less important in determining their purchasing choices of steaks and roasts as their level of education increased. The preferred degree of doneness of steaks influenced the value placed on six of the nine purchasing motivators. Beef preferences and demographics influenced consumer purchasing decisions for fresh beef steaks and roasts. Results from this study can be used to help identify factors to positively influence purchasing decisions within targeted market segments.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... The nutritional value and health consequences of red meat consumption are considered important to elderly consumers. A survey of 1370 consumers from the United States of America (USA) found the decision to purchase of those aged 30 years and above was influenced by beef's nutritional value more so than younger respondents, and proposed this to be the result of their heightened awareness of nutrient composition of foods and an increased health concern (Reicks et al., 2011). A survey of 646 Swiss consumers aged 50 years and above supported this outcome, finding that consumption frequency could be predicted from their opinion of beef's taste and healthiness (Schmid et al., 2017b). ...
... A comparable observation was also reported for Australian consumers aged 45 years and above (n = 3554) as 'value for money' responses demonstrated that older people expected better quality beef for lower prices than younger people (Cox et al., 1997). Reicks et al. (2011) demonstrated that elderly consumers prioritise quality, finding people aged 50 years and above placed more importance on beef quality consistency compared with younger people. This premise is further buoyed by the findings of Lyford et al. (2010) that Australian, Japanese, US and Irish consumers' willingness to pay for consistent quality beef (MSA graded) decreased when the respondent was aged 40 years and above. ...
... Thus, industry is yet to uptake such feeding regimes and further research is required to determine the most appropriate method for mitigating such detrimental effects of increasing the omega-3 fatty acid content. Given the importance of health claims in driving consumer purchase decisions, particularly for the elderly (Reicks et al., 2011;Font-I-Furnols & Guerrero, 2014), increasing the healthbeneficial fatty acids of intensively finished cattle and sheep is vital in meeting dietary targets. ...
Article
The global population is becoming older, and still this cohort consider red meat (beef and sheep meat) as an important staple in their diet. It is understood that the requirements from these red meats will vary as a person ages, often because of associated physiological changes; nutrition and health concerns; and reduced sensorial capacities. This creates an imperative to develop red meat products that appeal and satisfy the demands of elderly people. Here, we have reviewed current literature with the aim to comprehend the elderly consumer market, their demands for nutritive and quality traits, and their requirements for safe and convenient red meat (beef and sheep) products. Based on these studies it was apparent that these specifications may be delivered using available knowledge of intrinsic and extrinsic influences on red meat if considered within the context of elderly customers. That is, to deliver upon elderly people's requirements for conventional red meat products which are inexpensive, of consistent and perceivable high quality, and quell any associated health concerns for the consumer.
... Consumers' preferences heterogeneity has been analysed through a mixed logit (random parameters model -RPL). 1 This model has been widely applied within the literature, with some relevant studies exploring some possible sources of this heterogeneity (Reicks et al., 2011). We follow the meritorious Resano, Sanjuán, and Albisu (2012) approach, providing the impact of a wide range of characteristics, but on different types of quality indicators (in this case credence and experience) evaluation, and modelling them jointly. ...
... The size of locality does not influence the choice of veal with health claim. Similarly, the study by Reicks et al. (2011) also reported nonsignificant impact of locality. This study did however find there was an effect on the nutritional value perception while purchasing. ...
... Results also show that both socio-demographics and behavioural characteristics influence the evaluation of an experience guarantee, but in this case with a different direction of the impact. More specifically, and similarly to Reicks et al. (2011), whilst contrary to the previous influence showed on health information evaluation, low household size (one-person) has a significant and positive influence on very tender veal (5.075€). This fact could be especially relevant considering that there has been a high rise of one-person households in the EU-28 in the last years, and this percentage is expected to continue increasing in the near future (Eurostat, 2017). ...
Article
In Europe, in the last decades, public administration has encouraged extensive livestock farming systems, usually related to high quality meat and the preservation of endangered local breeds. Nevertheless, its continuity in the near future should be based on adapting it to the market requirements. This paper investigates consumers' preferences heterogeneity towards veal attributes, as well as the linkage between a wide range of consumer traits and attributes that motivate purchasing of veal with unique characteristics. Main method of analysis included a choice experiment method. Findings showed that regional origin and health information play a stronger role than tenderness degree guarantee at the moment of choice. Moreover, regional origin is more relevant when it is linked to a local breed. Nevertheless, heterogeneous preferences have been detected. In contrast to the general trend, one-person households attach greater importance to the presence of a high degree of tenderness guarantee. Furthermore, younger consumers value more this guarantee, while expert consumers do not.
... Besides age, there are several other demographic factors that have been investigated and found to have no effect on willingness to pay for quality beef. No effect of sex, occupation, number of children in the household or cooking method was found for Australian, Japanese, American, Irish and South African consumers (Lyford et al., 2010;Thompson et al., 2010;Reicks et al., 2011). In addition, Feuz et al. (2004) found no effect of income bracket on willingness to pay for American consumers. ...
... In addition, Feuz et al. (2004) found no effect of income bracket on willingness to pay for American consumers. In addition, Feuz et al. (2004) and Reicks et al. (2011) found that these patterns were similar across different regions in the United States. Therefore we would expect that the trend would also continue to European consumers. ...
... This would require further investigation to reveal any other related factors. These results are supported by Reicks et al. (2011) who found that consumers with higher incomes did not consider price as important when purchasing beef. The positive relationship between income and P-WTP in both Poland and France is worth further investigation as it suggests there is a niche for high-quality-branded products. ...
Article
Accurately quantifying a consumer’s willingness to pay (WTP) for beef of different eating qualities is intrinsically linked to the development of eating-quality-based meat grading systems, and therefore the delivery of consistent, quality beef to the consumer. Following Australian MSA (Meat Standards Australia) testing protocols, over 19 000 consumers from Northern Ireland, Poland, Ireland, France and Australia were asked to detail their willingness to pay for beef from one of four categories that best described the sample; unsatisfactory, good-every-day, better-than-every-day or premium quality. These figures were subsequently converted to a proportion relative to the good-every-day category (P-WTP) to allow comparison between different currencies and time periods. Consumers also answered a short demographic questionnaire. Consumer P-WTP was found to be remarkably consistent between different demographic groups. After quality grade, by far the greatest influence on P-WTP was country of origin. This difference was unable to be explained by the other demographic factors examined in this study, such as occupation, gender, frequency of consumption and the importance of beef in the diet. Therefore, we can conclude that the P-WTP for beef is highly transferrable between different consumer groups, but not countries.
... Consumer age was found to have a negative relationship with willingness to pay in three studies (Lusk et al., 2001;Lyford et al., 2010;Thompson et al., 2010). In contrast, Reicks et al. (2011) found that age had no effect on the importance of price when consumers were purchasing beef, though this survey was more directed to factors influencing purchasing decisions, rather than willingness to pay for different quality levels. ...
... There are several other demographic factors (sex, occupation, number of children in the household or cooking method) that have been investigated and found to have no effect on willingness to pay for quality beef (Cox et al., 1997;Lyford et al., 2010;Thompson et al., 2010;Reicks et al., 2011). In addition, both Feuz et al. (2004) and Lusk et al. (2001) found no effect of income bracket on willingness to pay for American consumers. ...
... In addition, both Feuz et al. (2004) and Lusk et al. (2001) found no effect of income bracket on willingness to pay for American consumers. In addition, Feuz et al. (2004) and Reicks et al. (2011) found that these patterns were similar across different regions in the United States. ...
Article
Full-text available
The beef industry must become more responsive to the changing market place and consumer demands. An essential part of this is quantifying a consumer’s perception of the eating quality of beef and their willingness to pay for that quality, across a broad range of demographics. Over 19 000 consumers from Northern Ireland, Poland, Ireland and France each tasted seven beef samples and scored them for tenderness, juiciness, flavour liking and overall liking. These scores were weighted and combined to create a fifth score, termed the Meat Quality 4 score (MQ4) (0.3×tenderness, 0.1×juiciness, 0.3×flavour liking and 0.3×overall liking). They also allocated the beef samples into one of four quality grades that best described the sample; unsatisfactory, good-every-day, better-than-every-day or premium. After the completion of the tasting panel, consumers were then asked to detail, in their own currency, their willingness to pay for these four categories which was subsequently converted to a proportion relative to the good-every-day category (P-WTP). Consumers also answered a short demographic questionnaire. The four sensory scores, the MQ4 score and the P-WTP were analysed separately, as dependant variables in linear mixed effects models. The answers from the demographic questionnaire were included in the model as fixed effects. Overall, there were only small differences in consumer scores and P-WTP between demographic groups. Consumers who preferred their beef cooked medium or well-done scored beef higher, except in Poland, where the opposite trend was found. This may be because Polish consumers were more likely to prefer their beef cooked well-done, but samples were cooked medium for this group. There was a small positive relationship with the importance of beef in the diet, increasing sensory scores by about 4% in Poland and Northern Ireland. Men also scored beef about 2% higher than women for most sensory scores in most countries. In most countries, consumers were willing to pay between 150 and 200% more for premium beef, and there was a 50% penalty in value for unsatisfactory beef. After quality grade, by far the greatest influence on P-WTP was country of origin. Consumer age also had a small negative relationship with P-WTP. The results indicate that a single quality score could reliably describe the eating quality experienced by all consumers. In addition, if reliable quality information is delivered to consumers they will pay more for better quality beef, which would add value to the beef industry and encourage improvements in quality.
... At most foodservice establishments, steaks are ordered by consumers to a requested DOD. Consumers vary widely in their DOD preferences, with most preferring steaks cooked between medium-rare and medium-well (Branson et al., 1986;Cox et al., 1997;Reicks et al., 2011). As steaks are cooked to increasing DOD, there is a greater amount of myoglobin denaturation that results in a color change from a typical raw-red color to a traditional cooked-brown color (Mancini and Hunt, 2005). ...
... Forty-one percent of consumers reported mediumrare as their preferred DOD, followed by 23% preferring medium (Table 5). In previous literature, 61 to 70% of consumers reported they prefer beef steaks cooked to at least medium (Branson et al., 1986;Schmidt et al., 2002;Reicks et al., 2011). More recently, 39 to 42% of consumers reported they prefer beef steaks cooked to medium-rare (McKillip et al., 2017;Vierck et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to assess consumer and chef perceptions and knowledge of beef degrees of doneness (DOD) as well as to measure the changes in cooked color over time related to DOD. Steaks from strip loins (M. longissimus lumborum) from each of 5 quality treatments were used for this study. Steaks were cooked to an endpoint temperature of either very-rare (54°C), rare (60°C), medium-rare (63°C), medium (71°C), well-done (77°C), or very well-done (82°C). L*, a*, and b* were evaluated at 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12 min post-cutting and digital pictures were taken immediately on an internal surface of the steak. Digital surveys for the evaluation of the images of the cooked steaks were created for consumers and chefs. There were time × DOD interactions (P < 0.05) for L*, a*, and b* values. For very-rare, rare, medium-rare, and medium, a* values increased (P < 0.05) over time. For L*, well-done and very well-done steaks became darker (P < 0.05) and very-rare, rare, and medium-rare steaks became lighter (P < 0.05) over time. Surveys indicated consumers determine DOD when cooking beef in their home primarily by using color, whereas chefs primarily use touch to determine DOD. There were no quality grade effects (P > 0.05) for DOD responses for steak pictures evaluated by consumers or chefs. Consumers identified the DOD of cooked steaks as the DOD that corresponds to published end-point temperatures 27 to 35% of the time. Chefs typically identified the DOD as 1 DOD higher than which the steaks were cooked for steaks cooked to medium or less and 1 DOD lower for steaks cooked to well-done and higher. This indicates differences exist in the perceptions of DOD between culinary professionals and consumers, and may contribute to decreased consumer satisfaction when ordering steaks in a restaurant.
... Attribute values are assigned by the consumers as a reflection of the satisfaction gained from the product. Factors such as age, income, and education level have been shown to influence the consumers' purchase decision [6,19,20]. In the current study, these factors were included in our model to capture their impact on satisfaction. ...
... Our last use of our random utility model was to determine the impact that demographic variables had on consumer satisfaction. The four demographic variables evaluated in this model were age, income, education, and gender, as each has been shown to impact consumer perception [4,19]. As seen in Table 6, education did not impact satisfaction (p > 0.05) in the overall model, but age, income, and gender influenced (p < 0.05) satisfaction. ...
Article
Full-text available
The current study was designed to broaden the understanding of the attributes impacting the sensory properties of beef when consumed. Using a survey of consumers from three different geographical regions in the United States (US), we determined the impacts of three attributes on overall satisfaction in several different ways. The two main statistical methods used were an Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) model and the Conditional Logit model. Perhaps the most important finding of this study was that flavor was the largest contributor to consumer satisfaction. This finding was consistent throughout all the models. In the base model, flavor represented 59% of the satisfaction rating. Additionally, results indicated domestic beef was preferred over Australian beef by US consumers. Another important finding of the study was the impact of the demographic variables of age, income, and gender on satisfaction. The older group generally placed more emphasis on tenderness, while younger people preferred juicier beef. Males were more responsive than females for all attributes, especially tenderness. Those with higher income were more responsive to tenderness for all quality levels, but the lower income group was more responsive to juiciness. Overall, flavor had the largest impact on consumers’ satisfaction level in comparison to tenderness or juiciness.
... However, in this study, roughly 83% panelists were between 20 and 40 years old, and the number of male and female panelists was almost equal, which is indicative of a common target market. This is important, as gender, age, number of adults in a household, and preferred degree of doneness have been reported as consumer characteristics that influence beef purchasing decisions of the consumer (Reicks et al., 2011). ...
... In total, about 60% of the panelists consumed beef more than twice a week. This is slightly less than was reported by Reicks et al. (2011) who surveyed 1370 panelists and reported that about 75% of consumers eat beef more than twice a week. ...
Article
The effects of high pressure processing (HPP; 450 MPa for 15 min and 600 MPa for 10 min) and sous vide (SV) cooking time on the texture, color, and sensory characteristics of beef strip steaks were studied. Control treatments (no HPP) were SV cooked for 180 min while HPP treated steaks (450 MPa or 600 MPa) were SV cooked for 45 min or 120 min. SV cooking did not change (P > 0.05) the redness of HPP samples compared to control. There were significant (P < 0.05) differences between SV control and SV HPP samples regarding tenderness. SV control steaks were rated higher (P < 0.05) for tenderness juiciness and overall liking than SV HPP, but not differently (P > 0.05) for taste and aftertaste liking from SV 450 MPa. These results indicate HPP treatment with shorter sous vide cooking times can have some negative impact on quality and sensory characteristics of beef steaks, but still may be potentially accepted by consumers with optimized pressure and time.
... In contrast, Lusk et al. (2001) found that women had a higher WTP for quality when offered through an "auction" system after an in-store taste session. Reicks, Brooks, Garmyn, Thompson, and Miller (2011) also reported that women were more sensitive to price but also scored certain eating quality attributes such as tenderness and consistency more important than men when making purchasing decisions. Interestingly, Bonny et al. (2017) and Kubberød, Ueland, Rodbottemn, Westad, and Risvik (2002) reported higher scores for meat quality attributes by male respondents compared to females. ...
... Neither the study of Bonny et al. (n.d., 2017) nor Lyford et al. (2010) showed any effect of number of adults on WTP for quality among consumers from various countries. However, consumers across different regions of the USA regarded quality (tenderness) as slightly less important and price as more important in households with 4 or more adults compared to households with 1 or 2 adults (Reicks et al., 2011). ...
... Veal is the meat of cattle up to 8 months old and should be characterised by a tender texture, pale pink colour, high water content, and low-fat content [Government of the Republic of Slovenia Regulation, 2019]. The most important factor determining the acceptability of veal and influencing the consumer's purchase decision is tenderness [Reicks et al., 2011]. Although veal is considered tender meat than beef and is usually not aged, some studies have confirmed the positive influence of ageing on its tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability [Baldi et al., 2015;Revilla & Vivar-Quintana, 2006]. ...
... With regard to palatability, the idea that there is a consumer preference for medium, that is, between 63°C and 71°C given the mentioned values, was reinforced. 24,25 Both Filet Mignon (rare) and Top Sirloin Cap (well-done) fell within this range, despite not being the exact cooking points requested. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objetivo: O propósito deste estudo foi avaliar os índices de cocção e as temperaturas da superfície de carnes grelhadas na parrilla de um restaurante comercial de Fortaleza. Métodos: Caracterizou-se como uma pesquisa descritivo-exploratória e quantitativa. Os cortes de carne bovina selecionados foram chorizo (contrafilé), lombo (filé mignon) e tira (picanha) nos seguintes pontos de cozimento: malpassado, ao ponto e bem-passado. Foram coletadas 38 amostras entre os meses de setembro e novembro de 2020. Aferiram-se os pesos líquidos, pesos dos alimentos cozidos, índices de cocção (IC) e temperaturas médias, além de avaliação da temperatura média da grelha da parrilla. A análise estatística foi constituída dos testes de Shapiro-Wilk e ANOVA. Resultados: Os ICs resultantes variaram de 0,76 a 0,92 para o chorizo, 0,69 a 0,92 para o lombo e 0,66 a 0,85 para a tira. Houve redução do peso do lombo malpassado para ao ponto. O intervalo de IC de 0,65 a 0,90 do estudo de Ornelas convergiu com o presente estudo. O chorizo malpassado se enquadrou como possivelmente seguro pela classificação da OMS e a tira, classificada como malpassada pelo modelo de Prill et al. O chorizo seguiu uma tendência decrescente de temperatura, contrariando o padrão prévio. Conclusão: É fundamental haver um controle de temperatura apropriado na busca por uma temperatura compatível às exigências para se chegar a um modelo ideal. Além disso, a investigação detalhada tornou o estudo uma importante referência para a utilização dos ICs descritos.
... In addition, the careful planning of food purchase and the relevance of convenience can be seen as useful aids for proper meal preparation despite time constrains. Meat liking in men showed a negative association with the importance assigned to organic production as food quality aspect, in agreement with the lower value attributed to organic products by regular, highly involved meat consumers reported in previous studies (Borgogno et al., 2015;Reicks et al., 2011). ...
Article
Demographics, anthropometrics, oral responsiveness to sensory stimuli and psycho-attitudinal traits were collected from a representative Italian population sample (n = 2384; 58% women, age 18–60 years) and considered as possible explanatory variables affecting meat liking. Differences in motives underlying individual variation in liking for meat were independently investigated by gender. Three groups of subjects were identified based on liking ratings: Slightly Likers, Likers and Lovers. Both common and gender-specific variables affecting liking for meat were identified. The interest in food (including its rewarding function) and eating experience, low food neophobia and relatively high Body Mass Index characterized meat Lovers irrespective to gender. The careful food selection and the food comforting function further characterized women meat Lovers. Men Slightly Likers were characterized by the interest for health-related food aspects, importance assigned to naturalness and restrained eating. Markers of oral responsiveness were ineffective for describing variation in liking for meat.
... The introduction of taste receptors (sweet, bitter, and umami) brings advancement (Liman et al., 2014) in the field of taste evolution. Natural flavor and taste are the two main parameters based on consumers' purchasing decisions (Reicks et al., 2011). They also prefer tender meat and other meat quality characteristics. ...
Article
Full-text available
The flavor is an essential organoleptic trait of meat, affecting its acceptability and delectability towards consumers. Flavor, in the meat, is formed through thermally produced reactions, including vitamin degradation, maillard reaction and lipid oxidation. Such reactions lead to the development of meat flavor with some bloody taste and aroma during cooking. However, adverse effects like discoloration, cooking loss, hard texture, and flavor loss can occur due to conventional cooking. Currently, some novel thermal and non‐thermal processing techniques are being explored with the promise to ensure mild processing. Owing to their milder processing conditions, such methods can effectively improve the flavor together with improved nutritional value of meat and meat products. This review discusses the application and optimization of various thermal and non‐thermal processing techniques in meat processing with special focus on development and preservation of meat flavors.
... The role of price in fresh and cured meat consumer preferences is often related to consumer socio-demographic characteristics (Font i Furnols et al., 2011;Reicks et al., 2011). Verbeke and Viaene (1999) reported that price does not influence the perception of meat generally; rather, it affects the perceived quality, freshness, sensory, and health attributes of the meat. ...
Article
This study aims to evaluate consumer attitude toward the geographical indication as a typicality proxy and healthy attributes of dry-cured ham. For these purposes, a survey was carried out in Sicily to evaluate the role of protected designation of origin (PDO), salt content, and presence/absence of nitrites. A ranking conjoint experiment based on the linear assumption was used. Following the conjoint analysis, a cluster analysis using Ward’s method has been carried out to explore the differences among different consumer groups in terms of utility and mean relative importance of various attributes. We found the existence of a clearly defined hierarchical order in consumer preferences for the attributes of dry-cured ham. The absence of nitrites was considered to be the most important attribute by respondents, followed by price. Furthermore, thanks to the clustering approach, our study observed how the importance of socio-demographic characteristics is differently interrelated with the specific attributes and attribute levels of dry-cured ham. The results provided by this paper could be useful in helping producers and marketers to segment the products and to identify strategies and actions to translate these results into concrete and shared production policies.
... Literature also indicates that the most valuable components of meat from the nutritional and post-harvest handling are water, fat, protein and minerals (Adam, Atta, & Ismail, 2010). Moreover, flavor, tenderness and juiciness are the most important quality traits for the overall likability of beef, consumers have been showing demand for beef with better tenderness according to the previous reports, and, tenderness is ranked higher than price when it comes to the purchasing decision of consumers (Reicks et al., 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
The study investigated meat quality of bulls fed concentrate feeds and hay. The treatments were hay ad libitum + dried cafeteria leftover 4 kg DM d-1 (D1); hay ad libitum + wheat bran 4 kg DM d-1 (D2); hay ad libitum + 4 maize grain 4 kg DM d-1 (D3); hay ad libitum + mix 4 kg DM d-1 (1:1, wheat bran to maize grain, respectively (D4)); hay ad libitum + scrambled whole groundnut 4 kg DM d-1 (D5); and hay ad libitum + mix of each ingredient 4 kg DM d-1(D6)). Samples from longissimus lumborum muscle were taken in triplicate. Beef from bulls fed D5 had highest (p < 0.05) protein and fat than those fed other treatments. However, bulls finished in D3 had similar fat to those fed with whole ground nut. Highest meat tenderness (p < 0.05) recorded at 24th followed by 16th d than those aged on other periods. Beef from D6 produced lean meat, which is acceptable to consumer and market demand than D3, produced carcass with highest fat coverage This study confirmed that meat from D6 had an acceptable quality attribute suggesting the breed could serve as a potential source in red meat industry.
... In our study, the physical attributes of meat from the various treatments differed. An increase in D. intortum-BSFLM mixture has a significant effect on the physical attributes of the meat, particularly the moisture retention, pH and water holding capacity confirming previous findings (Reicks et al., 2011). The pH value is an indicator of change in glycogen decomposition rate into lactic acid in the muscles. ...
Article
Full-text available
We evaluated the effect of dietary inclusion of different ratios of Desmodium intortum (DI) and black soldier fly larvae meal (BSFLM) on sensory traits and physicochemical qualities of broiler chicks meat. Three formulations: T1:75%BSFL:25%DI; T2:50%BSFL:50DI, and T3:25BSFL:75% DI as a protein source were tested. A conventional feed was used as the control diet. On day 42, the chickens were slaughtered, and thigh muscles were used for sensory and physicochemical evaluations. T1 was preferred for its flavour and tenderness, T2 for its juiciness and T3 for its colour, flavour, taste and overall acceptability scores. In terms of physical properties, all three types of meat had significantly lower moisture content and a higher water holding capacity than the control. T3 had the lowest moisture content, cooking loss and pH, whereas the meat from control diet had the highest cooking loss and pH. No significant differences were found in terms of meat lightness; however, meat from control diet showed the highest redness value, and T3 had the highest yellowness value. Dietary inclusion of DI-BSFL affected the fatty acid and cholesterol profiles of the meats. A holistic Principal Component Analysis indicated that the tested meats were distinct in their sensory and physicochemical properties. These variations in physicochemical properties may account for the difference in organoleptic perception, especially for T3. Further research should focus on feed modulation in relation to consumers’ preference and potential health benefits.
... The most important marketing parameters that have an influence on consumer preferences are the price of the product and its quality labelling. Price is an extrinsic factor which is directly related to the demographic characteristics of a country, since low-income consumers prefer low quality cuts (Reicks et al., 2011;Yang et al., 2021). Although high price is often associated with high food quality (Acebrón and Dopico, 2000), lower prices are often preferred, especially for consumers with low purchasing power, who occasionally eat meat or do not show interest in the type of meat they consume, replacing an expensive meat product with a more affordable one (Font-i-Furnols and Guerrero, 2014;Yang et al., 2021). ...
... Flavor quality, as a key indicator for the sensory evaluation of consumers for meat quality, is an important edible quality that can affect the long-term purchasing decisions of consumers (Font-I-Furnols & Guerrero, 2014;Reicks, Brooks, Garmyn, Thompson, Lyford, & Miller, 2011). GSH is the main flavoring agent in meat products. ...
Article
This study aimed to explore the effects of different feeding regimes on muscle metabolism and its association with meat quality of Tibetan sheep through correlation analysis of meat quality and differential metabolites using untargeted and targeted metabolomics. The untargeted metabolome was detected by UHPLC-QTOF-MS, and the targeted metabolome was detected by UHPLC-QQQ-MS (amino acids) and GC-MS (fatty acids). Based on the researched results, the nutritional quality of meat, including the content of protein and fat and the edible quality of meat, including tenderness, water holding capacity (WHC), texture, and flavor of Tibetan sheep were superior in the stall-feeding group (GBZ) than in the traditional grazing group (CBZ). In the GBZ group, the key upregulated metabolites and metabolic pathways were dominated by essential amino acids (EAAs) and amino acid metabolism as well as the key downregulated metabolites and metabolic pathways were dominated by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and lipid metabolism. Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant correlation between the results of untargeted metabolomics and some phenotypic data, including shear force, cooking loss, drip loss, chewiness, elasticity, flavor, and the content of protein and fat. Taken together, stall-feeding would be appropriate for the production of Tibetan mutton, offering better mouthfeel and higher nutrition by altering the muscle metabolism and increasing the beneficial compound deposition in the muscle.
... This is reflective of the high number of college students who participated in the current consumer panels. Previous authors have reported that demographic differences have little impact on consumer palatability ratings of beef steaks (Mehaffey et al., 2009;Reicks et al., 2011), although the current results should be evaluated in the context of the panelists' demographic profile. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sirloin cap steaks from four different USDA quality grades were evaluated to determine the effect of marbling on eating experience. Top sirloin cap steaks (N = 118) of four different quality grades (Prime, Top Choice, Low Choice, and Select) were evaluated in the current study. Top sirloin butts were collected and the biceps femoris was removed trimmed and sliced into twelve 2.54-cm thick steaks. The steaks from each subprimal were aged for 28 d and designated for either trained sensory panels, consumer sensory panels, Warner-Bratzler Shear Force (WBSF), or moisture and fat determination. The Prime steaks were rated the highest (P < 0.05) for overall liking and were higher (P < 0.05) for flavor liking than Low Choice and Select steaks within the consumer panels. However, all quality treatments were similar (P > 0.05) in juiciness and tenderness for the consumer panels. Additionally, a similar (P > 0.05) percentage of samples from each treatment were rated acceptable for tenderness, juiciness, flavor liking, and overall liking, with each trait having greater than 70% of samples rated acceptable Also, Prime steaks were rated the highest (P < 0.05) for sustained juiciness and overall tenderness within the trained sensory panels. Similarly, Prime steaks were rated higher (P < 0.05) for initial juiciness than the Low Choice and Select treatments but were similar (P > 0.05) to Top Choice. These results indicate USDA quality grades impact the eating quality of sirloin cap steaks, especially within the Prime grade, and could provide an opportunity for refined marketing and added economic value for the cut.
... Beef is an important source of high biological value proteins, vitamins, and micronutrients for human nutrition. Consumer acceptability is affected by some aspect of meat quality like tenderness, color, juiciness, and cooking meat flavor and aroma [1,2]. In particular, consumers tend to prefer tender meat with natural taste and aroma [3]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Flavor is one of the main factors involved in consumer meat-purchasing decision and use of natural antioxidants in animal feeding had a great appeal for consumers. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the effect of Pinus taeda hydrolyzed lignin (PTHL) feed addition on oxidative stability, volatile compounds characteristics, and sensory attributes of 35 days dry-aged beef steaks. Forty steer six months old were randomly divided into a control group (CON; n = 20) and an experimental group (PTHL; n = 20). Both groups were fed ad libitum for 120 days with the same TMR and only the PTHL group received PTHL supplement. Samples of LT muscle were removed from carcasses and dry aged for 35 days at 2 °C, 82% of humidity, and 0.4 m/s of ventilation and then analyzed. Meat of CON group showed lower yellowness (p < 0.01) and higher TBARS (p < 0.01) values. Moreover, CON meat showed higher volatile aldehydes and lower sulfur compounds (p < 0.01), with higher unpleasant odor (p < 0.05) and meaty odor (p < 0.01) score revealed by sensory assessors. PTHL inclusion in beef diet delayed the oxidative mechanisms in 35 days dry-aged steaks, resulting in an improved colorimetric, volatolomic, and sensory profile.
... Tenderness is an important meat quality trait, with the consumer prepared to pay more for quality [86]. Meat quality traits, particularly tenderness, depend on both intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors. ...
Article
Full-text available
The red meat supply chain is a complex network transferring product from producers to consumers in a safe and secure way. There can be times when fragmentation can arise within the supply chain, which could be exploited. This risk needs reduction so that meat products enter the market with the desired attributes. Rapid Evaporative Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (REIMS) is a novel ambient mass spectrometry technique originally developed for rapid and accurate classification of biological tissue which is now being considered for use in a range of additional applications. It has subsequently shown promise for a range of food provenance, quality and safety applications with its ability to conduct ex vivo and in situ analysis. These are regarded as critical characteristics for technologies which can enable real-time decision making in meat processing plants and more broadly throughout the sector. This review presents an overview of the REIMS technology, and its application to the areas of provenance, quality and safety to the red meat industry, particularly in an Australian context.
... Tenderness and flavor are two meat quality-related phenotypes identified as the top purchasing motivators in the United States for fresh beef steaks (Reicks et al., 2011). Like all other meat quality attributes, these are complex traits controlled by genetics and influenced to a large degree by environmental factors . ...
Article
Full-text available
Tenderness is a major quality attribute for fresh beef steaks in the United States, and meat quality traits in general are suitable candidates for genomic research. The objectives of the present analysis were to (1) perform genome-wide association (GWA) analysis for marbling, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), tenderness, and connective tissue using whole-genome data in an Angus population, (2) identify enriched pathways in each GWA analysis; (3) construct a protein-protein interaction network using the associated genes and (4) perform a µ-calpain proteolysis assessment for associated structural proteins. An Angus-sired population of 2,285 individuals was assessed. Animals were transported to a commercial packing plant and harvested at an average age of 457 ± 46 days. After 48 h postmortem, marbling was recorded by graders' visual appraisal. Two 2.54-cm steaks were sampled from each muscle for recording of WBSF, and tenderness, and connective tissue by a sensory panel. The relevance of additive effects on marbling, WBSF, tenderness, and connective tissue was evaluated on a genome-wide scale using a two-step mixed model-based approach in single-trait analysis. A tissue-restricted gene enrichment was performed for each GWA where all polymorphisms with an association p-value lower than 1 × 10 −3 were included. The genes identified as associated were included in a protein-protein interaction network and a candidate structural protein assessment of proteolysis analyses. A total of 1,867, 3,181, 3,926, and 3,678 polymorphisms were significantly associated with marbling, WBSF, tenderness, and connective tissue, respectively. The associate region on BTA29 (36,432,655-44,313,046 bp) harbors 13 highly significant markers for meat quality traits. Enrichment for the GO term GO:0005634 (Nucleus), which includes transcription factors, was evident. The final protein-protein network included 431 interations between 349 genes. The 42 most important genes based on significance that encode structural proteins were included in a proteolysis analysis, and 81% of these proteins were potential µ-Calpain substrates. Overall, this comprehensive study unraveled genetic variants, genes and mechanisms of action responsible for the variation in meat quality traits. Our findings can provide opportunities for improving meat quality in beef cattle via marker-assisted selection.
... Doneness might also partly explain this finding. A survey found that 61% of US consumers preferred their steak medium or rarer (28), and another study found that 21% of restaurant customers requested medium or rarer hamburgers (29). Using NTS in beef, beef-attributable salmonellosis cases, and resistance to >1 antibiotic provided a case definition that maximizes the chances of finding a statistical signal in this dataset, should a trend exist in the outcomes. ...
Article
Full-text available
Restricting antibiotic use in food production animals is a target for reducing antimicrobial drug–resistant infections in humans. To estimate the probability of antibiotic-resistant nontyphoidal salmonellosis per meal made with beef during 2002–2010, we used US surveillance data. Applying data for nontyphoidal Salmonella in raised-without-antibiotics cattle, we tested the effect of removing antibiotic use from all beef cattle production. We found an average of 1.2 antibiotic-resistant nontyphoidal salmonellosis cases per 1 million beef meals made with beef initially contaminated with antibiotic-resistant nontyphoidal Salmonella at slaughter or retail and 0.031 cases per 1 million meals irrespective of beef contamination status. Neither outcome showed sustained change except for increases in 2003 and 2009 (>98% confidence) when larger or more outbreaks occurred. Switching all beef production to a raised-without-antibiotics system may not have a significant effect on antibiotic-resistant nontyphoidal salmonellosis (94.3% confidence).
... Consumers have previously expressed a preference for purchasing non-intact beef products (like cubed beef/cubed steak) due to their price, convenience, and palatability (Yang et al., 2019). These characteristics are consistent with preferential characteristics for beef seen in other studies on consumer attitudes towards beef purchasing (Reicks et al., 2011;Robbins et al., 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
Mechanically tenderized beef (MTB) products are non-intact beef products that have been tenderized using blades, needles, or other mechanical processes to improve consumer palatability. MTBs have been associated with outbreaks of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. MTB labeling was mandated in May 2016; however, consumer awareness of product and label is unclear. A national survey quantified consumer understanding and attitudes surrounding MTBs and its preparation. Many (64%) respondents were unaware that beef is mechanically tenderized; MTB label awareness was also low. Thirty-eight percent of respondents familiar with MTBs held positive attitudes towards MTBs due to price and convenience. Negative attitudes (24%) towards MTBs stemmed from concerns with the process, its “natural”-ness, and safety. Respondents regularly preparing MTBs reported using inside and/or outside color of the beef product (63%), texture (43%), juice/blood appearance (47%), smell (22%), and/or time (51%) to indicate doneness. While 20% of respondents used a thermometer, 62% reported “always” or “most of the time” preparing MTBs to 160℉. Contradictions may result from social desirability bias and optimism bias to portray selves in a positive light while believing personal preparation methods achieve safe results. Timely and targeted messaging with clear and standardized definitions, developed with consumers, are needed to bring awareness of MTBs and other food safety information to all populations.
... Large differences exist in consumer DOD preferences. Previous studies have reported 4 to 19% of consumers prefer steaks cooked to rare, whereas 24 to 37% prefer medium, and 5 to 27% prefer well-done (Branson et al., 1986;Cox et al., 1997;Schmidt et al., 2002;Reicks et al., 2011;McKillip et al., 2017;Vierck et al., 2018;Drey et al., 2019). Consumers typically visually appraise steaks to determine DOD and use the extent of myoglobin denaturation and the resulting color change as their visual cue for DOD assessment (Trout, 1989;Suman et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to determine the impact on beef palatability perceptions when consumers with varying degree of doneness (DOD) preferences are served steaks cooked to multiple DOD. Paired Low Choice strip loin steaks were randomly assigned to a DOD of either rare (60°C), medium-rare (63°C), medium (71°C), medium-well (74°C), or well-done (77°C). Consumer panelists were prescreened for DOD preference (rare, medium, or well-done) prior to sensory panels and were assigned to panels based on their DOD preference. In the first round of testing, consumers were served 1 sample from each of the 5 DOD under low-intensity red incandescent light to mask any DOD differences among samples. In round 2 of testing, consumers were fed the paired samples cooked to the same DOD under white incandescent lights. There were no (P > 0.05) consumer DOD preference × steak DOD interactions or consumer DOD preference effects for tenderness, juiciness, and flavor ratings when steaks were evaluated under both lighting types. Within the white-lighting testing, there was a consumer DOD preference × steak DOD interaction (P < 0.05) for overall acceptability. Consumers who preferred steaks cooked to well-done reported no differences (P > 0.05) in overall palatability among DOD under white-lighting, whereas consumers who preferred steaks cooked to rare and medium rated steaks lower (P < 0.05) for overall palatability as DOD increased. Regardless of DOD preference, consumer sensory ratings decreased (P < 0.05) when steaks were cooked above the consumer’s preferred DOD; whereas sensory ratings improved (P < 0.05) when steaks were served below the consumers’ preferences. These results indicate that overcooking steaks has the greatest negative impact on beef palatability perception and thus, foodservice should err on the side of undercooking steaks to preserve, and potentially improve, eating satisfaction.
... Bullfrog is popular in China (Bai, Garner, & Li, 2010), but not easily accessible in New Zealand. A more positive response to the 'internally pink' than 'bloody' beef steak fitted with reports of consumer preferences for steaks cooked medium-rare and medium-well as opposed to rare (Reicks et al., 2011), and with disgust responses to blood and bloody steaks (e.g., Fessler, Arguello, Mekdara, & Macias, 2003;Kubberød, Ueland, Tronstad, & Risvik, 2002). ...
Article
Product-centric emotion research can deepen understanding of consumers’ product experiences and food choices. Emotion measurement has become widespread in product research, and questionnaires where consumers respond to emotion words are popular and manifold. The present research adds to this multiplicity by presenting a parsimonious single-response questionnaire that spans the dimensions of pleasure and arousal, and their combinations. These are represented in a circular layout with 12 axes radiating from a central point. Each of the arms represents an emotion domain that is exemplified by two emotion words, and consumers’ task is to select the word pair that best represents how they feel. The questionnaire is informed by a circumplex model of human core affect, and methodological aspects relevant for use in applied product research were investigated in 23 consumer studies (n = 104 – 270 participants per study) spanning a very broad range of products and categories. The first of four research questions (RQ) established that the questionnaire is suitable for use with tasted stimuli (12 studies, 1 of which with aroma stimuli), written stimuli (10 studies) and image stimuli (1 study) (RQ1). Suitability of the questionnaire with New Zealand consumers was confirmed, and extended to Chinese consumers who took part in 7 of the 23 studies (RQ2). Responses obtained using the questionnaire appeared to be repeatable (RQ3a), and based on the criterion of the RV coefficient being equal to or greater than 0.95, stability (RQ3b) could be achieved with as low as 30 consumers despite only obtaining a single response per consumer per stimulus. Finally, it was found that the degree of differences between stimuli in a study influenced discrimination, which was larger when stimuli were more different (RQ4). This intuitively made sense and mirrored past research. By capturing the valence×arousal space, this questionnaire spans more broadly than most emotion word questionnaires for applied and product-focused research, and a notable feature of the obtained responses was that all were relevant (to a larger or small extent) in each of the 23 studies. The results are specific to the tested questionnaire variant and future research is needed to determine its goodness-of-fit to the underpinning circumplex model. Comparisons with existing product emotion research questionnaires are yet to be performed, as is testing of questionnaire variants.
... Extrinsic factors on the label (date, cut, price, size, and weight) were quickly noticed by participants and directly influenced their purchasing decisions (19,22,23). Price is well described as being the primary indicator for purchasing beef (6,20,22,35,38); thus, the well-known descriptors on the label were expected to be identified first. Participants were unfamiliar with the MTB descriptors used and thus were less likely to notice the terms on the label. ...
Article
Full-text available
In May 2016, labeling of certain nonintact mechanically tenderized beef (MTB) products was mandated in the United States. MTB products should be handled differently by the consumer because pathogens can be transferred from the exterior to the interior of the meat during the tenderization process. Without labeling, it is difficult to visually distinguish between some intact beef and MTB products, which is a concern because MTB products require higher internal cooking temperatures for safety. An exploratory study was conducted to understand consumer understanding of MTB products and consumer responses to the new label. Thirteen focus groups were convened in rural and urban settings across Virginia and North Carolina between December 2015 and May 2016. Sessions were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed through constant-comparison thematic analysis. Although MTB products were commonly bought, prepared, and consumed, consumer awareness of MTB products and the MTB process was limited. Generally, the label confused participants, and they did not understand the message. Specifically, terminology such as “blade tenderized” and “mechanically tenderized” were preferred over the term “needle tenderized” on labels. Once explained, many individuals wanted more information and better messaging. Through a multiprong approach, other messaging methods (e.g., in stores, through technology, and with certifications) were highly valued by consumers and may result in increased message clarity. Ultimately, the intrinsic and extrinsic properties of the beef rather than the MTB product continued to be the primary guide for purchasing and preparation. This study is the first to be conducted regarding American perceptions of MTB products. An understanding of consumer awareness of MTB products and labels is needed to develop targeted risk messaging communication tools. HIGHLIGHTS Consumer awareness of MTB products is limited. Participants prefer “blade tenderized” and “mechanically tenderized” to “needle tenderized.” Labels must be coupled with multiprong campaigns to disseminate new information.
... Medium-rare was identified as the preferred degree of doneness for beef steaks by 41% of consumers, followed by 23% preferring steaks cooked to medium ( Figure 2). Previous studies found 61 to 70% of consumers preferred beef steaks cooked to at least a medium degree of doneness (Branson et al., 1986;Schmidt et al., 2002;Reicks et al., 2011). Our study found when in a restaurant setting, 59.9% of consumers determined degree of doneness after the first cut into the steak, while 18.7% of consumers determined the degree of doneness on the first bite ( Figure 3). ...
... Medium-rare was identified as the preferred degree of doneness for beef steaks by 41% of consumers, followed by 23% preferring steaks cooked to medium (Figure 2). Previous studies found 61 to 70% of consumers preferred beef steaks cooked to at least a medium degree of doneness (Branson et al., 1986;Reicks et al., 2011). Our study found when in a restaurant setting, 59.9% of consumers determined degree of doneness after the first cut into the steak, while 18.7% of consumers determined the degree of doneness on the first bite ( Figure 3). ...
Article
Full-text available
... Van Wezemael, Verbeke, de Barcellos, Scholderer, and Perez-Cueto (2010) also reported that European consumers considered label, brand, freshness, and leanness of beef as cues to indicate quality to purchase, whereas safety in Ghana and hygiene in Rwanda were purchasing attributes in purchasing meat products (Niyonzima et al., 2017;Owusu-Sekyere, Owusu, & Jordaan, 2014). However, most of the studies on consumers' preferences for meat products focus on developed countries (Tonsor et al., 2005;Reicks et al., 2011;Schumacher, Schroeder, & Tonsor, 2012;Zimmerman et al., 2012;Hung, de Kok, & Verbeke, 2016;Shan et al., 2017). Only a few studies focus on the African 1961 1963 1965 1967 1969 1971 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 context where food quality and malnutrition remain huge challenges (Niyonzima et al., 2017;Owusu-Sekyere et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Dietary patterns for consumers among the elite and middle-income classes in developing countries are shifting rapidly toward the consumption of more animal-based products. Although this shift presents opportunities, there are significant market failures affecting their preferences and willingness to pay (WTP). This study used a multistage sample survey of 309 consumers from three different communities of Bukavu, Eastern DRC, to examine the effect of socioeconomic/socio-demographic characteristics and quality attributes on consumers’ purchasing decisions and WTP for meat products. The results suggested that about 53% of the respondents were dissatisfied with meat products in the market due to their high price, low quantity, unhealthiness, and harmful effects. Older female respondents living in urban areas were more likely to purchase meat products. Their WTP was significantly determined by attributes such as color, in-mouth texture, and availability. Nutrition, harmful effects, and availability of meat products are the important factors that influence purchasing decisions among higher income groups. Addressing these market failures could have an impact on the meat market, improving the nutrition of low-income consumers and ensuring food safety standards in DRC and other developing countries with similar challenges
... Consumers' willingness to pay has been linked to overall liking scores in previous studies (Kukowski et al., 2005;Reicks et al., 2011). Consumers have reportedly been willing to pay more as tenderness increases (Boleman et al.,1997). ...
Article
Full-text available
Our objective was to evaluate the effects of different Honduran cattle production systems, enhancement, and country of origin on palatability of the longissimus muscle aged 21 days postmortem as determined by U.S. and Honduran consumers (n=240/country). U.S.-sourced strip loins (n=10/treatment) were selected: USDA Select (SE) and Top (upper 2/3) Choice (TC). Honduran-sourced strip loins (n=10/treatment) included: 1) dual-purpose bulls, raised on native pasture (HDP), 2) F1 crossbred Brahman bulls finished on a corn-based grain diet for 180 days (HCF), and 3) purebred Brahman bulls finished on a sugar cane-based diet for 180 days (HSC). Ten additional strip loins from each Honduran treatment were selected and enhanced (E; 112% ±3.5%) with water, salt, and tripolyphosphate, resulting in EHDP, EHCF, and EHSC. Steaks were cooked to 77⁰C prior to consumer evaluation of tenderness, juiciness, and flavor and overall liking, with classification of each trait as acceptable or unacceptable. Consumers indicated if they were willing to pay 0, 3, 6 or 10 USD/0.45 kg. Consumer data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS as a split plot design, with treatment as the whole plot factor and country and the country × treatment interaction as the subplot factors, including panel as a random effect. EHCF had greater (P<0.05) scores for tenderness, juiciness, flavor and overall liking. No differences (P>0.05) were found between TC and SE when scoring palatability traits, but more (P<0.05) consumers found TC acceptable for juiciness compared to SE. Honduran consumers ranked all palatability traits greater than U.S consumers and found a greater percentage of samples acceptable for tenderness (P<0.05). Enhancement of Honduran treatments had a positive effect on palatability traits, as well as the acceptability of those traits. Regardless of the differences in breeds, using high-energy diets and enhancement resulted in greater palatability scores.
... Similar to an earlier report (Al-Qazzaz et al. 2016), BSFLM inclusion in diets of laying hens improved appearance, texture, taste, and acceptance of eggs. Meat acceptability is principally influenced by meat flavour and tenderness (Reicks et al. 2012). Robbins et al. (2003) suggested that the combination of taste and odour, as well as mouth feel and juiciness, affects flavour perception. ...
Article
Full-text available
The study was conducted with the view to determine the impact of replacing fishmeal with black soldier fly larval meal (BSFLM) on growing guinea fowls. BSFLM replaced fishmeal (3% in the control diet) in the ratios of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% to produce six dietary treatments, which were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. Two hundred and forty-eight-week old guinea fowls with mean live weight of 273.2 ± 10.9 g were tagged, weighted, and randomly assigned to 24 (6 × 4) floor pens; each pen was treated as a replicate. Feed and water were provided ad libitum during the entire period, which lasted 10 weeks. Feed consumption differed among the treatment groups (P = 0.0072) with the 100% fishmeal diets recording the lowest. Daily gain was significantly (P = 0.009) higher for birds fed high BSFLM diets compared to the control (100% fishmeal diet). The inclusion of BSFLM in the diets elicited positive linear effect on weight gains of the guinea fowls (R2 = 0.91) with increasing concentration resulting in higher live weight gains. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) also differed between treatments (P < 0.05) but similar for the 100% fishmeal (control) and 100% BSFLM diets. Organ and haematopoitic integrity were equally assured regardless of levels of the protein sources fed to the birds. Generally, meats from birds fed 60 to 100% BSFLM and from hens were more acceptable. A study to evaluate the economics of utilising BSFLM in guinea fowl production is recommended.
... The meat purchasing inclinations of consumers are influenced by meat quality characteristics and they prefer tender meat and meat products with rich taste and flavor [1]. The flavor is a complex consciousness through the combination of gustatory, olfactory and trigeminal sensations during tasting and is a dominant factor to determine the meat character and purchasing decision of the consumers [2]. ...
Article
The objective of this study was to assess the effects of ultrasonic assisted cooking on the chemical profiles of spiced beef taste and flavor. Ultrasound power with 0 W, 400 W, 600 W, 800 W and 1000 W (frequency of 20 kHz) were used for cooking 120 min. The sodium chloride, sugar, free amino acids (FAAs), 5′-ribonucleotides, lipid oxidation, volatile flavor substance contents and electronic nose of spiced beef were determined. Results showed that ultrasonic treatment could significantly increase the content of sodium chloride in beef sample (P < 0.05). When the ultrasonic power lower than 1000 W, the content of sugar and 5′-ribonucleotides could be increased significantly compared with the control (P < 0.05). The essential amino acid content and the essential amino acid/non-essential ratios (E/NE) were significantly increased with the ultrasound treatment (P < 0.05). The lipid oxidation showed that ultrasound resulted in the increased of TBARS values compared with control significantly (P < 0.05), but no significant differences were shown among the different ultrasonic power groups (P > 0.05). With the ultrasonic treatment, the types and relative content of volatile flavor substances were significantly increased (P < 0.05), especially for aldehydes, alcohols and ketones. However, there was no significant variation among the different ultrasound power groups (P > 0.05). This result was consistent with the measurement of electronic nose. Data points of control samples were away from ultrasonic treatment groups, while data points of different ultrasonic treatment groups were flock together. The results indicate that the application of ultrasound during cooking has a positive effect on chemical profiles of spiced beef taste and flavor, particularly for the power of 800 W.
... Consumers eagerly buy meat products with desirable tenderness and natural taste and odor. 3 In this respect, preferred are smoked products with a gentle salty flavor and characteristic odor of cured meat. In the case of smoked meat products, the smoky flavor may vary from mild to very strong. ...
Article
Smoked cooked loin is one of the most popular meat products in Poland. In this study, key volatile compounds in this traditional Polish meat product were determined using gas chromatography – olfactometry and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). In total, 27 odor-active volatile compounds were identified with flavor dilution factors (FD) ranging from 4 to 1024, and the highest ones noted for 2-methoxyphenol, 2-methoxy-4-(prop-2-enyl)phenol, and 2-methoxy-4-(E)-(prop-1-en-1-yl)phenol . Results of the quantitative analyses, based on determinations with stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA) and standard addition (SA), followed by calculations of the odor activity value (OAV) enabled identifying 24 of the volatile compounds responsible for flavor development in the analyzed smoked cooked loin. The highest OAVs were obtained for 2-methoxyphenol, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 1-octen-3-one, and 2-methyl-3-(methyldithio)furan.
... with increased DOD (Parrish et al., 1973;Lorenzen et al., 2005;O'Quinn et al., 2015). However, a large percentage of beef consumers prefer steaks to be cooked to at least a medium DOD (Cox et al., 1997;Reicks et al., 2011). This indicates a need for beef to maintain a high level of eating quality, even at elevated DOD. ...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of marbling level in combination with enhancement on beef palatability when strip loin steaks were cooked to 3 degrees of doneness. Consumer and trained sensory panelists evaluated strip steak palatability traits of 3 USDA quality grades: Prime, Low Choice, and Low Select. Additional strip loins from each grade were enhanced to 108% with a water, salt, and alkaline phosphate solution. Steaks from each treatment were cooked to 3 degrees of doneness (DOD; Rare: 60°C, Medium: 71°C, or Very Well-Done: 82°C). Consumer panelists rated all enhanced treatments similar ( > 0.05) for each palatability trait. Enhanced steaks had greater ( < 0.05) juiciness, tenderness, flavor liking, and overall liking ratings than all non-enhanced treatments, regardless of grade. Consumer juiciness, tenderness, and overall liking scores increased ( < 0.05) as DOD decreased. Trained sensory panelists rated all enhanced treatments similar ( > 0.05) for initial and sustained juiciness, myofibrillar tenderness, and overall tenderness and greater ( < 0.05) than all non-enhanced treatments, other than non-enhanced Prime, for the same traits. Trained sensory panel ratings increased ( < 0.05) as DOD decreased for sustained juiciness, and both myofibrillar and overall tenderness. Moreover, Warner-Bratzler shear force values were similar ( > 0.05) among all enhanced treatments, and lower ( < 0.05) than non-enhanced Low Choice and Low Select treatments. Results from this study indicate marbling level has no impact on the palatability traits of enhanced strip loin steaks. Therefore, enhancement of higher valued, high marbled cuts does not provide additional palatability benefits over low marbled cuts, as enhancement does not provide an additive effect with marbling on beef eating quality.
... Current systems in Southern Africa use age as determined by dentition and bone ossification as the primary basis for predicting beef tenderness. Consumers' willingness to pay premiums for beef with guaranteed tenderness is well documented (Verbeke et al., 2010;Reicks et al., 2011). As a result, the primary emphasis of most global carcass grading and classification systems is on guaranteeing beef of consistent tenderness in and across grades or classes. ...
Article
Southern Africa is home to over 64 million cattle, of which 75% are raised on natural pasture in smallholder farming areas. Indigenous cattle breeds Bos indicus (zebu), B. taurus africanus (Sanga type) and their crosses with B. taurus (European and British) are the most dominant. Despite their dominance, indigenous cattle breeds in smallholder farming areas are commonly marketed through informal markets, and their contribution to formal national economies is therefore limited. This is partly because the current beef carcass grading and classification systems used in the region value inappropriately carcasses from slow-maturing indigenous cattle breeds that are ideally suited to being marketed off natural pasture. The existing systems use carcass yield and quality attributes, but do not predict eating quality at consumer level. Moreover, the principal criteria used to estimate carcass yield and quality, namely age, fat cover and conformation, are assessed indirectly and subjectively. The objective of the current review is to provide an overview of beef carcass grading and classification systems in Southern Africa and analyse their shortcomings in valuing carcasses from indigenous breeds and local production systems. In addition, the review highlights opportunities for improving these systems in Southern Africa and makes suggestions towards developing a regional beef carcass classification system.
... Due to very high risk of cancer in the Western societies there is a need to decrease the exposure to carcinogenic substances also these from the diet, especially form meat. Lot of consumers prefer well done strongly heated meat and meat products like charcoal-grilled, fried or roasted at home, outdoor or in restaurants [11]. Such food is characterized by highly evaluated sensory properties, mainly taste and flavor and dark, flavorful crust formed during cooking [12,13]. However, most consumers do not realize the risk of such cooking procedures which can result in elevated formation of substances dangerous to human health [14]. ...
... Current systems in Southern Africa use age as determined by dentition and bone ossification as the primary basis for predicting beef tenderness. Consumers' willingness to pay premiums for beef with guaranteed tenderness is well documented (Verbeke et al., 2010;Reicks et al., 2011). As a result, the primary emphasis of most global carcass grading and classification systems is on guaranteeing beef of consistent tenderness in and across grades or classes. ...
Article
Southern Africa is home to over 64 million cattle, of which 75% are raised on natural pasture in smallholder farming areas. Indigenous cattle breeds Bos indicus (zebu), B. taurus africanus (Sanga type) and their crosses with B. taurus (European and British) are the most dominant. Despite their dominance, indigenous cattle breeds in smallholder farming areas are commonly marketed through informal markets, and their contribution to formal national economies is therefore limited. This is partly because the current beef carcass grading and classification systems used in the region value inappropriately carcasses from slow-growing indigenous cattle breeds that are ideally suited to being marketed off natural pasture. The existing systems use carcass yield and quality attributes, but do not predict eating quality at consumer level. Moreover, the principal criteria used to estimate carcass yield and quality, namely age, fat cover and conformation, are assessed indirectly and subjectively. The objective of the current review is to provide an overview of beef carcass grading and classification systems in Southern Africa and analyse their shortcomings in valuing carcasses from indigenous breeds and local production systems. In addition, the review highlights opportunities for improving these systems in Southern Africa and makes suggestions towards developing a regional beef carcass classification system.
... The differences between respondent nationality on BeefVal relative importance mirrors the diverse attitudes and familiarities with beef which are acknowledged to influence consumer expectations of quality (Font-i-Furnols & Guerrero, 2014;Reicks et al., 2011). It is worth noting, however, that nationality is a broad classification unit for cultural identity which in itself may be the causal factor. ...
Article
We aimed to establish colorimetric thresholds based upon the capacity for instrumental measures to predict consumer satisfaction with beef colour. A web-based survey was used to distribute standardised photographs of beef M. longissimus lumborum with known colorimetrics (L*, a*, b*, hue, chroma, ratio of reflectance at 630 nm and 580 nm, and estimated deoxymyoglobin, oxymyoglobin and metmyoglobin concentrations) for scrutiny. Consumer demographics and perceived importance of colour to beef value were also evaluated. It was found that a* provided the most simple and robust prediction of beef colour acceptability. Beef colour was considered acceptable (with 95% acceptance) when a* values were equal to or above 14.5. Demographic effects on this threshold were negligible, but consumer nationality and gender did contribute to variation in the relative importance of colour to beef value. These results provide future beef colour studies with context to interpret objective colour measures in terms of consumer acceptance and market appeal.
Article
Seafood has a very limited shelf life due to its high water activity, neutral pH and nutrient-rich content. Sous vide is a cooking method in which the product is heat-processed in a vacuum bag at precisely controlled temperatures. Sous-vide processing of seafood may provide a wide range of products with longer shelf life and easy to prepare. Thanks to vacuum packaging, recontamination, oxidation, aerobic bacterial growth, and moisture loss are prevented while desired aroma compounds are retained. On the other hand, the anaerobic conditions in the package could permit the growth of anaerobic spore-forming pathogens. This review will address the effects of sous-vide cooking on protein, lipid, vitamin, water contents, sensory and texture properties of seafood, and the possible combination of the sous-vide technique with other interventions such as irradiation, natural preservatives, High-Pressure Processing, etc.
Article
The effects of ultrasound‐assisted phosphate curing (UPC), phosphate curing (PC), and deionised water curing (DC) on the quality of chicken breast meat were investigated. The analysis of tissue sections, low‐field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF‐NMR), and headspace solid‐phase microextraction gas‐phase mass spectrometry (HS‐SPME‐GC‐MS) of water distribution, myofibrillary structure, and volatile components of the meat samples were performed to reveal the mechanism. Also, the curing rate, water holding capacity (WHC), and shear force of meat were assessed. The results revealed that ultrasonic‐assisted salting improved the meat salting rate, WHC, and tenderness by mechanically destroying the muscle fibre structure, increasing the space between the muscle fibre bundles, promoting water migration and uniform distribution, and reducing water freedom in the treated samples. In addition, HS‐SPME‐GC‐MS analysis revealed that PC significantly reduced the content of volatile flavour components in the chicken breast meat compared with DC (P < 0.05); however, the combination treatment with PC and ultrasonic curing could reconstruct the flavour loss caused by phosphate. Thus, our cumulative results suggest that the ultrasonic technology may effectively assist the processing technology in improving the quality of meat and reconstructing the flavour loss in meat products. Ultrasound‐assisted curing increase curing rate, promoting the migration and uniform distribution of meat water, destroying muscle fibre structure and reconstruct flavour loss
Article
With the continuous improvements in human diet, there is an ever-increasing demand for high-quality chicken, so it is particularly important for poultry breeders to carry out the breeding of high-quality broilers in a timely fashion. Inosine monophosphate (IMP) is a flavor-enhancing substance, which plays a critical role in the umami taste of the muscle, making the content of IMP an important umami taste indicator. Currently, research on the deposition mechanism of IMP in chicken is not only necessary for chicken breeders to promote the production of high-quality meat and poultry but also to meet the human demand for chicken meat. In this paper, the research history of IMP, its structure and taste mechanisms, the pathway and influencing factors of de novo IMP synthesis, and the key genes regulating IMP synthesis and metabolism are briefly summarized. Our aim was to lay a theoretical foundation and provide scientific background and research directions for further research on high-quality broiler breeding.
Chapter
For all of recorded history, tenderness has been an important, perhaps the most important, intrinsic character of red meat. This chapter explores the relative importance of tenderness to the array of meat consumers in the world. Although tenderness is considered by many consumers as the most important sensory characteristic of the eating experience, it has not been easily quantified objectively in real time. Thus, this chapter focuses on methods to quantify red meat tenderness. Also, tenderness of red meat is the culmination of an animal’s biological and emotional responses to events experienced by the animal during its lifetime, especially influenced by the stressful experiences. This chapter reviews the scientific literature concerning the nature of these lifetime experiences as to their influence on red meat tenderness. Thus, this text presents a forensic approach to the tenderness of red meat exploring the probable causes of that character and the exploration of production system elements that might alter the outcome in terms of tender red meat.
Article
This study was commissioned to assess if there are regional differences in the acceptability of beef between consumers from Northern Ireland (NI), Republic of Ireland (ROI) and Great Britain (GB). Palatability traits were affected by socioeconomic and behavioural factors such as preferred cooking endpoint, animal welfare, value, health aspects of beef product, ease of preparation as well as consumption frequency for specific cuts. “Willingness to pay” (WTP) was influenced by income, preferred cooking endpoint, value of beef product, ease of preparation and consumption frequency for frying steak. Results showed that GB consumers scored higher for the same striploin steak compared to NI and ROI consumers. This may be due to differences in the motivation for beef choice and/or consumption habits. GB consumers were less concerned about the healthiness of beef product and beef origin. In addition, a higher consumption frequency for rump was reported in GB, which may explain the higher sensory scores observed among GB consumers for striploins.
Article
Red meat is probably carcinogenic to humans (WHO/IARC class 2A), in part through heme iron-induced lipoperoxidation. Here, we investigated whether red meat promotes carcinogenesis in rodents and modulates associated biomarkers in volunteers, speculating that an antioxidant marinade could suppress these effects via limitation of the heme induced lipid peroxidation. We gave marinated or non-marinated beef with various degrees of cooking to azoxymethane-initiated rats, Min mice, and human volunteers (crossover study). Mucin-depleted foci were scored in rats, adenoma in Min mice. Biomarkers of lipoperoxidation were measured in the feces and urine of rats, mice, and volunteers. The organoleptic properties of marinated meat were tested. Fresh beef increased colon carcinogenesis and lipoperoxidation in rats and mice and lipoperoxidation in humans. Without an adverse organoleptic effect on meat, marinade normalized peroxidation biomarkers in rat and mouse feces, reduced peroxidation in human feces and reduced the number of Mucin-depleted foci in rats and adenoma in female Min mice. This could lead to protective strategies to decrease the colorectal cancer burden associated with red meat consumption.
Article
Full-text available
Potrošači sve više obraćaju pažnju na ishranu, kvalitet i bezbednost hranekoju konzumiraju. Do informacija o namirnicama koje kupuju mogu doći iz različitihizvora, a smatra se da u tome najbitniju ulogu imaju deklaracije. U aprilu2015. godine u Republici Srbiji je stupio na snagu novi Pravilnik o deklarisanju,označavanju i reklamiranju hrane, kojim se određuju prava i obavezesubjekta u poslovanju i štite interesi potrošača. Adekvatne deklaracije predstavljajubitan način informisanja potrošača o kvalitativnim karakteristikamanamirnica i zbog toga se njima mora posvetiti posebna pažnja. Međutim, nijedovoljno razjašnjeno koji tip informacija potrošači najviše traŽe na deklaracijama,naročito kada se govori o namirnicama animalnog porekla kao što su juneće,svinjsko i jagnjeće meso. Smatra se da su najznačajnije informacije, nakoje se najviše obraća pažnja prilikom kupovine, rok trajanja i poreklo mesa, apored njih i informacije vezane za hranljivu vrednost, zrenje mesa, kategorije,sistem proizvodnje, sledljivost i kontrolu kvaliteta mesa. U zavisnosti od togakoji tip informacija traže, od socioloških i ekonomskih faktora, šta ih motivišeda kupuju, koje karakteristike kvaliteta zahtevaju i kojim izvorima informisanjanajviše veruju, potrošači se mogu podeliti na: one kojima su najbitniji kvaliteti bezbednost namirnica
Article
Full-text available
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the contribution of tenderness, juiciness, and flavor to the overall consumer beef eating experience and to evaluate the risk of overall palatability failure due to the unacceptable level of one or more of these traits. Data from 11 previously conducted studies representing a wide range of treatments and levels of eating quality that included more than 1,500 beef samples and 1,800 consumers were compiled and analyzed for the current study. Results of a multivariate regression indicated that tenderness, flavor, and juiciness accounted for 43.4, 49.4, and 7.4%, respectively, of overall palatability (P < 0.05; R² > 0.99). Additionally, the odds of a steak being rated unacceptable overall when tenderness, juiciness, or flavor were rated unacceptable were 2.2 to 1 (69%), 1.9 to 1 (66%), and 3.3 to 1 (77%), respectively. This indicated overall palatability was 7.2, 6.5, and 12.3 times more likely to be rated unacceptable if tenderness, juiciness, or flavor, respectively, were also rated unacceptable. Additionally, the percentage of samples rated acceptable for each palatability trait increased (P < 0.05) as quality grade increased. More than 88% of USDA Prime samples were rated acceptable for each palatability trait; whereas only 74.8 – 77.3% of USDA Select samples were rated acceptable for each palatability trait. Marbling score accounted for 14 – 16% of the variation (P < 0.01) in consumer palatability scores for each trait and intramuscular fat percentage accounted for 17 – 21% of the variation in each trait (P < 0.01). Logistic equation models for the predicted probability of an acceptable rating for each palatability trait based on intramuscular fat percentage accounted for only a minimal amount of variation (P < 0.01; R² ≤ 0.09). Results of this study indicate the relative contribution of tenderness, juiciness, and flavor to overall beef palatability. They provide evidence that the failure of even a single palatability trait dramatically increases the likelihood of overall palatability failure, indicating that no single palatability trait is most important, as beef palatability is dependent upon the acceptance of all three traits; tenderness, juiciness, and flavor.
Article
The food retailers have to make their supply chains more customer-driven to sustain in modern competitive environment. It is essential for them to assimilate consumer’s perception to improve their market share. The firms usually utilise customer’s opinion in the form of structured data collected from various means such as conducting market survey, customer interviews and market research to explore the interrelationships among factors influencing consumer purchasing behaviour and associated supply chain. However, there is abundance of unstructured consumer’s opinion available on social media (Twitter). Usually, retailers struggle to employ unstructured data in above decision-making process. In this paper, firstly, by the help of literature and social media Big Data, factors influencing consumer’s beef purchasing decisions are identified. Thereafter, interrelationships between these factors are established using big data supplemented with ISM and Fuzzy MICMAC analysis. Factors are divided as per their dependence and driving power. The proposed frameworks enable to enforce decree on the intricacy of the factors. Finally, recommendations are prescribed. The proposed approach will assist retailers to design consumer centric supply chain.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the fineness of marbling and sensory evaluation in Japanese Black cattle. Two fine (A and D) and two coarse (B and C) marbling cattle with same grade (A4 : BMS 6 or 7) and by same sire were selected among 29 Japanese Black steers. The sirloin meat sample was sliced at 1mm thickness and taken the high resolution digital image by 10mm intervals. Then, the longissimus dorsi hollowed out to the round with a diameter of 6cm, and stored vacuum frozen until sensory evaluation. The averages of fat marbling percentage and new fineness index in sirloin were 46.96% and 158.93 for two fine marbling cattle, 48.29% and 127.77 for two coarse marbling cattle. The palatability score was high in the order of A, D, B C. Fine marbling beef was significantly higher palatability than the coarse marbling beef (P<0.05). However, visual ranking was opposite to the palatability ranking, therefore further investigation is required.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to explore the importance of information about country of origin and price on consumer innovativeness toward beef at food service outlets in developing markets. We construct a structural equation model (SEM) and test our hypotheses using data from direct interviews with 480 customers at beef restaurants in Vietnam. The results from the SEM indicate that consumer need for newly imported beef is the reason of further requirements of information about country of origin and price of beef. To reduce the uncertainty of the new beef brands, consumers at food services outlet demand for details of country of origin. However, the need for information about country of origin, and price consciousness depend on the eating out experiences of the customers. Expertise consumers, who can use intrinsic cues such as beef flavor, beef tenderness, and beef marbling, indicate the significant innovative attitude toward new beef brands at food service facilities.
Article
Full-text available
Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. Eight focus group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain), each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which are important for the innovation and product differentiation in the European beef sector, as well as for public health policy decisions related to meat consumption in general and beef consumption in particular.
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, the U.S. beef industry has lost a significant portion of its historically dominant market share, due both to changes in consumer preferences and to an increase in the price of beef relative to pork and poultry. Changes within the beef industry to improve its competitive position have been slow and relatively unsuccessful. Challenges faced by the industry include a fragmented marketing channel and mistrust among its many participants, lack of specificity in product quality evaluation, and a lengthy and complex production cycle. Future success in maintaining or gaining market share will depend upon the availability of timely information, including forecasts of consumer demand, and the development of incentives to encourage effective behavior by all channel entities to meet this demand. Branded products have been utilized in other sectors of the agricultural industry and have increased consumer demand while also providing production and marketing incentives to align the behavior of channel participants. Industry coordination supporting branded fresh beef products is also a viable option for the beef industry.
Article
Full-text available
A nationwide retail survey is used to estimate hedonic prices of fat characteristics in beef table cuts. Results show that consumers consistently place a negative value on external fat for all table cuts and on seam fat in chuck and round cuts, but do not consistently value intramuscular fat. These consumer preferences are not transmitted to cattle feeders through price signals, even though the current beef grading system can distinguish carcasses with undesirable fat characteristics.
Article
Full-text available
Organic farming is one of the fastest growing segments of U.S. agriculture. As consumer interest continues to gather momentum, many U.S. producers, manufacturers, distributors, and retailers are specializing in growing, processing, and marketing an ever-widening array of organic agricultural and food products. This report summarizes growth patterns in the U.S. organic sector in recent years, by market category, and describes various research, regulatory, and other ongoing programs on organic agriculture in the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Article
Full-text available
An in-home beef study evaluated consumer ratings from moderate-to-heavy beef users as influenced by cut (top loin, top sirloin, and top round steaks), USDA quality grade (Top Choice, Low Choice, High Select, and Low Select), and city (Chicago, Houston, Philadelphia, and San Francisco). Consumers (n = 2,212) evaluated each steak for overall like (OLIKE), tenderness (TEND), juiciness (JUIC), flavor desirability (DFLAV), and flavor intensity (IFLAV) using 23-point hedonic scales (23 = like extremely, extremely tender, extremely juicy, like extremely, and an extreme amount of flavor; 1 = dislike extremely, not at all tender, not at all juicy, dislike extremely, and no flavor at all). A USDA grade x cut interaction existed for OLIKE (P < .05). Consumers rated top loin steaks highest (P < .05) in OLIKE and ranked Top Choice highest of all steaks (P < .05). Within the top loin, consumers were not (P > .05) able to distinguish OLIKE differences between Low Choice and High Select or between High Select and Low Select. For OLIKE, top sirloin was rated intermediate (P < .05) of the three cuts, and consumers were not able to detect (P > .05) USDA quality grade differences. For OLIKE, top round was the lowest-rated (P < .05) cut. However, consumers preferred (OLIKE, P < .05) Top Choice to the other USDA grades offered. Grade and city interacted to affect TEND, JUIC, DFLAV, and IFLAV. The cut x city interaction was significant for all palatability attributes. Cut and city affected customer satisfaction more than USDA quality grade. Tenderness and flavor were important and equal contributors to OLIKE, r = .85 and r = .86, respectively.
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this research was to evaluate the consumer-controlled factors of cooking method and degree of doneness on Top Choice, Low Choice, High Select, and Low Select top sirloin steaks. The in-home product test was conducted in Chicago, Houston, Philadelphia, and San Francisco. Consumers (n = 2,212) evaluated each top sirloin steak for overall like (OLIKE), tenderness (TEND), juiciness (JUIC), flavor desirability (DFLAV), and flavor intensity (IFLAV) using 23-point hedonic scales. Top sirloin steaks, regardless of city, were consistently cooked to well done or higher degrees of doneness. Dry-heat methods such as outdoor grilling, broiling, and indoor grilling were the most frequent cooking methods used. Four significant interactions existed for OLIKE: USDA quality grade x cooking method (P = .02), city x cooking method (P = .0001), city x degree of doneness (P = .01), and cooking method x degree of doneness (P = .009). Greater differences were found between cooking methods within USDA quality grade than between USDA quality grades within cooking method. Consumers in Houston rated steaks cooked by outdoor grilling higher than those from the other cities, and steaks cooked by indoor grilling were rated the highest among all cooking methods by consumers in Chicago. In Chicago, steaks cooked to more advanced degrees of doneness tended to receive higher ratings, but few differences between degrees of doneness in the other three cities were detected. For outdoor grilling, broiling, and pan-frying, the trend was for OLIKE ratings to decline as degree of doneness increased. The lowest customer satisfaction ratings tended to be given to top sirloin steaks cooked to more advanced degrees of doneness, and consumers most frequently cooked steaks to at least the well done stage. Consumer information programs or the development of postmortem techniques that would ensure acceptable palatability of top sirloin steaks may need to be developed.
Article
Full-text available
An audit of supermarkets in eight U.S. cities was conducted to characterize retail beef loin steaks with respect to grade, postfabrication aging, and tenderness and to provide an interim measure of progress in industry efforts to improve retail beef tenderness. Top sirloin steaks (n = 819) and strip loin steaks (n = 827 paired steaks) were purchased at retail markets in Atlanta, Chicago, Denver, Houston, Philadelphia, Phoenix, San Francisco, and Seattle and shipped to Colorado State University for measurement of shear force (both cut types) and evaluation by a trained sensory panel (strip loins only). Approximately 80% of the steaks originated from beef plants in Kansas, Texas, Nebraska, and Colorado. Postfabrication aging periods ranged from 2 to 87 d (mean = 20.8 d) for top sirloin steaks and from 2 to 91 d (mean = 19.2 d) for strip loin steaks, although most top sirloin (85%) and strip loin (91%) steaks were available for purchase 7 to 35 d after fabrication. The mix of quality grades was similar for both cuts: 60% Select, 31% "commodity" Choice, 6 to 7% "Certified" Choice, and 2 to 3% Prime. Shear force averaged 3.46 kg (SD = .74) for top sirloins and 3.05 kg (SD = .95) for strip loins; 75% of both steak types had shear force values between 2 and 4 kg. Postfabrication periods shorter than 7 d were associated with reduced (P < .05) tenderness, especially for top sirloin steaks. Higher quality grades were associated with greater (P < .05) tenderness (Prime > Choice > Select) for both cuts. Based on panel tenderness ratings, the approximate odds of obtaining a "slightly tough" or tougher strip loin steak at a retail supermarket were: 0 for Prime, 1 in 10 for "Certified" Choice, 1 in 5 for "commodity" Choice, and 1 in 4 for Select. Audit results suggest that tenderness characteristics of loin steaks have not changed materially since the National Beef Tenderness Survey was conducted in 1991 and that two primary focal points of the beef industry's efforts to improve tenderness should be 1) to prevent short-aged (< 7 d postfabrication) product from reaching consumers and 2) to identify methods for enhancing tenderness of Select and "commodity" Choice beef.
Article
Full-text available
In the present study, a national consumer evaluation was conducted for beef tenderness on USDA Select strip loin steaks of known Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force values, ranging from tough (> 5.7 kg) to tender (< 3.0 kg), and to assess the monetary value that consumers place on tenderness by determining the average price a consumer would pay for a steak in three tenderness categories. Three supermarkets in each of five metropolitan areas (Baltimore, MD/Washington D.C.; Chicago, IL; Dallas/Fort Worth, TX; Los Angeles, CA; and Lubbock, TX) were selected to represent a wide range of income, education, and ethnicity at each city. Five trained research teams traveled to the cities to collect data during the same 10-d period. Consumers (n = 734; minimum of 15 consumers/panel, three panels/store, three stores/city, five cities) were asked to evaluate samples from each tenderness classification (tender, intermediate, or tough) for overall and tenderness acceptability, overall quality, beef flavor, juiciness, tenderness, how much they would pay for the steak ($17.14, 14.28, or 10.98/kg), if they would pay more than current market price if guaranteed tender, and to estimate the number of meals in a 2-wk period that included beef. The consumers were 52% light beef users, consuming 0 to 8 meals containing beef in 2 wk, 41% heavy beef users (greater than 12 meals/2 wk), and 6% moderate beef users (9 to 12 meals/2 wk). Consumer tenderness acceptability increased as WBS values decreased (P < 0.05). The transition in consumer perception from tender to tough beef occurred between 4.3 and 4.9 kg of WBS based on > or = 86% consumer acceptability. Consumer acceptability for tenderness decreased from 86% at 4.3 kg for a "slightly tender" rating to 59% at 4.9 kg for a "slightly tough" rating. Data from the present study suggested that consumer WBS tenderness values of < 3.0, 3.4, 4.0, 4.3, and > 4.9 kg would result in 100, 99, 94, 86, and 25% customer satisfaction for beef tenderness, respectively. Seventy-eight percent of the consumers would purchase steaks if the retailer guaranteed them to be tender. The retail steak value differences found in this study would result in the opportunity for a premium to be paid for a guaranteed tender (< 3.0 kg WBS value) carcass of $76.26 vs the toughest (> 5.7 kg) classification. A premium of $66.96 could be paid to the tender classification carcasses vs the tough (> 4.9 kg) classification carcasses, and a premium of $36.58 could be paid for the tender classification carcasses vs the intermediate (> 3.0 to < 4.6 kg) classification carcasses. Results from the present study show that consumers can segregate differences in beef tenderness and that consumers are willing to pay more for more-tender beef.
Article
Full-text available
One hundred thirty-eight consumers evaluated steaks from the complexus (CX), infraspinatus (IF), serratus ventralis (SV), supraspinatus (SS), and triceps brachii (TB) from the wholesale beef chuck; the deep pectoral (DP) from the wholesale brisket; and the longissimus thoracis (LT) from the wholesale rib. The LT was used as a reference for comparison to the other muscles. Ten USDA Choice and ten USDA Select boneless boxed beef subprimals were used for each muscle. Subprimals were aged 14 d from box date, frozen, and cut into 2.5-cm-thick steaks. Consumers rated the IF highest (P < 0.05) for overall like, tenderness, juiciness, and flavor, and assigned it the highest (P < 0.05) price/0.45 kg. The TB also was rated higher (P < 0.05) than the LT for overall like, tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and price/0.45 kg. The SV and CX were rated as being similar (P < 0.05) to the LT for overall like, tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and price/0.45 kg. Consumers rated the SS lower (P < 0.05) than the LT for tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and price. The DP was rated as the toughest, driest, and blandest (P < 0.05), resulting in assignment of the lowest (P < 0.05) price/0.45 kg. Differences in palatability ratings due to quality grade were found for several muscles; USDA Choice SV and SS were rated higher (P < 0.05) for overall like, tenderness, and juiciness than USDA Select SV and SS. For the IF, USDA Choice was rated higher (P < 0.05) for tenderness and juiciness than USDA Select. The USDA Choice TB was rated higher (P < 0.05) for juiciness, and the USDA Choice DP was rated higher (P < 0.05) for overall like, than their USDA Select counterparts. Tenderness, juiciness, and flavor ratings were correlated with overall like ratings (r = 0.84, 0.77, and 0.76, respectively) and with price (r = 0.73, 0.70, and 0.68, respectively). These results indicate the IF, TB, SV, and CX were acceptable, whereas and the SS and DP were unacceptable as steaks.
Article
Full-text available
An in-home beef study evaluated consumer ratings of top round steaks (semimembranosus) as influenced by USDA quality grade (top Choice or high Select), city (Chicago or Philadelphia), consumer segment (beef loyalists = heavy consumers of beef; budget rotators = cost-driven and split meat consumption between beef and chicken; and variety rotators = higher incomes and education and split meat consumption among beef, poultry, and other foods), degree of doneness, cooking method, and marination. Consumers evaluated each steak for overall like, tenderness, juiciness, flavor like, and flavor amount using 10-point scales (1 = dislike extremely, not at all tender, not at all juicy, dislike extremely, and none at all to 10 = like extremely, extremely tender, extremely juicy, like extremely, and an extreme amount of flavor, respectively). Quality grade affected several consumer sensory traits, with top Choice receiving higher (P < or = 0.004) tenderness, juiciness, and flavor like scores than high Select. Consumers in Chicago rated steaks cooked "medium and less" higher for overall like, tenderness, juiciness, flavor like, and flavor amount than those in Philadelphia (city x degree of doneness; P < or = 0.020). Steaks braised by customers in Philadelphia received among the highest scores for overall like, tenderness, juiciness, flavor like, and flavor amount compared with any cooking method used by customers in Chicago (cooking method x city; P < or = 0.026). Overall like and flavor amount ratings were least (P < 0.05) for steaks that were marinated and cooked to "medium and less" degree of doneness (marination x degree of doneness; P < or = 0.014). Braised steaks received among the highest values for overall like, tenderness, juiciness, flavor like, and flavor amount when cooked to "medium and less" or "medium well and more" (cooking method x degree of doneness; P < or = 0.008). Correlation and stepwise regression analysis indicated that flavor like was pivotal in customers' satisfaction with top round steaks, and was the sensory trait most highly correlated to overall like, followed by tenderness, flavor amount, and juiciness. Preparation of top round steaks was crucial in consumers' likes and dislikes, and by improving flavor, higher consumer satisfaction may be achieved.
Article
One hundred thirty-eight consumers evaluated steaks from the complexus (CX), infraspinatus (IF), serratus ventralis (SV), supraspinatus (SS), and triceps brachii (TB) from the wholesale beef chuck; the deep pectoral (DP) from the wholesale brisket; and the longissimus thoracis (LT) from the wholesale rib. The LT was used as a reference for comparison to the other muscles. Ten USDA Choice and ten USDA Select boneless boxed beef subprimals were used for each muscle. Subprimals were aged 14 d from box date, frozen, and cut into 2.5-cm-thick steaks. Consumers rated the IF highest (P < 0.05) for overall like, tenderness, juiciness, and flavor, and assigned it the highest (P < 0.05) price/0.45 kg. The TB also was rated higher (P < 0.05) than the LT for overall like, tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and price/0.45 kg. The SV and CX were rated as being similar (P < 0.05) to the LT for overall like, tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and price/0.45 kg. Consumers rated the SS lower (P < 0.05) than the LT for tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and price. The DP was rated as the toughest, driest, and blandest (P < 0.05), resulting in assignment of the lowest (P < 0.05) price/0.45 kg. Differences in palatability ratings due to quality grade were found for several muscles; USDA Choice SV and SS were rated higher (P < 0.05) for overall like, tenderness, and juiciness than USDA Select SV and SS. For the IF, USDA Choice was rated higher (P < 0.05) for tenderness and juiciness than USDA Select. The USDA Choice TB was rated higher (P < 0.05) for juiciness, and the USDA Choice DP was rated higher (P < 0.05) for overall like, than their USDA Select counterparts. Tenderness, juiciness, and flavor ratings were correlated with overall like ratings (r = 0.84, 0.77, and 0.76, respectively) and with price (r = 0.73, 0.70, and 0.68, respectively). These results indicate the IF, TB, SV, and CX were acceptable, whereas and the SS and DP were unacceptable as steaks.
Article
Using the food-related lifestyle model as a conceptual framework, one possible trend each is discussed for the following four components of food-related lifestyle: quality aspects, ways of shopping, cooking methods, and purchase motives. These trends refer to the increasing use of extrinsic cues in quality perception, shopping fast and easy vs. shopping in specialized outlets, the role of convenience and meat avoidance in cooking, and the role of concerns about the meat production process in purchasing. Indicators for each of these trends are discussed.
Article
Consumers in San Francisco, California and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA were asked to purchase, in simulated retail markets, beef retail cuts of different grades, Choice versus Select (equivalent to Good), or of different trim levels, Regular Trim (no more than 13 mm of external fat; Philadelphia only), Extra Trim (no more than 8 mm of external fat) or Super Trim (no external fat), all priced at Parity or Premium (Parity plus 10%) prices. Consumers in Philadelphia purchased significantly more Extra Trim and Super Trim steaks and roasts than Regular Trim. At the time of purchase, consumers in both cities could not detect the visual differences in Choice versus Select, but upon eating them found that Choice cuts were better tasting, but also fatter, and that Select cuts were leaner, but had problems with taste and texture. Both Choice and Select were rated high for consumer acceptance, but for different reasons, taste for Choice, leanness for Select.
Article
The objective of this study was to identify perceived characteristics of beef which impact quality perception. Results indicate that concerns with beef related to cholesterol and calorie content, artificial ingredients, convenience characteristics, how it is displayed in the store, and expense each significantly adversely affected quality perception. © 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Article
Consumer selection of sirloin steaks was influenced by their eating quality, their nominal price and labelling. Without knowledge of the eating quality, higher priced steaks, of similar appearance and intrinsic qualities to lower priced steaks, were preferred by about one third of consumers. The proportion increased when the steaks were labelled with the qualities: `Charolais and Tender' and slightly when labelled `Tender' and only marginally when labelled `Charolais'. After tasting the steaks, most consumers chose the most tender, even when more expensive. Re-inforcing their assessments of tenderness with the quality labels, further increased the proportion of tender, high-priced steaks chosen. Knowledge of the eating quality of steaks was therefore more important than price which was more important than quality labels in determining choice of steaks.
Article
The objective of this research was to evaluate the consumer controlled factors of cooking method and degree of doneness on top loin steaks from different USDA quality grades (Low Choice, High Select or Low Select) and breed-types (English, Continental European Cross or Brahman Cross). In addition, cities within the same region were evaluated for differences in consumer controlled factors and palatability responses. The in-home product test was conducted in Dallas and San Antonio, Texas, USA. Consumers (n=173) evaluated steaks for overall like (OSAT), tenderness (TEND), juiciness (JUIC), and flavor (FLAV) using 23-point hedonic scales. Respondents in Dallas cooked their steaks to higher degrees of doneness than did those in San Antonio. Outdoor grilling was the most frequently used method of cookery for steaks in both cities. Generally, consumers in San Antonio gave higher palatability ratings to Choice steaks and Dallas consumers gave higher ratings to Select steaks. The interactions of city×cooking method, breed-type×cooking method, and degree of doneness×cooking method were significant for all palatability attributes. In addition, the interaction of cooking method×quality grade was significant for TEND, JUIC, and FLAV. Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force was determined on a steak from each strip loin. Steaks from Continental European Cross cattle and Low Choice carcasses had the lowest WBS values. Differences in consumer preparation of beef top loin steaks present very unique challenges for the beef industry. Consumer information programs may serve a valuable role in connecting consumer perceptions with the preparation techniques needed to consistently achieve satisfaction.
Article
The topics discussed in this paper are the changing demand for meat and the factors that influence this demand. These factors include increased health concerns, change in demographics, the need for convenience, changes in the distribution of meat, and price. Finally, the paper covers the meat industry's need for understanding the consumer and the measurement methods used to assess consumer preferences.
Article
The objective of this study was to evaluate consumer quality characteristics of enhanced steaks and roasts derived from cattle supplemented with vitamin E during finishing, and to assess the attitudes of these consumers towards beef. Twelve steers were fed either a control (E-) diet or a diet supplemented with dl-alpha tocopheryl acetate (E+). Paired strip loins and rounds were either used as controls (C) or were pumped (P) to 110% of raw weight to contain 0.4% sodium chloride and 0.4% sodium tripolyphosphate in the final product. Consumers (n=103) evaluated roasts and steaks for juiciness, tenderness, saltiness, and overall acceptability on a 9-point hedonic scale. Enhanced steaks and roasts were more acceptable than non-enhanced controls; E+ steaks were less acceptable than E- steaks. A beef quality questionnaire revealed that color, price, visible fat and cut were the most important factors underlying beef steak purchase, while tenderness, flavor and juiciness were weighted most heavily with regard to eating satisfaction.
Article
Demand is driven by conventional market forces over much of the world among consumers with strong positive attitudes to meat as a nutritious, tasty and premium food; price in relation to income, availability, quality (including leanness) and relevance to life-style remain the dominant forces operating. But in the developed world, there are emerging concerns about how meat is produced, which are likely to have negative effects on demand, particularly that of the current younger generation, and which may well begin to affect Government policies towards the meat industry. The industry needs to establish strong information and education programmes, but also to examine its procedures to provide greater consumer assurance about practises and controls. Also the scientists and technologists serving the industry need to help it move towards sustainable lower input, less environmentally damaging systems, less reliance on drugs, stimulants and additives, sensitive exploitation of the new genetics and with more consideration for the animals involved.
Article
Increased consumer health concerns over ingestion of animal fats have spawned consumer research regarding effects of different degrees of leanness (marbling levels) on consumer demand. Previous research is reviewed and a recent multi-city consumer panel test is reported. Implications of the multi-city results are discussed from the viewpoint of applicability of normative consumer behavior demand theory, and implications of the findings for beef marketing structure and strategies. Suggestions for consumer panel research designs are also implied. Expert laboratory, consumer laboratory, and household panels were employed.
Article
This study provides an empirical investigation of how consumers rate meat attributes. Results show an importance order for 12 selected meat attributes and reveal some relationships between the importance ratings and consumer's demographic or socioeconomic characteristics. The findings suggest that (1) the meat marketing strategy should focus on freshness, taste, and appearance; (2) nutritional attributes have become important factors in the meat purchasing decision of female, educated, and married consumers; (3) older, married, low-income, or non-white consumers still remain price conscious; and (4) USDA label has become an important symbol of meat quality and safety to older, female, Baptist, and high-income consumers.
Article
Previous research on the relationship between diet and health has increased consumer interest in the nutritional content of specific foods. Federal programs, such as the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and The Food Pyramid, have had similar impacts. A 1994 mail survey of 3,080 Louisiana households in eight rural and urban parishes examined consumer awareness of the nutritional labeling of fresh meats and its importance. Rural respondents placed more emphasis on nutritional labeling than did urban respondents. The respondents also ranked three descriptive terms (lean, extra lean and low fat) for fat content as defined by the USDA. Eighteen percent of households ranked them correctly with white households displaying better ranking capability. These results tend to justify an earlier decision by Congress to implement legislation covering the nutritional labeling of fresh meats.
Article
Consumer perceptions of the importance of nutritional labeling of fresh meats and knowledge of nutritional terms have been presented in the Journal of Food Distribution Research (Piedra, et al 1995). This article presents follow up information on consumer reported uses of nutritional labels on packaged meats and the specific nutrients that the consumers check for on packaged meats. The results indicate that consumers use nutrition labels to check for desirable dietary components and to compare nutrient content among meats as well as to check for the presence of undesirable dietary components in packaged meats.
Article
To determine the average tenderness and sensory ratings of beef subprimal cuts sold in retail cases across the United States, retail cuts were purchased through typical retail outlets in 14 metropolitan cities and transported to Texas A&M University for sensory and Warner-Bratzler shear analysis. The overall mean shear force for all cuts was 3.65 kg, and the mean shear force values for chuck, rib, loin, and round cuts were 3.72, 3.36, 3.17, and 4.31 kg, respectively. No difference (P greater than .05) in tenderness was detected among the cuts from the rib. Mean palatability ratings and shear force values of top loin steaks were similar to those of rib cuts. Top sirloin steaks were tougher (P less than .05) and received the lowest sensory ratings compared with other loin cuts. Approximately two to three times as many round and chuck steaks had shear force values in excess of 4.6 kg compared with their roast counterparts. In all cases, roasts tended to be more tender than steaks from the same subprimal source. USDA Choice chuck retail cuts, compared to Select and No-roll chuck cuts, had approximately 10% fewer cuts with shear force values in excess of 4.0 kg. More work is needed to improve meat tenderness, primarily for retail cuts from the round and chuck primals. Future research must investigate the interaction of antemortem and postmortem factors associated with variation in beef tenderness.
Article
Fifty-six retail stores representing 15 retail chains and 14 foodservice facilities in eight U.S. cities were sampled to determine the tenderness of beef steaks at retail and foodservice levels based on Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) values and consumer evaluation panels. Retail consumer panels were conducted at five universities. Each retail and foodservice steak was evaluated using 10-point scales. Steaks were divided into the following quality groups for statistical analysis: Prime, Top Choice, Choice, Select, and Lean or No Roll. Quality group had no effect on WBS values of retail clod, chuck roll, top round, bottom round, eye of round, top loin, top sirloin, or ribeye steaks but did (P < .05) affect values for the T-bone/porterhouse. The percentages of retail top round, eye of round, and bottom round steaks with a WBS force > 3.9 kg were 39.6, 55.9, and 68.0, respectively. Foodservice ribeye, top loin, and top sirloin steaks had WBS values less than 3.4 kg for all quality groups, with Prime ribeye steaks having lower (P < .05) WBS values than ribeyes from the other quality groups. With the exception of the retail ribeye steak, quality group did not affect consumer sensory ratings of retail and foodservice steaks. Average postfabrication aging times were 32 d for foodservice subprimals and 19 d for retail cut subprimals. These data indicate that improvements in the tenderness of retail cuts from the round are needed. Finally, quality group had little or no effect on consumer sensory evaluations and WBS values of retail and foodservice steaks used in this study.
Article
In-home consumer steak evaluations, followed by centralized laboratory-setting auctions, were used to determine consumer (n = 74 consumers) acceptability and willingness to pay for various beef chuck muscles. The infraspinatus (IF), serratus ventralis (SV), supraspinatus (SS), and triceps brachii (TB) from the beef chuck were evaluated against LM steaks from the rib to determine price and trait differentials. Muscles from USDA Choice, boneless, boxed-beef sub-primals were aged 14 d, frozen, and cut into 2.5-cm-thick steaks. Consumers received two steaks from each muscle for in-home evaluations of uncooked steak appearance and cooked steak palatability. After in-home evaluation of steaks, consumers participated in a random nth price auction session to determine willingness to pay for those steaks. Muscles differed (P < 0.05) for overall like of appearance, like of size, like of shape, and like of leanness; LM generally rated the highest. Steaks from the LM rated highest (P < 0.05) for overall like, and steaks from the SS and SV were lowest (P < 0.05) for overall like. Juiciness and beef flavor intensity scores were highest (P < 0.05) for steaks from the LM and IF, whereas SS steaks received the lowest (P < 0.05) juiciness scores, and SS and SV steaks were rated lowest (P < 0.05) for beef flavor intensity. Average auction price differentials differed (P < 0.05) from the LM, and were -0.71 dollars, -0.79 dollars, -1.75 dollars, and -2.44 dollars/0.45 kg for the TB, IF, SS, and SV, respectively. Average appearance trait differentials and average palatability trait differentials were correlated significantly with average price differentials. Results indicate the IF and TB were acceptable to consumers as steaks but only at prices lower than the LM.
Article
The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether instructions can help consumers properly prepare top sirloin steaks and to evaluate the use of calcium chloride injection to decrease the sensitivity of top sirloin steaks to degree of doneness, thereby improving customer satisfaction ratings. An in-home study evaluated top sirloin steaks (gluteus medius) as influenced by calcium chloride injection (injected vs. noninjected), consumer segment (beef loyalists = heavy consumers of beef, budget rotators = cost-driven and split meat consumption between beef and chicken, and variety rotators = higher incomes and education and split meat consumption among beef, poultry, and other foods), degree of doneness, cooking method, and instructions (given vs. not given). Consumers evaluated overall like, tenderness, juiciness, flavor like, and flavor amount using 10-point scales. Beef loyalists consistently rated steaks higher for overall like, juiciness, and flavor when instructions were provided (P < 0.05) and rated top sirloin steaks higher for overall like and tenderness when given instructions for grilling (P < 0.05). Budget rotators and variety rotators rated steaks differently among cooking methods (P < 0.05). Correlation and stepwise regression analyses indicated that flavor like was the most highly correlated with overall like, followed by tenderness, flavor amount, and juiciness. Calcium chloride injection had no effect on consumers' likes or dislikes or on tenderness (P < 0.05). For top sirloin steaks, it was likely that preparation played a major role in consumer satisfaction, and beef loyalists benefited the most from providing cooking instructions.
Consumer demands: major problems facing industry in a consumer-driven society An empirical investigation of importance ratings of meat attributes by Lousiana and Texas consumers
  • G Harrington
  • J Hui
  • P E Mclean-Meyinsse
  • D Jones
Harrington, G. (1994). Consumer demands: major problems facing industry in a consumer-driven society. Meat Science, 36, 5−18. Hui, J., McLean-Meyinsse, P. E., & Jones, D. (1995). An empirical investigation of importance ratings of meat attributes by Lousiana and Texas consumers. Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, 27, 636−643.
Marketing implications from the National Consumer Beef Study National Beef Tenderness Survey-1998 Recent growth patterns in the U.S. organic food market
  • R E Branson
  • H R Cross
  • J W Savell
  • G C Smith
  • R A Edwards
  • J C Brooks
  • J B Belew
  • D B Griffin
  • B L Gwartney
  • D S Hale
  • W R Henning
Branson, R. E., Cross, H. R., Savell, J. W., Smith, G. C., & Edwards, R. A. (1986). Marketing implications from the National Consumer Beef Study. Western Journal of Agricultural Economics, 11, 82−91. Brooks, J. C., Belew, J. B., Griffin, D. B., Gwartney, B. L., Hale, D. S., Henning, W. R., et al. (2000). National Beef Tenderness Survey-1998. Journal of Animal Science, 78, 1852−1860. Dimitri, C., & Greene, C. (2002). Recent growth patterns in the U.S. organic food market. Washington, DC: United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Market and Trade Economics Division and Resource Economics Division Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 777, 1–39.
Beef customer satisfaction: cooking method and degree of doneness effects on top loin steak Interrelationships of breed type, USDA quality grade, cooking method, and degree of doneness on consumer evaluations of beef in Dallas and The effects of perceived product attributes on the perception of beef
  • C L Lorenzen
  • T R Neely
  • R K Miller
  • J D Tatum
  • J W Wise
  • J F Taylor
Lorenzen, C. L., Neely, T. R., Miller, R. K., Tatum, J. D., Wise, J. W., Taylor, J. F., et al. (1999). Beef customer satisfaction: cooking method and degree of doneness effects on top loin steak. Journal of Animal Science, 77, 637−644. McKenna, D. R., Lorenzen, C. L., Pollok, K. D., Morgan, W. W., Mies, W. L., Harris, J. J., et al. (2004). Interrelationships of breed type, USDA quality grade, cooking method, and degree of doneness on consumer evaluations of beef in Dallas and San Antonio, Texas, USA. Meat Science, 66, 399−406. Menkhaus, D., Colin, D., Whipple, G., & Field, R. (1993). The effects of perceived product attributes on the perception of beef. Agribusiness: An International Journal, 9, 57−63. A.L. Reicks et al. / Meat Science 87 (2011) 403–411
Beef quality: will consumers pay for less fat Food Standards and Labeling Policy Book Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness: results froma qualitative study in four European countries The beef industry in transition: Current status and strategic options
  • L J Unnevehr
  • S M D Bard
  • J Scholderer
  • F Perez-Cueto
National consumer retail beef study: Interaction of trim level, price and grade on consumer acceptance of beef steaks and roasts. Journal of Food Quality, 12, 251−274. U.S. Census Bureau. United States Census 2000. http://www.census.gov/main/www/ cen2000.html. Accessed January 4, 2006. Unnevehr, L. J., & Bard, S. (1993). Beef quality: will consumers pay for less fat? Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 18, 288−295. USDA (2006). Food Standards and Labeling Policy Book. Washington, DC: Food Safety and Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Van Wezemael, L., Verbeke, W., de Barcellos, M. D., Scholderer, J., & Perez-Cueto, F. (2010). Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness: results froma qualitative study in four European countries. BioMed Central Public Health, 10, 342−351. Wachenheim, C. J., & Singley, R. (1999). The beef industry in transition: Current status and strategic options. Journal of Agribusiness, 17, 49−62.
Executive Summary: 2009 U.S. Families' Organic Attitudes and Beliefs Study
Organic Trade Association (2009). Executive Summary: 2009 U.S. Families' Organic Attitudes and Beliefs Study. Greenfield, MA: Organic Trade Association.
  • A L Reicks
A.L. Reicks et al. / Meat Science 87 (2011) 403–411
Organic Trade Association Organic Trade Association's 2010 Organic Industry Survey http://www.ota.com/bookstore/14 Household perceptions of nutritional labeling of meats
Organic Trade Association. (2010). Organic Trade Association's 2010 Organic Industry Survey http://www.ota.com/bookstore/14.html Piedra, M. A., Schupp, A., & Montgomery, D. (1995). Household perceptions of nutritional labeling of meats. Journal of Food Distribution Research, 26, 54−60.
Food Standards and Labeling Policy Book: Food Safety and Inspection Service
USDA (2006). Food Standards and Labeling Policy Book. Washington, DC: Food Safety and Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture.
United States Census
  • U S Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau. United States Census 2000. http://www.census.gov/main/www/ cen2000.html. Accessed January 4, 2006.
Organic Trade Association's 2010 Organic Industry Survey
Organic Trade Association. (2010). Organic Trade Association's 2010 Organic Industry Survey http://www.ota.com/bookstore/14.html