Electroconvulsive Therapy in the Treatment of Delirious Mania A Report of 2 Patients

Department of Psychiatry, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, India.
The journal of ECT (Impact Factor: 1.39). 12/2010; 26(4):278-9. DOI: 10.1097/YCT.0b013e3181da848f
Source: PubMed


Delirious mania also known as Bell mania is a syndrome of excitement, delirium, and psychosis, of acute onset. We report 2 patients who presented with acute onset of disorientation, aggressive behavior, double incontinence, grandiose ideas, and auditory hallucinations. Results of investigations to rule out organic etiology such as computed tomographic scan of brain, cerebrospinal fluid examination, and biochemical parameters were normal. Creatine kinase levels were only moderately elevated. A provisional diagnosis of delirious mania was made, and patients were empirically started on electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) session. Delirium resolved by the second ECT session, unmasking manic symptoms, and recovered completely at the end of sixth ECT session. Prophylactic lithium was started, and both patients continue to be in remission after 1 year. Differential diagnosis of the above clinical presentation includes neuroleptic malignant syndrome and malignant catatonia. Delirious mania is clinically important owing to the potential for diagnostic confusion and good response to ECTs.

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    • "ECT is the treatment of choice for catatonia, regardless of the etiology. Catatonic signs are observed in a few cases of mania [23]. Fink [12] argued that it is of limited clinical value to differentiate malignant catatonia, excited catatonia, delirious mania, rapid cycling mania, and mania with psychotic features, since ECT is remarkably effective in relieving each of these syndromes [23,24]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Little is known about the cause and psychopathology of delirious mania, a type of disorder where delirium and mania occur at the same time. This condition still has no formal diagnostic classification. To provide more information about this potentially life-threatening condition, we studied five patients with delirious mania. Methods We describe the cases of five patients with delirious mania admitted to an acute inpatient psychiatric unit between January 2005 and January 2007, and discuss the cases in the context of a selective review of the clinical literature describing the clinical features and treatment of delirious mania. Results Two patients had two episodes of delirious mania. Delirium usually resolved faster than mania though not always the case. Delirious mania remitted within seven sessions of the electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Conclusions Delirious mania is a potentially life-threatening but under-recognized neuropsychiatric syndrome. Delirious mania that is ineffectively treated may induce a new-onset manic episode or worsen an ongoing manic episode, and the patient will need prolonged hospitalization. Delirious mania also has a close relationship with catatonia. Early recognition and aggressive treatment, especially with electroconvulsive therapy, can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · BMC Psychiatry
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    Preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Delirious mania (DM) as a clinical entity is well described, yet is often unrecognized in clinical practice. While most often misdiagnosed as acute psychotic episodes of organic delirium, these patients meet the criteria for mania with attendant delirium and pose therapeutic challenges. In addition to the case presentation, this paper also discusses the available literature on DM. Case Presentation. A 29-year-old man with DM was treated with a combination of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), divalproex 2000 mg/day, loxapine 100 mg/day, and lorazepam 4 mg/day. He demonstrated clinically significant improvement by day 10, which persisted through the twelve-month follow-up period. Conclusions. DM is a severe psychiatric syndrome which should be accurately diagnosed. Patients with DM should be treated aggressively, especially with ECT. Lack of recognition of DM can lead to serious morbidity or fatal outcomes. Though the concept of DM is well established, recent psychiatric literature does not make a mention of this life threatening yet treatable condition. We propose that there is a dire need to keep this concept alive.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012
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