Peer Reviewed: Workers’ Health Risk Behaviors by State, Demographic Characteristics, and Health Insurance Status

University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
Preventing chronic disease (Impact Factor: 2.12). 01/2011; 8(1):A12.
Source: PubMed


Employers often lack data about their workers' health risk behaviors. We analyzed state-level prevalence data among workers for 4 common health risk behaviors: obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, and missed influenza vaccination (among workers older than 50 years).
We analyzed 2007 and 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data, restricting the sample to employed respondents aged 18 to 64 years. We stratified health risk behavior prevalence by annual household income, educational attainment, health insurance status, and race/ethnicity.
For all 4 health risk behaviors, we found significant differences across states and significant disparities related to social determinants of health - income, education, and race/ethnicity. Among uninsured workers, prevalence of smoking was high and influenza vaccinations were lacking.
In this national survey study, we found that workers' health risk behaviors vary substantially by state and by workers' socioeconomic status, insurance status, and race/ethnicity. Employers and workplace health promotion practitioners can use the prevalence tables presented in this article to inform their workplace health promotion programs.

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Available from: Peggy A Hannon, Sep 01, 2014
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    • "Through Healthy People 2010, the CDC recommended that at least 75% of workplaces should offer a comprehensive workplace health promotion program [58]. In this sense, there is evidence supporting the fact that the integration of programs promoting lifestyle modifications in the workplace enhances the effectiveness of these programs [59], with these effects going beyond the work place and exerting a positive influence on family environment [60], [61]. Furthermore, several studies have tested the efficiency of different interventions in the workplace in workers with MetS, showing, among other results, improvements in insulin resistance metabolic-related parameters [62] and adoption of healthier lifestyles [63]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a complex disorder defined as a cluster of interconnected risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and high blood glucose levels. Premorbid metabolic syndrome (PMetS) is defined by excluding patients with previously diagnosed cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus from those suffering MetS. We aimed to determine the prevalence of PMetS in a working population, and to analyse the relationship between the diagnostic criteria of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII). The relationship between the presence of PMetS and cardiovascular risk factors was also analysed. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 24,529 male and 18,736 female Spanish (white western European) adult workers (20-65 years) randomly selected during their work health periodic examinations. Anthropometrics, blood pressure and serum parameters were measured. The presence of MetS and PMetS was ascertained using ATPIII and IDF criteria. Cardiovascular risk was determined using the Framingham-REGICOR equation. The results showed MetS had an adjusted global prevalence of 12.39% using ATPIII criteria and 16.46% using IDF criteria. The prevalence of PMetS was slightly lower (11.21% using ATPIII criteria and 14.72% using IDF criteria). Prevalence in males was always higher than in females. Participants with PMetS displayed higher values of BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose and triglycerides, and lower HDL-cholesterol levels. Logistic regression models reported lower PMetS risk for females, non-obese subjects, non-smokers and younger participants. Cardiovascular risk determined with Framingham-REGICOR was higher in participants with PMetS. PMetS could be a reliable tool for the early identification of apparently healthy individuals who have a significant risk for developing cardiovascular events and type 2 diabetes.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Other studies have tried to identify determinants of seasonal influenza vaccination [13], but few have focused on identifying social determinants within a framework of health equity [14] or their focus has been in other age groups [15]. Social determinants of health (SDH) play a critical role in disease occurrence, distribution, and consequences. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Vaccination against influenza is considered the most important public health intervention to prevent unnecessary hospitalizations and premature deaths related to influenza in the elderly, though there are significant inequities among global influenza vaccine resources, capacities, and policies. The objective of this study was to assess the social determinants of health preventing adults ≥65 years old from accessing and accepting seasonal influenza vaccination. Methods A systematic search was performed in January 2011 using MEDLINE, ISI – Web of Science, PsycINFO, and CINAHL (1980–2011). Reference lists of articles were also examined. Selection criteria included qualitative and quantitative studies written in English that examined social determinants of and barriers against seasonal influenza vaccination among adults≥65 years. Two authors performed the quality assessment and data extraction. Thematic analysis was the main approach for joint synthesis, using identification and juxtaposition of themes associated with vaccination. Results Overall, 58 studies were analyzed. Structural social determinants such as age, gender, marital status, education, ethnicity, socio-economic status, social and cultural values, as well as intermediary determinants including housing-place of residence, behavioral beliefs, social influences, previous vaccine experiences, perceived susceptibility, sources of information, and perceived health status influenced seasonal influenza vaccination. Healthcare system related factors including accessibility, affordability, knowledge and attitudes about vaccination, and physicians’ advice were also important determinants of vaccination. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the ability of adults ≥65 years to receive seasonal influenza vaccine is influenced by structural, intermediate, and healthcare-related social determinants which have an impact at the health system, provider, and individual levels.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · BMC Public Health
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    ABSTRACT: To the Editor: Adult vaccination rates are low (1), and workplaces are a useful location for increasing vaccination (2). In 2008, only 41% of US workers 50-64 years of age reported vaccination against influenza virus (3). Workplace vaccination is common and increases with employer size (4). Among adults, the workplace is the most common site for influenza vaccination for persons 18-49 years of age and second most common for persons 50-64 years (2). Offering vaccination in the workplace increases vaccination coverage (5).
    Preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Emerging Infectious Diseases
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