ArticleLiterature Review

Psychological Flexibility as a Fundamental Aspect of Health

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Abstract

Traditionally, positive emotions and thoughts, strengths, and the satisfaction of basic psychological needs for belonging, competence, and autonomy have been seen as the cornerstones of psychological health. Without disputing their importance, these foci fail to capture many of the fluctuating, conflicting forces that are readily apparent when people navigate the environment and social world. In this paper, we review literature to offer evidence for the prominence of psychological flexibility in understanding psychological health. Thus far, the importance of psychological flexibility has been obscured by the isolation and disconnection of research conducted on this topic. Psychological flexibility spans a wide range of human abilities to: recognize and adapt to various situational demands; shift mindsets or behavioral repertoires when these strategies compromise personal or social functioning; maintain balance among important life domains; and be aware, open, and committed to behaviors that are congruent with deeply held values. In many forms of psychopathology, these flexibility processes are absent. In hopes of creating a more coherent understanding, we synthesize work in emotion regulation, mindfulness and acceptance, social and personality psychology, and neuropsychology. Basic research findings provide insight into the nature, correlates, and consequences of psychological flexibility and applied research provides details on promising interventions. Throughout, we emphasize dynamic approaches that might capture this fluid construct in the real-world.

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... With a growing literature on the subject, psychological flexibility is conceptualized as an essential dimension of mental health through adaptative behavior (Dionne et al., 2013;Kashdan & Rottenberg, 2010). Psychological flexibility seems to be one of the key characteristics of the human being, in order to allow him to adapt to constraints, both external (environment) and internal (psychological dispositions) (Clément, 2006;Hollenstein et al., 2013). ...
... Although the literature highlights the important role of psychological flexibility in various psychopathologies, from anxiety disorder to depression and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), the notion of psychological flexibility lacks conceptual clarity and measurement possibilities, with a frequent opposition between cognitive (neuropsychological) and psychological (clinical) flexibility, which makes the therapeutic potential of such a notion difficult to exploit (Kashdan & Rottenberg, 2010;Whiting et al., 2014;2015a, 2015bCherry et al., 2021;Thompson et al., 2022). The definition and measurement of this concept is in full development and its names are subject to controversy. ...
... Moreover, the notion of psychological flexibility seems to be conceptualized differently by several authors, between neuropsychology and therapeutic or clinical approach, with various names (Hayes et al., 2004;Kashdan & Rottenberg, 2010;Muraven & Baumeister, 2000;Posner & Rothbart, 1998). This proliferation of terminologies is not without accentuating the difficulty of conceptualization and theoretical convergence. ...
Article
Psychological flexibility is a key process in mental health, both in a psychopathological approach and from a quality of life and well-being perspective. The notion seems to suffer from a conceptual vagueness with multiple definitions, stemming from different conceptual propositions, with a frequent opposition between a “neuropsychological” approach or assessment and a “clinical and therapeutical” approach. The objective of this article is to propose a theoretical review of the literature, aiming at understanding the notion of psychological flexibility according to the different approaches. To do so, we propose a presentation of the notions, as well as perspectives to improve actual assessment, especially in its ecological aspects. Finally, we wish to underline the relevance of a convergence of measures by reflecting on the limits of current tools and proposing mixed ecological protocols between “objective” and “subjective” measures in a perspective of mutual enrichment, both theoretical and clinical.
... The specific professional conditions encountered by crisis managers may contribute to the development of coping-skills and psychophysiological stress-resistance, in the context of which flexibility may play an important role. Psychological flexibility refers to an individual´s ability to efficiently adapt to changing situational demands, to adjust mental and behavioral resources to suit current requirements and to cope with negative emotions and burdensome experiences (Rozanski & Kubzansky, 2005;Kashdan & Rottenberg, 2010). While inflexibility has been implicated in various psychopathological conditions, a high degree of flexibility may mitigate against the deleterious effects of stress, thereby promoting health and wellbeing (Bonanno et al., 2004;Rozanski & Kubzansky, 2005;Kashdan & Rottenberg, 2010). ...
... Psychological flexibility refers to an individual´s ability to efficiently adapt to changing situational demands, to adjust mental and behavioral resources to suit current requirements and to cope with negative emotions and burdensome experiences (Rozanski & Kubzansky, 2005;Kashdan & Rottenberg, 2010). While inflexibility has been implicated in various psychopathological conditions, a high degree of flexibility may mitigate against the deleterious effects of stress, thereby promoting health and wellbeing (Bonanno et al., 2004;Rozanski & Kubzansky, 2005;Kashdan & Rottenberg, 2010). The working conditions of crisis managers involve rapid switching between regular management duties and extremely demanding disaster relief operations, which requires sudden activation of mental and physical resources followed by a quick return to the initial state. ...
... As mentioned in the Introduction section, psychological flexibility may furthermore contribute to improved stressresistance in crisis managers. Their working conditions, involving significant but time-limited stressor exposure and longer phases of moderate strain, may foster greater flexibility in behavioral, cognitive and energetic adjustments, thereby conferring health benefits (Kashdan & Rottenberg, 2010). In terms of ''stress inoculation'', confrontation with intermittent, strong stressors may furthermore promote psychophysiological toughness and resilience (Dienstbier, 1989). ...
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Directing disaster operations represents a major professional challenge. Despite its importance to health and professional performance, research on stress in crisis management remains scarce. The present study aimed to investigate self-reported stress and psychophysiological stress responses in crisis managers. For this purpose, 30 crisis managers were compared with 30 managers from other disciplines, in terms of self-reported stress, health status and psychophysiological reactivity to crisis-related and non-specific visual and acoustic aversive stimuli and cognitive challenge. Crisis managers reported lower stress levels, a more positive strain-recuperation-balance, greater social resources, reduced physical symptoms, as well as more physical exercise and less alcohol consumption. They exhibited diminished electrodermal and heart rate responses to crisis-related and non-specific stressors. The results indicate reduced stress and physical complaints, diminished psychophysiological stress reactivity, and a healthier life-style in crisis managers. Improved stress resistance may limit vulnerability to stress-related performance decline and facilitate preparedness for major incidents.
... Psychological flexibility refers to an individual's ability to adapt to different situations, change their perspective when necessary, and balance their needs and desires. In other words, psychological flexibility is the ability to connect with the present moment to activate behavioral patterns that support the individual and act in line with their values (Kashdan & Rottenberg, 2010;Yıldız, 2021b). Given the array of physical and mental challenges that may arise due to climate change (e.g., zoonoses and food-, water-, and vector-borne diseases, domestic abuse, depression, and trauma-related symptoms), the need for approaches that target the transdiagnostic processes associated with various mental health outcomes has become more important than ever. ...
... Therefore, examining psychological flexibility in the context of stress brought about by climate change may have remarkable implications for future interventions. Given the literature presenting the positive effects of interventions targeting psychological flexibility on mental health(Harris, 2019;Hayes et al., 2011;Kashdan & Rottenberg, 2010;Yıldız, 2021aYıldız, , 2021b, mental health professionals may integrate the psychological flexibility model into prevention and response services programs to promote mental health and well-being during and/or after disasters. ...
... Per the EPM theory, this study rationalised that a measure of flexible emotion regulation would reflect flexibility in beliefs. While ER flexibility is theoretically understood to be an important regulatory process, its measurement has been heterogeneous due to variability in its definition Kashdan & Rottenberg, 2010). Psychological flexibility (a similar yet distinct construct to emotion regulation flexibility) includes the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-2; Bond et al., 2011;e.g., "I worry about not being able to control my worries and feelings") and the Psychological Flexibility Questionnaire (PFQ; Ben-Itzhak et al., 2014; e.g., "I feel ready to accept future changes"). ...
... The present study's findings have important implications for the clinical interventions of CBT and ACT. Our results are consistent with theory suggesting that while beliefs matter, flexibly shifting beliefs (or flexibly adopting more than one core belief), even when these beliefs appear to be divergent, is an adaptive emotion regulation strategy (Ford & Gross, 2018Kashdan & Rottenberg, 2010). Consequently, there may be therapeutic benefits in identifying an individual with high levels of both control and acceptance beliefs and adopting an intervention (or interventions) that values both the need to control (i.e., CBT) and the need to accept (i.e., ACT). ...
Article
Objective: The process model of emotion regulation posits beliefs about emotions inform regulation processes, affecting mental-health outcomes. Beliefs that emotions can be controlled (i.e., control beliefs, underpinning traditional Cognitive Behaviour Therapy) and accepted (i.e., acceptance beliefs, underpinning Acceptance and Commitment Therapy), though seemingly opposing, are both associated with lower psychological distress. This study tested the hypothesis that emotion regulation flexibility (i.e., using and applying a range of regulation strategies at the right times) may mediate the relationship between these beliefs and distress. Method: 177 participants (87.6% female, Mage = 42.7) completed the 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, the Emotion Belief Questionnaire-General Controllability Composite, and two measures developed for this study: the Emotion Belief Questionnaire-Acceptance Variant and Emotion Regulation Flexibility Questionnaire. Results: Emotion regulation flexibility mediated the relationship between control and acceptance beliefs and distress, such that stronger control and acceptance beliefs were associated with lower distress via higher emotion regulation flexibility. Conclusions: Our results are consistent with theorising that both control and acceptance beliefs are useful for mental health; these beliefs may inform usage of control or acceptance based emotion regulation strategies, which may reduce distress levels if applied flexibly. These findings are discussed regarding corresponding therapeutic interventions
... A substantial body of evidence supports that psychological flexibility is a protective factor associated with adaptive responses to distress and positive mental health outcomes across different contexts [11][12][13]. By allowing people to engage in meaningful challenges, while following personal self-concepts and important life domains, psychological flexibility could have the potential to promote well-being and increase the adherence to a healthy lifestyle. ...
... The same relations did not emerge in those who received the ACT+TAU intervention, in which the link between initial psychological distress (specifically depression and stress) and emotional eating at the end of the intervention is not maintained. Again, such results may reflect the action of improved psychological flexibility that is considered a fundamental aspect of health [11] able to produce long-standing behavioral change, as in the case of healthy eating behaviors by increasing commitment to value-driven behaviors, by strengthening a willing, open, and accepting attitude of experiencing psychological events, and by improving the awareness of one's internal and external experiences. ...
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The study shows preliminary results of “The ACTyourCHANGE in Teens” project, a Randomized Controlled Trial aimed at evaluating the efficacy of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy-based intervention combined with treatment as usual (ACT+TAU) compared to TAU only, for improving psychological well-being, psychological distress, experiential avoidance and fusion, emotion dysregulation, and emotional eating in a sample of 34 in-patient adolescents with obesity (Body Mass Index > 97th centile). Mixed between-within 2 × 2 repeated-measures analyses of variances (ANOVAs) were carried out to examine the changes in psychological conditions of participants over time. Moderation analyses were also conducted to test whether pre-test anxiety, depression, stress, and experiential avoidance and fusion predicted emotional eating at post-test with groups (ACT+TAU vs. TAU only) as moderators. Only a significant interaction effect (time × group) from pre- to post-test (p = 0.031) and a significant main effect of time on anxiety (p < 0.001) and emotional eating (p = 0.010) were found. Only in the TAU only group were higher levels of depression (p = 0.0011), stress (p = 0.0012), and experiential avoidance and fusion (p = 0.0282) at pre-test significantly associated with higher emotional eating at post-test. Although future replication and improvements of the study may allow us to obtain more consistent results, this preliminary evidence is actually promising.
... Early suggestions and investigation on the mental health and psychological aspects of individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic highlight the importance of enhancing psychological resilience and other factors related to well-being (Barton et al., 2020;Dębski et al., 2021;Deniz, 2021;Kubo et al., 2021;Masuyama et al., 2021;Satici et al., 2020;Schnell and Krampe, 2020;Totosy de Zepetnek et al., 2021;Vinkers et al., 2020;Wu et al., 2021aWu et al., , 2021b. Furthermore, psychological flexibility (Kashdan and Rottenberg, 2010), which is closely related to psychological resilience has also been found to contribute to maintaining mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic Pakenham et al., 2020). ...
... In the future, psychological intervention programs that increase sense of control and self-compassion may help to maintain the mental health of people worldwide during the ongoing pandemic (e.g., Ferrari et al., 2019;Msetfi et al., 2016). For example, acceptance and commitment therapy (Hayes et al., 2006;Shepherd et al., 2022) is one approach for enhancing psychological flexibility (Kashdan and Rottenberg, 2010;Landi et al., 2020;Pakenham et al., 2020), which is closely related to psychological resilience. This study has several limitations. ...
Article
Background The current study examined how psychological resilience acted as a buffer against mental health deterioration during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We conducted an online survey in four countries (Japan, Malaysia, China, and the U.S.) to examine how psychological resilience functions toward the maintenance of mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods We collected data from 1583 citizens from four countries via an online survey between October 14 and November 2, 2020. We gathered demographic data and measured mental distress (depression, anxiety, and stress) and fear of COVID-19. Data on sense of control, ego-resilience, grit, self-compassion, and resilience indicators were also collected. Results Sense of control was negatively associated with mental distress in all four countries. Self-compassion was negatively associated with mental distress in the samples from Japan, China, and the U.S. We also found an interaction effect for sense of control: the lower the sense of control, the stronger the deterioration of mental distress when the fear of COVID-19 was high. Limitations This study's cross-sectional design precludes causal inferences. Further, lack of data from people who were actually infected with the virus limits comparisons of people who were and were not infected. Finally, as this study only compared data from four countries, comparisons with more countries are needed. Conclusions A sense of control and self-compassion may help buffer against mental health deterioration during the COVID-19 pandemic. Sense of control was consistently associated with mental health across cultures.
... ACTing in an act Manner act has a remarkable evidence base: at the time of writing, over 400 randomized controlled trials and a considerable number of meta-analyses demonstrated its efficacy and effectiveness in treating a wide variety of psychological problems, generally at least on a par with other state-of-the-art psychotherapies (Hayes, Strosahl & Wilson 2012, Hayes 2019, Gloster et al. 2020). The central claim in act is that "psychological rigidity is a root cause of human suffering and maladaptive functioning" (Hayes et al. 2012: 64) and, conversely, psychological flexibility is the hallmark of mental health (Kashdan & Rottenberg 2010). The following is worth quoting at length: ...
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Parallels between the ancient Hellenistic philosophies of the Stoics and Epicureans, on the one hand, and modern cognitive psychotherapy, on the other, are well known and a topic of current discussion. The present article argues that there are also important parallels between Pyrrhonism, the third of the major Hellenistic philosophies, and the currently state-of-the-art "3rd wave" cognitive-behavioral therapies in general, and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (act) in particular. This provides a crucial insight into Pyrrhonism: understanding Sextus' term adoxastos using the technical act term 'defusion' illuminates the psychological condition of the Pyrrhonist and explains why the apraxia objection against Pyrrhonism is misguided.
... The K10 is validated, and normative data are available for Australia69 . The K10 scores are categorised as low(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15), moderate(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21), high(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29), and very high (30-50) psychological distress70 . The K10 showed excellent generalisable reliability (McDonald's ω = 0.94, 95% CI [0.94, 0.95]). ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to an increase in psychological distress. However, protective factors such as social support, psychological flexibility, and coping mechanisms can help individuals cope with the effects of psychological distress. This study aimed to test a recent hypothesis suggesting that psychological flexibility is not necessarily a coping strategy but a mechanism that can influence the coping strategies an individual employs during stressful events. We tested a mediation model that COVID-19 concerns would contribute to higher levels of perceived social support, which would directly increase psychological flexibility, and finally test if the effect of psychological flexibility on distress was mediated by approach and avoidant coping strategies. The results show that social support facilitates higher levels of psychological flexibility. Further, that psychological flexibility indirectly reduces psychological distress by reducing avoidant coping and increasing approach coping strategies. Within the context of COVID-19, we have shown the importance of social support and psychological flexibility for reducing distress. We have provided further evidence that psychological flexibility might not be a coping mechanism but a strategy that leads individuals to engage in more approach coping strategies and fewer avoidant coping strategies.
... Relying on a fixed set of strategies, even if these are considered adaptive, may be insufficient given the scale, pace, and unpredictability of COVID-19 (Chen & Bonanno, 2020). Instead, it seems crucial to maintain psychological flexibility, i.e. the ability to pay attention to changing situational demands and effectively respond to them (Dawson & Golijani-Moghaddam, 2020;Kashdan & Rottenberg, 2010). Being flexible by combining emotional, cognitive, and behavioural strategies could be particularly relevant for maintaining mental health (Eisenbeck et al., 2022). ...
Article
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Background: The complex system of stressors related to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected the global population, provoking a broad range of psychological reactions. Although numerous studies have investigated the mental health impact of COVID-19, qualitative research and cross-country comparisons are still rare. Objective: This qualitative study aimed to explore self-perceived challenges and opportunities related to COVID-19 across six European countries. The overall objective was to provide a differentiated picture of individual subjective experiences in the early stages of the pandemic. Method: The present study included 7309 participants from Austria, Croatia, Georgia, Greece, Poland, and Portugal. We performed qualitative content analysis according to Mayring analyse open-ended questions regarding stressful events, positive and negative aspects of the pandemic, and recommendations to cope with the pandemic situation. MAXQDA software was used for data management and analysis. Results: Participants' accounts were moderately consistent across the countries. The most prominent themes regarding stressful and negative pandemic aspects included: Restrictions and changes in daily life, Emotional distress, and Work and finances. Answers about positive pandemic consequences were mainly centred around the themes Reflection and growth, Opportunity for meaningful/enjoyable activities, and Benefits on interpersonal level. Key themes identified from participants' recommendations to cope with the pandemic included Beneficial behavioural adjustment, Beneficial cognitive-emotional strategies, and Social support. Conclusions: Participants experienced various challenges, but also shared several positive pandemic consequences and recommendations to cope with the pandemic. These first-hand data could inform mental health practices to promote well-being during COVID-19 and similar global challenges in the participating countries and possibly beyond. Highlights: We examined COVID-19-related experiences in 7309 adults from six European countries.Besides challenges, participants identified many positive pandemic consequences.Participants' recommendations to cope with COVID-19 included behavioural and cognitive-emotional strategies.
... It is fostered by six ACT processes: (1) acceptanceopenness to experience, (2) cognitive defusion -observing thoughts rather than taking them literally, (3) present moment awareness -mindfulness, (4) self as context -contact with a sense of self that is continuous and provides flexible perspective taking, (5) values -freely chosen personally meaningful life directions, (6) committed action -values-guided effective action [31]. Each process has been shown to be related to better mental health, lower risk of disease, better health outcomes for those already diagnosed with illness [29,[31][32][33][34]. Psychological flexibility plays a key role in promoting resilience [35]. Furthermore, psychological flexibility processes have been shown to mediate the beneficial effects of resilience training in PwMS [30]. ...
Article
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Introduction REsilience and Activities for every DaY (READY) is an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy-based group resilience-training program that has preliminary empirical support in promoting quality of life and other psychosocial outcomes in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Consistent with the Medical Research Council framework for developing and evaluating complex interventions, we conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT), followed by a phase III RCT. The present paper describes the phase III RCT protocol. Methods and analysis This is a multi-centre cluster RCT comparing READY with a group relaxation program (1:1 ratio) in 240 PwMS from eight centres in Italy (trial registration: isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN67194859). Both interventions are composed of 7 weekly sessions plus a booster session five weeks later. Resilience (primary outcome), mood, health-related quality of life, well-being and psychological flexibility will be assessed at baseline, after the booster session, and at three and six month follow-ups. If face-to-face group meetings are interrupted because of COVID-19 related-issues, participants will be invited to complete their intervention via teleconferencing. Relevant COVID-19 information will be collected and the COVID-19 Peritraumatic Distress scale will be administered (ancillary study) at baseline and 3-month follow-up. Analysis will be by intention-to-treat to show superiority of READY over relaxation. Longitudinal changes will be compared between the two arms using repeated-measures, hierarchical generalized linear mixed models. Conclusion It is expected that his study will contribute to the body of evidence on the efficacy and effectiveness of READY by comparing it with an active group intervention in frontline MS rehabilitation and clinical settings. Results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and at other relevant conferences.
... Also, social support plays an important role in happiness (Moeini, Barati, Farhadian, & Ara, 2020). Thus far, the importance of psychological flexibility for happiness has also been mentioned in literature (Kashdan, & Rottenberg, 2010). However, how the counselor characteristics in their session process effects on their subjective happiness is absent. ...
Article
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Although evidence exists for individuals who are much happier in their lives and then easily adapt to their career in their vocational development, little is known about how much their characteristics moderate this relationship. The main aim of this study was to assess the moderating role of effective counsellor characteristics in the relationship between subjective happiness and career adaptability. More specially, the subjective well-being perspective explained by integrating into career adaptability. The participants were 448 [259 women and 189 men; (Mean=1.42, (SD=.49)] counselors from different parts of Turkey and North Cyprus. Data collected by using the Effective Counselor Characteristics Assessment Scale, Subjective Happiness Scale and Career Adaptability Scale. The research illustrated that subjective happiness of counselors has a positive and significant association with career adaptability; accounting for 61 % of the variance and establishing the moderating roles of effective counselor characteristics in the subjective happiness and career adaptability relationships. Specialized counselor education programs should consider and cover in the curriculum the subjective happiness of counselors and effective counselor characteristics for career adaptability.
... The person turns out to be able to see opportunities that a stressful situation opens up, thereby paving the way for self-change. Such coping is recognized as one of the most successful methods for ensuring well-being [77]. ...
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During the COVID-19 pandemic, uncertainty, threat to life, and repeated lockdowns have significantly undermined people’s psychological well-being. In such situations, the basic needs for self-determination (SDT) are disrupted—autonomy, connectedness, and competence—but it is the resulting dissatisfaction that actualizes a search for strategies to cope with the problem. The objective of this article is to critically review the literature on various ways that people are coping with specific experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic and their relationship to basic needs to maintain sustainability. We searched on the Web of Science CC database for relevant studies (2020–2021) and their systematization from the standpoint of Self-Determination Theory (SDT). This showed the dynamics of coping methods, reflecting a transition from confusion when confronted with stress, to the selection of effective strategies, confirming that when basic needs are blocked for a long time, people begin to search for a way to satisfy them. We present three levels of grouped coping methods: (1) physiological, (2) behavioral, and (3) cognitive, demonstrating their interrelationship with orientation (to oneself or to the context), assessment (a threat or a challenge), and basic psychological needs. The proposed model opens up prospects for creating effective coping and training programs for sustainable development of the individual in crisis situations.
... Psychological flexibility, a fundamental aspect of health (18), is the central construction of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) proposed by Hayes et al. (19). Psychological flexibility is defined as an individual's "ability to contact with the present environment and internal psychological activities, to persist or change in behavior when doing so serves valued ends, and to tolerate, accept, or overcome interference (19). ...
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Background Mental health problems has become a major public health issue among medical students. Self-esteem and psychological flexibility were important associated factors for mental health, but their relations have not been discussed in medical students. The present study aimed to assess the status of mental health problems among medical students and identified whether psychological flexibility had a mediating role in the effects of self-esteem on the top three most common psychological symptoms. Methods A total of 810 undergraduate students from 18 classes comprised in the sample. Nine dimensions of psychological symptoms was assessed by the Symptom Checklist-90-revised (SCL-90-R). Self-esteem was measured by the Self-esteem Scale (SES) and psychological flexibility was evaluated by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire 2nd Edition (AAQ-II) and Cognitive Fusion Questionnaire (CFQ-F). Univariate analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to determine the relationship among the top three common psychological symptoms, self-esteem, psychological flexibility, and participants' characteristics. The mediating effect of psychological flexibility between self-esteem and psychological symptoms was detected by bootstrap method. Results 57.8% of the medical undergraduate students reported positive at least one of the nine psychological symptom dimensions assessed by the SCL-90-R and 13.8% of students had moderate or more severe symptoms. The symptoms of obsessive-compulsiveness, interpersonal sensitivity, and depression were the three most common psychological symptoms among the medical students. Meanwhile, self-esteem and psychological flexibility were negatively associated to the symptoms of obsessive-compulsiveness, interpersonal sensitivity, and depression. And, almost 50% effects of self-esteem on these three symptoms in medical students exert indirect effects through psychological flexibility. Conclusions Psychological distress was quite common in the Chinese medical students. The three most common psychological symptoms were successively obsessive-compulsiveness, interpersonal sensitivity, and depression. Low self-esteem and psychological inflexibility might be the risk factors for these top three symptoms, and psychological flexibility might play a mediating role in the effects of self-esteem on these psychological symptoms.
... This would explain unexpected positive correlations between hyperactivating, deactivating, and adaptive ER strategies in this study. Research suggests that the ability to shift flexibly between different ER strategies and do what is more appropriate to the context is the norm in healthy populations, but this flexibility is often absent in clinical groups (Kashdan & Rottenberg, 2010). Trait and state ER did not correlate with one another in this study, suggesting that trait ER does not determine the use of state ER strategies; this supports the notion that people, especially those in healthy populations, are able to regulate emotions flexibly, based on the situation/context. ...
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Objectives: Paranoia describes unfounded interpersonal threat beliefs. Secure attachment imagery attenuates paranoia, but limited research examines mechanisms of change and no studies examine how secure imagery may be implemented most effectively in clinical practice. In this study, we tested: (a) the causal impact of secure, anxious, and avoidant attachment imagery on paranoia and anxiety, (b) whether emotion regulation strategies mediate these relationships, and (c) whether secure imagery buffers against social stress. Design: We utilized a longitudinal, experimental design. Method: A general population sample with high non-clinical paranoia (N = 265) completed measures of paranoia, anxiety, and emotion regulation strategies. Participants were randomly allocated to secure, anxious, or avoidant conditions and repeated an imagery prime for four days prior to a social stress task. Results: Relative to anxious and avoidant imagery, secure imagery decreased state paranoia and anxiety. These associations were not mediated by state emotion regulation strategies, and secure imagery did not buffer against stress. Exploratory analyses on trait variables revealed that: (a) hyperactivating strategies mediated the association between attachment anxiety and paranoia, and (b) suppression mediated the association between attachment avoidance and paranoia. Conclusions: Secure attachment imagery reduces state paranoia and anxiety and could be incorporated into psychotherapies to attenuate clinical paranoia. Measurement of state emotion regulation was problematic. Attachment imagery does not buffer stress; further research is required to test whether secure imagery facilitates recovery from stress. Attachment style is likely to account for trait paranoia via attachment-congruent emotion regulation strategies. Research is now needed to determine if these strategies can be targeted to alleviate paranoia in clinical populations.
... Results from numerous field and laboratory studies show that higher PF is associated with a wide range of beneficial psychosocial outcomes in community (e.g., Gloster, Meyer, & Lieb, 2017;Stabbe et al., 2019) and clinical samples (e.g., Brandon et al., 2020;Kashdan & Rottenberg, 2010). Most prior research has focused on global PF or psychological inflexibility, however recent improvements in the measurement of PF have enabled a greater focus on the role of each of the six subprocesses in coping with distress. ...
Article
Elevated psychosocial distress, pain and existential dread are prevalent among those living with a palliative illness with consequential negative impacts on quality of life (QoL). Psychological flexibility (PF) is a protective factor related to better psychosocial outcomes in various adverse health contexts. This study tests the applicability of the PF framework in accounting for variability in four palliative patient outcomes (death attitudes, distress, pain and QoL) and the stability of these variables over one month. Fifty-four palliative patients and 21 of their carers completed a questionnaire at Time 1 and one month later (Time 2). Informal carers provided proxy ratings of the patient's QoL. Results indicated no change in PF or patient outcomes, and that higher Time 1 total PF significantly predicted better Time 2 outcomes across QoL, distress, and death attitudes. The acceptance PF dimension evidenced the strongest beneficial associations, whereas unexpectedly the values-based action PF dimension predicted higher death escape attitudes, and the mindfulness PF dimension failed to predict any outcome, although at the bivariate level it was related to better outcomes across QoL, death attitudes and distress. Unexpectedly, the values-based action PF dimension was correlated with worse pain outcomes. Overall, these findings support the role of PF in improving palliative patient outcomes, and prior calls for the evaluation of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), which targets PF, in palliative care. The unexpected findings regarding the two PF dimensions of mindfulness and values-based action, suggest that these PF processes need further investigation and require fine tuning in ACT interventions to ensure sensitivity to the palliative care context. These findings are currently being utilised to inform the development and evaluation of a self-help ACT resource for palliative patients.
... In addition to the importance of sudden-gains, and phase transitions, these more subtle and ephemeral cycles of openness and re-integration observed here may be of great importance for understanding the general process by which therapy is successful across different clinicians, patients, and specific approaches. Successful psychotherapy may rely intrinsically on the complementary processes of flexibility and integration (Kashdan & Rottenberg, 2010;Pincus, 2009Pincus, , 2015Pincus, , 2016. The present results show that successful therapies had stronger stability over time as well as more cycles of increasing and decreasing stability and flexibility of process variables: hence, both of our hypotheses are confirmed. ...
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Ten good outcome and ten poor outcome psychotherapy cases were compared to investigate whether or not the temporal stability and flexibility of their process variables can predict their outcomes. Each participant was monitored daily using the Therapy Process Questionnaire (TPQ), which has 43 items and seven sub-scales, and responses over time were analyzed in terms of correlation robustness and correlation variability across the TPQ sub-scales. “Correlation robustness” and “correlation variability” are two basic characteristics of any correlation matrix: the first is calculated as the sum of the absolute values of Pearson correlation coefficients, the second as the standard deviation of Pearson correlation coefficients. The results demonstrated that the patients within the poor outcome group had lower values on both variables, suggesting lower stability and flexibility. Furthermore, a higher number of cycles of increase and decrease in correlation robustness and variability of the TPQ sub-scales was observed within good outcome psychotherapies, suggesting that, these cycles can be considered as process-markers of good-outcomes. These results provide support for the validity of these quantitative process-parameters, correlation robustness and variability, in predicting psychotherapeutic outcomes. Moreover, the results lend support to the common clinical experience of alternating periods of flexibility and integration being beneficial to good psychotherapeutic processes.
... Rather than training people to hold a positive cognitive style, research on the role of psychological flexibility in emotional well-being (Fonseca et al., 2020;Wersebe et al., 2018) suggests that it may be more adaptive to train people to be flexible in the inferences they make (Perlman & Mor, 2022). As people face dynamic environments, their ability to modify their reactions to fit ever-changing external demands or internal states, determines their ability to cope and maintain psychological health (Kashdan & Rottenberg, 2010). Although recent work has argued that inflexibility is a prominent vulnerability factor for depression Stange et al., 2017), examinations of the causal role of cognitive inflexibility in depression, and training procedures designed to promote flexibility, are missing. ...
Article
This research examines the effects of a cognitive bias modification procedure for facilitating inferential flexibility, on inferences, mood, and state rumination. Participants were presented with training scenarios, followed by two consecutive inferences for each scenario. In the training condition, participants repeatedly practiced shifting from a negative inference to a positive one. But in the control condition, the two inferences were of the same valence and no shifting occurred. The training successfully promoted the intended inferential shift on new scenarios (d = 0.72). Moreover, trained participants shifted away more readily from negative inferences for a future negative personal event (d = 1) and generated less negative inferences for this event (d = 0.61). As expected, the trained inferential shift improved mood and reduced state rumination. We discuss the potential to minimize adverse effects of negative inferences by shifting away from them to more positive inferences.
... Second, perceiving life as psychologically rich could be a way to cope with the infection. This would resonate with previous studies on happinessmindfulness (e.g., Carreno et al., 2021), meaning-centered coping (e.g., Polizzi et al., 2020;Lin, 2021;Eisenbeck et al., 2022), and psychological flexibility (e.g., Kashdan and Rottenberg, 2010;Arslan et al., 2020;Arslan and Allen, 2021), which have found that people who deliberately impose meaning into the experience, or redefine it as adding some kind of value to life, are more resilient to the negative effects of the pandemic. ...
Article
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This paper draws from the recent literature on psychological richness of life (PRL), conceptualized as a third dimension of a good life which would be particularly desirable when happiness or meaning in life cannot be satisfactory attained, to investigate whether recovering from a COVID infection could be associated with PRL. We hypothesize that people who have recovered from being infected by the virus rate their PRL higher than those who have not been infected. Two cross-sectional studies ( n = 937, and n = 1,012) support the hypothesis, and also found that people who recovered from a COVID infection were less prone to want to delete the pandemic time period from their life line and reported lower levels of death anxiety. The findings have implications for coping both on a societal and individual level, by changing perspectives and valuing the richness of positive as well as negative experiences, as well as counteracting repetitiveness and tedium and stimulating new experiences and reflection. The findings also have implications for future research on well-being, which could be informed by expanding the perspective from living well to a life well-lived, and future research on PRL and coping in terms of investigating causalities and interaction effects.
... Nonetheless, the flexible and adaptive choice from a repertoire 19 of regulation strategies has been scarcely investigated so far [12]. Some empirical and theoretical 20 work has highlighted the importance of flexibility in strategy use [2,13,14] and assumes that the 21 regulatory process ideally results in an optimal level of emotion dynamics in order to produce 22 appropriate responses and therefore a healthy adaptation to the demands of the environment [2, 23 13, 15]. 24 Flexibility not only refers to the use of regulatory strategies from different categories (e.g. 25 antecedent-focused vs. response-focused strategies). ...
Preprint
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Stressful situations and psychopathology symptoms (e.g., depression and anxiety) shape how individuals regulate and respond to others’ emotions. However, how emotional expressions influence mental health and impact intrapersonal and interpersonal experiences is still unclear. Here, we used the Flexible Regulation of Emotional Expression (FREE) scale to explore the relationship between emotion expression abilities with affective symptoms and mental health markers. We firstly validate a German version of the FREE scale on 351 participants located in Germany, recruited through an online platform. Following, we performed confirmatory factor analyses to assess the model structure of the FREE-scale. We then utilize a LASSO regression to determine which indicators of psychopathology symptoms and mental health are related to emotional expressive regulation and determine their particular interactions through the general linear model. We replicated the FREE scale’s four latent factors (i.e. ability to enhance and suppress positive as well as negative emotional expressions). After selection of relevant instruments through LASSO regression, the suppress ability showed specific negative associations with depression (r=.2) and stress symptoms (r=.16) and positive associations with readiness to confront distressing situations (r=.25), self-support (r=.2) and tolerance of emotions (r=.2). Both, emotional expression enhance and suppress abilities positively associated with coping markers (resilience) and emotion regulation skills. Finally, the interaction effects between emotional flexibility abilities and stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms evidenced that consistently with the flexibility theory, enhance and suppress abilities may predict psychopathological symptoms. These findings emphasize the importance of considering the flexibility to express emotions as a relevant factor for preserved mental health or development of psychopathological symptoms and indicate that online surveys may serve as a reliable indicator of mental health. Data available at: https://github.com/GGonEsc/EmotionalFlexibilityScale_PaperCode
... Finally, committed action is described as actively choosing behaviours that would enhance one's life based on their values. Unlike in CBT, the ACT process is not focused on eliminating or changing negative thoughts; instead, an individual may have persistent negative thoughts and yet be able to interact flexibly with both positive and negative inner experiences to live a life that is in line with their core values (Kashdan & Rottenberg, 2010). This value-based action is beneficial to individuals living with chronic conditions such as pain (Wicksell, Ahlqvist, Bring, Melin, & Olsson, 2008). ...
... Because psychological flexibility is centrally related to depression and anxiety outcomes, it might explain the effects of psychological resources on resilience. Psychological flexibility is a broad concept that reflects a person's ability to easily adapt their cognition and behaviour according to their needs 48 . Part of psychological flexibility is regulatory (or coping) flexibilitythat is, the ability to adapt one's behaviour in response to the demands of the environment 49 . ...
Article
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The implementation of lockdowns and the Covid-19 pandemic situation have negatively impacted mental health (anxiety, depression). However, little is known about individual differences in the longitudinal reactions to lockdown. We designed a longitudinal study (a) to identify the various trajectories of symptoms of depression and anxiety in the general population during and after lockdown; (b) to determine which positive psychological resources prevent individuals from falling into groups with the most severe trajectories; (c) to test the mediating role of psychological flexibility. We collected and analysed longitudinal data on a sample of French participants (N = 1399, Mage = 43.4; SDage = 12; 87.8% women) during the end of the first lockdown. Participants were asked to report their psychological resources and (in)flexibility at baseline and symptoms of anxiety and depression at each measurment occasion (five weekly observations from 17 March to 11 May 2020, including baseline). Using growth mixture modelling, seven dynamic profiles of symptoms were identified: four for depression and three for anxiety. Resilience emerged as the most frequent trajectory. Wisdom, optimism, hope, self-efficacy and peaceful disengagement significantly prevented individuals from belonging to the symptomatic groups. Moreover, psychological flexibility emerged as a significant mediator of these effects. This study highlights the importance of cultivating protective factors and psychological flexibility to prevent mental health damage during potentially traumatic events (PTE) and to favour resilience trajectories.
... Kabat-Zinn, 2004), kar je v nasprotju s procesom presojanja in primerjanja dejanskih in želenih okoliščin, na katerem temelji ocena zadovoljstva z življenjem. Še en koncept, soroden harmoniji, je psihološka fleksibilnost, ki posamezniku omogoča učinkovito prilagajanje kontekstualnim zahtevam, spreminjanje miselnosti in ohranjanje ravnovesja med različnimi življenjskimi področji (Kashdan in Rottenberg, 2010). Kjell in sodelavci (2016) so avtorji Lestvice harmonije v življenju (angl. ...
Book
V monografiji avtorice predstavljajo ugotovitve več raziskav, ki so jih izvedle v zadnjih desetih letih, in jih umestijo na področje pozitivne psihologije, ki se je kot znanstvena disciplina uveljavila po letu 2000. Kot teoretični okvir v prvem poglavju predstavijo raziskave laičnega pojmovanja sreče in teoretične modele subjektivnega blagostanja. Poudarek na znanstveni ustreznosti merskih instrumentov v pozitivni psihologiji je spodbudil interes za konstrukt subjektivnega blagostanja tudi na drugih področjih psihologije.
... ACT has been found in studies to enhance not only physical function but also a variety of mental health issues [12]. Many studies at home and abroad have shown that psychological flexibility reflects mental health level to some extent [13]. However, we found no studies that applied this model to ACI patients such as those with insomnia, anxiety, and depression. ...
Article
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Acute cerebral infarction (ACI) is a kind of stoke, mostly suffering from insomnia, anxiety, and depression; therefore, the importance of psychological nursing in such patients is a necessary mean. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a psychological theory which advocates embracing pain, improving the ability to face pain, with the goal of improving psychological flexibility, so as to reduce the negative impact of pain on personal life. To explore the effect of psychological nursing intervention on ACI patients with anxiety, depression and insomnia are based on acceptance and commitment therapy. A randomized clinical trial study was conducted on 140 eligible ACI patients suffering from insomnia, anxiety, and depression who were selected using easy sampling methods and allocated randomly into two groups of observation and control. The data were collect through demographic questionnaires, the summary of Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), Cognitive Fusion Questionnaires (CFQ), Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS). The observation group received ACT treatment, while the control group received standard care. The scores of AAQ-II and CFQ were significantly decreased in the observation group, indicating that psychological flexibility was improved ( P < 0.05 ); the scores of SAS and SDS were significantly decreased in the observation group; and the scores of PSQI and AIS were significantly decreased in the observation group. The difference between the two groups was verified by t -test.
... PI is considered a transdiagnostic dimension, inasmuch as it can functionally underlie many formally different psychological disorders [28]. The very ample research with adult samples has shown that PI strongly predicts emotional distress, psychopathology, and poor mental health and quality of life [28][29][30][31][32][33]. Research with children and adolescents is less abundant, but nonetheless, the available evidence shows that PI is associated with both externalizing and internalizing mental health problems, particularly with symptoms of anxiety and mood disorders [34][35][36][37][38]. ...
Article
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The prevalence of mental health problems during childhood and adolescence is on the rise. There is a growing interest in the examination of personal variables that may function as risk factors and that may be targeted for effective intervention. This study explores the relationships amongst different aspects of psychological inflexibility (one, typically studied, focusing on the individual’s responding to unwanted emotions and cognitions, and another, more recently explored, focusing on the individual’s responding to desired thoughts and affective states), emotional intelligence, and mental health symptoms. A total of 129 school-going children (mean age: 11.16 years old) completed a battery of instruments comprising the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire-Youth (AFQ-Y17), the Experiential Approach Scale (EAS), the Emotional Intelligence Quotient Inventory (EQi-YV), and the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS-30). Results showed that both the AFQ-Y17 score and an EAS subscale score (Anxious Clinging) were significant independent predictors of mental health symptoms in general. Emotional intelligence was predictive only for depression, and both the AFQ-Y17 and the Anxious Clinging EAS subscale significantly incremented the predictive power of a hierarchical linear regression model including all three variables. These results underscore the relevance of psychological inflexibility for child/adolescent mental health, and the need to further explore a specific aspect of inflexibility regarding positive emotions and other appetitive private events.
... Cette notion semble elle-même trouver ses racines dans le fait que la recherche sur la régulation émotionnelle s'est considérablement inspirée des théories d'autorégulation et de contrôle cognitif (Koole, van Dillen, & Sheppes, 2010, p. 25). Plusieurs chercheurs ont ainsi souligné que la flexibilité dans la régulation émotionnelle et la santé mentale fonctionnaient de pair (Kashdan & Rottenberg, 2010 ;Hollenstein et al., 2013 ;Bonanno & Burton, 2013). ...
Thesis
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Dans ce travail, nous avons souhaité explorer la dimension émotionnelle du conditionnement évaluatif. Nous postulons que celui-ci provient d’un processus de double évaluation, d’une part émotionnelle et d’autre part cognitive. Nous nous sommes focalisés sur l’étude des processus émotionnels à travers la régulation émotionnelle. Pour cela nous avons réalisé trois séries d’études. Dans la première, nous avons mis en évidence que la dérégulation émotionnelle diminuait le conditionnement positif. Dans deux autres études visant à explorer les stratégies de régulation, nous avons observé qu’un mésusage des stratégies engendrait un conditionnement négatif plus fort et un conditionnement positif plus faible. Ces premiers résultats sont appuyés par deux études utilisant la variabilité de la fréquence cardiaque comme indicateur des capacités d’autorégulation. Le conditionnement évaluatif paraît associé à la dérégulation émotionnelle à travers des difficultés d’adaptation durant le stress et de récupération post-stress. Enfin, deux études ont essayé d’observer les effets d’un prédicteur de la régulation émotionnelle : la pleine conscience. Dans aucune des deux études nous n’avons trouvé de lien entre la pleine conscience et le conditionnement évaluatif. Nous avons donc pu observer à travers différentes méthodes un lien entre le conditionnement évaluatif et la régulation émotionnelle. Celui-ci est discuté et des pistes de recherches sont envisagées.
... The direct impact of the COVID-19 pandemic also occurs in the health aspect (Kashdan & Rottenberg, 2010;Verschuren et al., 2017). The World Health Organization has declared a public health emergency of international concern to coordinate the international response to the disease (Awaliyah et al., 2020). ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to examine and analyze (1) the impact of the COVID- 19 pandemic on the economic aspect of investment activities (2) The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on health services. This study is descriptive qualitative research that describes the conditions and challenges, in the Economic and Health sector during the COVID-19 Pandemic Period in Indonesia. The article used secondary legal materials, namely books, journals, articles, and other written works originating from both print and internet media, and the phenomena that occurred in the field related to the issues raised. The result indicated that (1) the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the economic aspect emerged the fluctuations in the domestic capital market, due to the PSBB policy which caused the economic sector to collapse; (2) The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the health aspect caused the decrease in the coverage of most health services, which was seen from the role of health workers and health facilities.
... Accumulating evidence suggests that social support, optimism, higher self-esteem, family/ neighbourhood cohesion, parental involvement, positive atmosphere at home, low polygenetic risk, and low rumination tendencies contribute to helping individuals in light of ACEs [45][46][47][48][49]. It may be speculated that these processes protect individuals from an increased stress sensitivity by supporting helpful coping strategies and cognitive factors (e.g., greater cognitive flexibility [50]). A recent study demonstrated that psychological flexibility moderates the association between LEs and depressive symptoms and may therefore be considered a "buffer" against unfavourable impacts that LEs have on mental health [51]. ...
Article
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Purpose Negative life events (LEs) are associated with mental health problems in youth. However, little is known about underlying mechanisms. The aim of the study was to investigate whether exposure to LEs modifies stress sensitivity in youth’s daily life. Methods Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) was used to assess stress sensitivity (i.e., association of momentary stress with (i) negative affect and (ii) psychotic experiences) in 99 adolescents and young adults (42 service users, 17 siblings, and 40 controls; M age 15 years). Before EMA, exposure to LEs (e.g., intrusive threats, experience of loss, serious illness) was assessed. Results Lifetime as well as previous-year exposure to LEs modified stress sensitivity in service users: they experienced more intense negative affect and psychotic experiences in response to stress when high vs . low exposure levels were compared. In contrast, controls showed no differences in stress sensitivity by exposure levels. Looking at specific types of LEs, controls showed less intense negative affect in response to stress when high vs . low exposure levels to threatening events during the last year, but not lifetime exposure, were compared. In siblings, no evidence was found that LEs modified stress sensitivity. Conclusion Stress sensitivity may constitute a putative risk mechanism linking LEs and mental health in help-seeking youth, while unfavourable effects of LEs on stress sensitivity may attenuate over time or do not occur in controls and siblings. Targeting individuals’ sensitivity to stress in daily life using novel digital interventions may be a promising approach towards improving youth mental health.
... Strategie aktywne mają na celu rozwiązanie problemów i przezwyciężenie trudności oraz zrozumienie sensu zdarzenia, zaś strategie pasywne polegają na unikaniu myślenia o stresorze oraz chronieniu siebie przed problemami, które on wywołuje. Adaptacyjna rola, zwłaszcza strategii unikowych, jest jednoznacznie negatywna -wskazuje się, że radzenie sobie przykładowo poprzez katastrofizowanie, popadanie w odrętwienie, ruminowanie czy samoobwinianie jest charakterystyczne dla osób z zaburzeniami psychicznymi (Kamholtz i in., 2006), a dobrostan psychiczny w znacznej mierze jest uwarunkowany stopniem elastyczności, jaką wykazuje jednostka w adekwatnym do kontekstu reagowaniu i regulowaniu emocji (Kashdan, Rottenberg, 2010). ...
Chapter
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The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with numerous factors that constitute a potential psychological burden. Apart from the threat to the life and health of one’s own and the close ones, negative consequences of pandemic may result from social isolation, loss of job and income, or intensification of conflicts in relationships with household members. The aim of the study was to determine which of the threats or limitations related to the pandemic were perceived as a psychological burden in the first months of the pandemic and six months after the first measurement. The study was a part of the ADJUST project and was conducted in the second week of June 2020, i.e. about three months after the announcement of the state of epidemic in Poland and the introduction of lockdown measures. The data was collected from a representative group of Poles (N = 1904) from an internet panel. The respondents completed a set of self-report questionnaires on the difficulties they experienced and coping with the pandemic situation. The study was repeated after six months on the same sample (December 2021). In the second wave of the study, N = 1,398 respondents completed the entire questionnaire. The risk of infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus was a significant psychological burden for most of the respondents. However, participants indicated even more often uncertainty about the duration of the pandemic and the risk of contracting the virus by relatives. The lack of sufficient information and unsatisfactory crisis management of a pandemic were also often pointed out. Many other aspects of the situation, such as restrictions on leisure activities and private travels, or limiting contacts with people to the closest ones, were also a significant burden for the majority of respondents. In the second wave, compared to the first, a decrease in the perceived well-being of the respondents was noted. The results of the structural modeling revealed differences between the two time points. For the first wave of the study, significant predictors of a decline in well-being were the burdens resulting from limitation of public life, and for the second wave, those associated with prolonged stay at home. The conducted study provided knowledge about which of the introduced restrictions on public life were perceived by Poles as the most burdensome for their well-being. Monitoring the sense of burden resulting from the restrictions seems to be important especially in the context of adjusting psychological interventions to the pandemic situation. In the light of the results obtained, a particularly important problem seems to be the limitation of the right to leisure activities and private travels, the lack of private space, the threat to the sense of security in one’s own home, including the increase in conflicts and the threat of violence, as well as coping with stress in a situation of constant stay with household members in poor housing conditions.
... The term ''repertoire'' can be defined as the ability to utilize a wide range of regulatory strategies in divergent contextual demands and opportunities (Bonanno and Burton, 2013, p. 594), fostering regulatory flexibility. Similarly, several other authors highlight the importance of flexibility in strategy use and assume that the regulatory process ideally results in an optimal level of emotion dynamics in order to produce appropriate responses and therefore a healthy adaptation to the demands of the environment (Kashdan and Rottenberg, 2010;Aldao, 2013;Aldao et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Stressful situations and psychopathology symptoms (e.g., depression and anxiety) shape how individuals regulate and respond to others’ emotions. However, how emotional expressions influence mental health and impact intrapersonal and interpersonal experiences is still unclear. Objective: Here, we used the Flexible Regulation of Emotional Expression (FREE) scale to explore the relationship between emotion expression abilities with affective symptoms and mental health markers. Methods: From a sample of 351 participants, we firstly validate a German version of the FREE scale on a final sample of 222 participants located in Germany, recruited through an online platform. Following, we performed confirmatory factor analyses to assess the model structure of the FREE-scale. We then utilize a LASSO regression to determine which indicators of psychopathology symptoms and mental health are related to emotional expressive regulation and determine their particular interactions through the general linear model. Results: We replicated the FREE scale’s four latent factors (i.e. ability to enhance and suppress positive as well as negative emotional expressions). After selection of relevant instruments through LASSO regression, the suppress ability showed specific negative associations with depression (r=.2) and stress symptoms (r=.16) and positive associations with readiness to confront distressing situations (r=.25), self-support (r=.2) and tolerance of emotions (r=.2). Both, emotional expression enhance and suppress abilities positively associated with coping markers (resilience) and emotion regulation skills. Finally, the interaction effects between emotional flexibility abilities and stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms evidenced that consistently with the flexibility theory, enhance and suppress abilities may predict psychopathological symptoms. Conclusions: These findings emphasize the importance of considering the flexibility to express emotions as a relevant factor for preserved mental health or development of psychopathological symptoms and indicate that online surveys may serve as a reliable indicator of mental health.
... However, more recent research exploring variability in a range of socioaffective variables suggests that the nature of variability may be potentially twofold. Hence, greater within-person variability in state ASC might not exclusively indicate maladaptive psychological functioning but could additionally be indicative of flexibility or the ability to respond flexibly to changing circumstances and thus also be a marker of adaptive psychological functioning (Kashdan & Rottenberg, 2010;MacDonald & Stawski, 2015;Peng et al., 2015). Accordingly, greater variability in students' ASC could in principle also reflect a healthy adaptive process in which students tend to adjust their academic competence beliefs in response to contradicting feedback or difficulties they have encountered in maintaining their typical level of ASC, which could pave the way for successful interactions with their environment (Gest et al., 2015). ...
Article
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A positive academic self-concept (ASC) relates to many desirable educational outcomes. Research on which student characteristics relate to the formation of ASC is therefore crucial. To examine the importance of personality for ASC, we investigated the relation between Big Five traits and mean level as well as within-person variability in state general-school ASC for the first time using intensive longitudinal data. The sample comprised N = 291 German ninth and 10th graders who completed a 3-week e-diary after filling in a 60-item Big Five questionnaire assessing extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, negative emotionality, and open-mindedness as well as their respective subfacets (15 subfacets overall). To assess state ASC, students completed three items after each lesson in four different subjects (resulting in Mlessons = 21.32). We ran six mixed-effects location scale models: one with all broad Big Five domains and five (one for each Big Five domain) with the subfacets as predictors of state ASC. Higher scores in the domains and in at least one subfacet of open-mindedness, conscientiousness, and extraversion but lower scores in negative emotionality were related to higher mean levels of state ASC. Higher scores in depression (subfacet of negative emotionality) were related to greater within-person variability in state ASC. These findings suggest that Big Five traits are predictors of mean level and within-person variability in students’ state ASC, thus contributing to a more complete map of the formation of students’ ASC and the role of personality therein. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
... Additionally, with the aim of adding evidence to the ACT theoretical framework proposing psychological flexibility as an asset to mental health Hayes et al., 2006), the current work intends to explore the Portuguese CompACT's relationships with theoretically relevant outcomes associated in the literature with psychological flexibility (e.g., mental health, self-compassion). In alignment with research conducted using previous psychological flexibility measures or measures of singular psychological flexibility component processes, it is expected that the Portuguese CompACT will be positively associated with self-compassion (e.g., Davey et al., 2020;Marshall & Brockman, 2016;Mclean et al., 2018), resilience (Daks et al., 2020), mental health (e.g., Kashdan & Rottenberg, 2010;Masuda et al., 2011), and mindful parenting (e.g., Brassell et al., 2016;Coyne et al., 2020), and negatively linked to psychological distress (e.g., Rochefort et al., 2019;Tyndall et al., 2019;Tyndall et al., 2020) and loneliness (e.g., Frinking et al., 2020). ...
Article
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An 18-item Portuguese-language version of the CompACT scale has recently been proposed for the Portuguese population. This study aims at conducting the first Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Portuguese CompACT in participants from two different samples (community adults and women in the post-partum period; total N = 1090). Given that the CompACT had yet to be subjected to gender invariance testing, the present study also presents an invariance analysis between male and female community participants. The measurement invariance of the Portuguese CompACT between community and post-partum women was also examined. The current study additionally explored the scale's relationships with theoretically relevant outcomes associated in the literature with psychological flexibility. Results showed that the three-factor correlated model of the Portuguese CompACT was an adequate fit for the data taken from the complete sample, with most items presenting statistically and practically significant loading values. The Portuguese CompACT presented acceptable to good internal consistencies for all factors-Openness to Experience (OE), Behavioral Awareness (BA), and Valued Action (VA). Full measurement invariance was found, with results further indicating that community women presented lower scores in BA than community men, and that women in the post-partum period scored higher than community women in BA and VA, and lower in OE. The three subscales of the Portuguese CompACT, that underpin the overarching construct of psychological flexibility, demonstrated different patterns of association from one another with various aspects of individual functioning. Although those associations were in the expected directions with flexibility being associated with lower distress, some forms of psychological flexibility 3 assessed by the CompACT were not significantly associated with measures of positive affect or resilience. This result underscores the difficulty of measuring psychological flexibility as a single construct, as it comprises a number of sub-component processes. Further implications of findings are discussed.
... As a result, they may use the skills of psychological inflexibility in these situations; they either try to avoid distressing situations or they attach a thought to an experience and refuse to take positive actions, since they have not achieved the desired result in similar situations before (Cobos-Sánchez et al., 2020). In other words, the person who has difficulty managing and regulating emotions, in addition to these issues, their conduct demonstrates psychological inflexibility (Cobos-Sánchez et al., 2020) which leads to increasing symptoms of various forms of psychopathology mainly anxiety and depression Kashdan and Rottenberg, 2010). Therefore it is thought that emotional dysregulation has an indirect effect on emotional disorders through psychological inflexibility due to the fact that emotional dysregulation and psychological inflexibility are factors related to psychopathology (Aldao et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to investigate the mediating role of psychological inflexibility as a transdiagnostic factor in the relationship between emotional dysregulation and sleep problems with symptoms of emotional disorders. A total of 500 subjects from three universities were selected by random multistage clustering, and they completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Difficulties in Emotional Regulation Scale, and Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II, Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms. The results of correlation coefficients revealed that there is a positive and significant correlation among emotional dysregulation, sleep problems, and psychological inflexibility with emotional disorders. In addition, the results showed that psychological inflexibility acts as a transdiagnostic factor that mediates the relationship between emotional dysregulation and sleep problems with symptoms of emotional disorders. These findings illustrate how emotional dysregulation and sleep problems affect emotional disorders through psychological inflexibility.
... Dysfunctional and emotionoriented coping styles contributed to psychological distress, dovetailing with predominant research [31,35,53,[56][57][58]. Furthermore, only psychological inflexibility was found to be associated significantly with more psychological distress, which was consistent with the literature [59][60][61][62]. Conceptually, psychological flexibility can be understood as one's higherorder or generalized ability to respond to situation demands effectively, in pursuit of longer-term goals, whereas psychological inflexibility is its opposite. ...
Article
Full-text available
In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic struck the globe and disrupted various aspects of psychological wellbeing, more so in frontline workers. Research on assessing the seroprevalence of COVID-19 has been scarce; in addition, there are limited studies assessing the association between the seroprevalence of COVID-19 and psychological distress. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of COVID-19 and the prevalence of psychological distress and to determine whether sociodemographic variables, occupational information variables, coping styles, and psychological processes might contribute to the development of psychological distress. A cross-sectional study involving 168 Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS) front liners was carried out to assess these issues. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) was employed to assess psychological distress, together with the COVID-19 Rapid Test Kit Antibody (RTK Ab) and a series of questionnaires, including a sociodemographic and occupational information questionnaire, the Balanced Index of Psychological Mindedness (BIPM) questionnaire, the Mindfulness Attention and Awareness Scale (MAAS), the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-II), and the Brief COPE questionnaire. The results demonstrated a seroprevalence of COVID-19 at 8.3% (95% CI = 5.0–14.0). Non-healthcare workers (HCWs) had a higher COVID-19 prevalence. Meanwhile, the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among front liners was low (3.0%, 3.6%, and 1.2%, respectively). Younger people (aged 30 years old or less) and HCWs had a higher prevalence of psychological distress; being a HCW was significantly associated with a higher level of anxiety. Dysfunctional coping and psychological inflexibility were consistently found to be predictors for higher levels of the three psychological distress variables. This study suggested some alternatives that could be explored by mental health providers to address mental health issues among front liners at universities.
Article
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Plasticity is the ability to modify brain and behavior, ultimately promoting an amplification of the impact of the context on the individual’s mental health. Thus, plasticity is not beneficial per se but its value depends on contextual factors, such as the quality of the living environment. High plasticity is beneficial in a favorable environment, but can be detrimental in adverse conditions, while the opposite applies to low plasticity. Resilience and vulnerability are not univocally associated to high or low plasticity. Consequently, individuals should undergo different preventive and therapeutic strategies according to their plasticity levels and living conditions. Here, an operationalization of plasticity relying on network theory is proposed: the strength of the connection among the network elements defining the individual, such as its symptoms, is a measure of plasticity. This theoretical framework represents a promising tool to investigate research questions related to changes in neural structure and activity and in behavior, and to improve therapeutic strategies for psychiatric disorders, such as major depression.
Chapter
This chapter describes key aspects of a culture-sensitive cognitive behavioural therapy for traumatised persons from non-Western cultures. For this purpose, a specific procedure has been developed, which is called “culturally adapted cognitive behavioural therapy” (CA-CBT). The focus is on very different forms of body perception and emotional regulation. In order to make the process of the cultural adaptation of this approach comprehensible, the underlying model ideas, which are fundamental for this form of treatment, are also mentioned in the course of this chapter.
Article
Identifying proximal risk factors for suicidal ideation that are modifiable and relevant for adolescents and young adults is critical for suicide prevention. This study used an intensive monitoring approach to examine whether objectively‐ and subjectively‐ measured sleep characteristics predict next‐day suicidal ideation occurrence and intensity through affective reactivity to interpersonal events in young people at high risk for suicide. Participants included 59 (13–23 years; 76% White; 75% female) adolescents and young adults undergoing intensive outpatient program treatment for depression and suicidality. Participants completed daily ratings of suicidal ideation, sleep quality, and affective reactivity to positive and negative interpersonal events for up to 3 months (M = 56 days, SD = 24.13). Actigraphy captured behavioral sleep duration and timing. Multilevel modeling was used to evaluate within‐person fluctuations in sleep and affective reactivity as predictors of suicidal ideation, and multilevel mediation tested the indirect effects of sleep on suicidal ideation via affective reactivity to interpersonal events. Results indicate significant indirect effects of objectively measured sleep duration and subjective sleep quality on next‐day suicidal ideation via affective reactivity to negative and positive interpersonal events, respectively. Shorter‐than‐usual sleep predicted the presence and intensity of next‐day suicidal ideation via heightened affective reactivity to negative interpersonal events. Worse sleep quality than usual predicted next‐day suicidal ideation via reduced affective reactivity to positive interpersonal events. Affectivity reactivity is a proximal mechanism through which sleep indices may influence risk for suicidal thinking on a daily basis. Findings highlight the utility of targeting sleep and emotion regulation in suicide prevention among adolescents and young adults at high‐risk for suicide.
Article
Background Affective characteristics are associated with depression severity, course, and prognosis. Patients’ affect captured by clinicians during sessions may provide a rich source of information that more naturally aligns with the depression course and patient-desired depression outcomes. Objective In this paper, we propose an information extraction vocabulary used to pilot the feasibility and reliability of identifying clinician-recorded patient affective states in clinical notes from electronic health records. Methods Affect and mood were annotated in 147 clinical notes of 109 patients by 2 independent coders across 3 pilots. Intercoder discrepancies were settled by a third coder. This reference annotation set was used to test a proof-of-concept natural language processing (NLP) system using a named entity recognition approach. Results Concepts were frequently addressed in templated format and free text in clinical notes. Annotated data demonstrated that affective characteristics were identified in 87.8% (129/147) of the notes, while mood was identified in 97.3% (143/147) of the notes. The intercoder reliability was consistently good across the pilots (interannotator agreement [IAA] >70%). The final NLP system showed good reliability with the final reference annotation set (mood IAA=85.8%; affect IAA=80.9%). Conclusions Affect and mood can be reliably identified in clinician reports and are good targets for NLP. We discuss several next steps to expand on this proof of concept and the value of this research for depression clinical research.
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Background The mental health of doctors is an ongoing concern, both prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to: i) assess the prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety, PTSD, and burnout in UK doctors and final year medical students during the pandemic, and ii) analyse the hypothesised relationships between psychological flexibility, intolerance of uncertainty and resilience with these mental health outcomes. Methods A cross-sectional online study of UK-based doctors and final year medical students was conducted between 27/09/2020 and 31/01/2021. Outcomes were measured using the PHQ9, GAD7, PCL-5, and aMBI. Independent variables included the CompACT-SF, IUS-12, and CD-RISC-10. Descriptive statistics, between-group analyses, and multiple regression were performed. Results Prevalence of anxiety symptoms was 26.3%, depression 21.9%, PTSD 11.8%, and burnout 10.8%. Psychological flexibility negatively predicted all outcomes, apart from low personal achievement. Intolerance of uncertainty positively predicted anxiety and PTSD scores. Resilience negatively predicted scores on burnout subscales. Limitations Cross-sectional design and non-probability sampling method means that assumptions about causality cannot be made and may have implications for bias and generalisability of results. Conclusion Doctors and medical students in the UK reported high levels of mental health symptoms during the pandemic, between September 2020 and January 2021. All three independent variables explained significant variance in mental health outcomes. Psychological flexibility was the most consistent predictor, over and above sociodemographic variables and other psychological predictors. These findings have implications for interventions to improve retention of our essential medical workforce, and for providing support at future times of national crisis.
Article
Die COVID-19-Krise offenbarte Mängel in der Digitalisierung der Schulen, die seither intensiv diskutiert wurden. Diese Studie argumentiert für eine Perspektiverweiterung, die über die Ebene der technischen Ausstattung hinausgeht: In der Analyse des Verhaltens, der Kognitionen und Emotionen von Lehrkräften wird ein forschungsheuristisch fruchtbarer Ansatz für die Untersuchung von Faktoren erkannt, die der mangelnden Digitalisierung potenziell zugrunde liegen. In einer Kombination aus einer qualitativen und quantitativen Onlineerhebung fragt die Studie N = 50 Lehrkräfte nach ihrem Umgang mit dem Fernunterricht während der COVID-19-Pandemie sowie nach ihrer Perspektive auf digitale Medien und Technik. Die Ergebnisse geben einen Einblick in die medienbezogene Unterrichtsgestaltung in der COVID-19-Krise, die Bewertung des Fernunterrichts, weiter in die Nutzung und Bewertung von Medien. Zudem wird gezeigt, dass zwei psychologische Faktoren – «Persönliche Entfaltung» und «Änderungsbereitschaft» – signifikant mit der Technikbereitschaft der Lehrkräfte zusammenhängen. Die Studie leistet insgesamt einen ersten Beitrag zur Analyse der Situation der Lehrkräfte in der gegenwärtigen Pandemie und präsentiert Implikationen sowohl für zukünftige Forschung als auch für die Praxis der Fortbildung der Lehrkräfte.
Article
Objectives Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a third-wave behavioral and cognitive therapy that increases psychological flexibility through mindfulness, acceptance, and value-driven behavior change. ACT has been successfully used to inform a variety of health interventions. Using non-therapists to deliver ACT-based behavioral health interventions offers an opportunity to provide cost efficient and integrated care, particularly among underserved populations experiencing barriers to mental health care, such as inadequate insurance, mental health stigma, and provider shortages. This systematic review aims to: 1) identify ACT-informed behavioral health interventions delivered by laypeople and 2) review the specific characteristics of each intervention including number and duration of sessions, delivery modality, interventionist training, and intervention outcomes. Methods Two databases (PubMed and PsycINFO) were systematically searched for relevant literature. To further identify relevant studies, references of included manuscripts were checked, the Association for Contextual Behavioral Science's webpage was examined, and an email was sent to the ACBS Health Special Interest Group listserv. Study abstracts and full texts (in English) were screened, resulting in 23 eligible articles describing 19 different interventions. Results A total of 1781 abstracts were screened, 76 were eligible for full-text review, and 23 were included in a narrative synthesis. There were 19 unique interventions identified and delivered by the following: general healthcare workers (n = 7), trained researchers (n = 5), women/mothers (n = 2), municipal workers (n = 2), and teachers (n = 3). Eleven studies were RCTs and eight utilized alternative study designs. Study quality varied, with two rated as high risk for bias and eight rated to have some concerns. Target populations included clinical and non-clinical samples. There was some consistency in the effects reported in the studies: increases in pain tolerance, acceptance, and identifying and engaging in value driven behavior, improvements in cognitive flexibility, and reductions in psychological distress. Conclusions Findings suggest that ACT interventions can be successfully delivered by a variety of laypeople and effectively address psychological distress and increase health behaviors.
Article
Aim and objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the effect and paths of stigma on depressive symptoms in women who underwent termination of pregnancy for foetal anomaly (TOPFA). Background: Stigma may cause distress and depressive symptoms for women with TOPFA. However, few studies have examined the relationship between stigma and depression in women with TOPFA. Design: This study followed the STROBE checklist. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 469 women with TOPFA. The path analysis used hierarchical multiple regression and structural equation model to examine the mediating role of social support and psychological flexibility on the relationship between stigma and depressive symptoms. Results: Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed the mediation effect of psychological flexibility between stigma and depressive symptoms. By contrast, social support did not present such effect. The structural equation model confirmed that stigma, directly and indirectly, affected depressive symptoms. Discussion: Many women with TOPFA have severe depressive symptoms and that stigma is an important influencing factor. Psychological flexibility plays an essential role in mitigating the effects of stigma on depressive symptoms. Relevance to clinical practice: Healthcare professionals should focus on measuring and intervening on stigma and psychological flexibility for alleviating the depressive symptoms of women with TOPFA. No Patient or Public Contribution.
Article
Metamotivation research suggests that people understand the benefits of engaging in high-level versus low-level construal (i.e., orienting toward the abstract, essential versus concrete, idiosyncratic features of events) in goal-directed behavior. The current research examines the psychometric properties of one assessment of this knowledge and tests whether it predicts consequential outcomes (academic performance). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a two-factor structure, whereby knowledge of the benefits of high-level construal (i.e., high-level knowledge) and low-level construal (i.e., low-level knowledge) were distinct constructs. Participants on average evidenced beliefs about the normative benefits of high-level and low-level knowledge that accord with published research. Critically, individual differences in high-level and low-level knowledge independently predicted grades, controlling for traditional correlates of grades. These findings suggest metamotivational knowledge may be a key antecedent to goal success and lead to novel diagnostic assessments and interventions.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the moderating role of trait mindfulness in the relationship between emotion regulation strategies and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among children and adolescents who experienced an explosion accident. A total of 712 participants, aged 7-15, (Mage = 11.45, SD = 1.77; 48.9% male) who have experienced an explosion accident completed the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, the Trauma Screening Questionnaire and the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale. The results showed that trait mindfulness significantly moderated the relationship of the expressive suppression and PTSS under the control of sex, age, trauma exposure, and cognitive reappraisal strategy (β = -0.27, p < 0.05). However, the moderating effect of trait mindfulness between cognitive reappraisal strategy and PTSS was not significant (p> 0.05). Findings suggested that traumatized children with low levels of mindfulness may report severer PTSS when they adopt expressive suppression strategy.
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Romantic love, our most complex emotion, includes various puzzles that impede the achievement of enduring, profound love. These related puzzles involve two opposing poles on a given continuum, yet both seem necessary for enduring, profound love. I discuss here a few of the major opposing poles, which I gather into three main groups: (a) Temporality: change-familiarity; consummation-perpetuation; (b) Freedom: freedom-bondage; belonging-possessing; (c) The good-fortune of the partner: jealousy-compersion. Coping with these conflicts requires several conceptual distinctions; the key ones discussed here are the distinction between romantic intensity and romantic profundity and the distinction between extrinsically and intrinsically valuable activities. While admitting the presence of the opposing poles, I argue that in profound love, these poles can coexist. Such coexistence has significant consequences for the nature of romantic relationships, for instance, admitting the presence of romantic ambivalence and indifference and acknowledging the value of brief, casual sexual encounters.
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Many studies confirmed that psychological flexibility (PF) can improve job performance. However, few studies examined the mechanisms between them. The present study constructed a structural equation model to test the relationship between PF, workplace ostracism, perceived stress, and job performance. A sample of 234 Information Technology (IT) staff completed the Workplace Ostracism Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire II and Job Performance Scale. Chained mediation model revealed that work ostracism and stress mediated the association between PF and job performance, and the effect of PF on job performance could be mediated through work ostracism and then through perceived stress. Results of this study could help clarify the possible mechanistic pathways of PF on job performance. It is suggested that future work attempting to increase job performance among IT staff should consider the potentially important role of psychological flexibility model. Limitations and implications are discussed.
Article
Bu araştırmanın amacı ergenlerde bilişsel esneklik ve öz şefkatin iyi oluş toplam puan ve iyi oluşun alt boyutları olan bağlılık, kararlılık, iyimserlik, ilişkililik ve mutluluğu yordama gücünü incelemektir. Bunun yanında araştırma kapsamında iyi oluş toplam puan ve iyi oluşun alt boyutları olan bağlılık, kararlılık, iyimserlik, ilişkililik ve mutluluğun cinsiyete göre farklılaşıp farklılaşmadığı da araştırmaktır. Araştırmanın katılımcılarını Orta Karadeniz Bölümü’nde bir il merkezinde Milli Eğitim Müdürlüğü’ne bağlı liselerde öğrenim gören 822’si kız 291’i erkek olmak üzere toplamda 1013 (M = 15. 36 Ss. = 1.29) ergen oluşturmuştur. Veri toplama araçları olarak Kişisel Bilgi Formu, Bilişsel Esneklik Ölçeği, Ergenler için Beş Faktörlü İyi oluş Ölçeği ve Öz-Şefkat Ölçeği Kısa Formu kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre bilişsel esneklik puanı yüksek olan ergenlerin iyi oluş, bağlılık, kararlılık, iyimserlik, ilişkililik ve mutluluk düzeyleri de yüksektir. Aynı zamanda öz şefkat düzeyleri yüksek olan ergenlerin iyi oluş, iyimserlik, ilişkililik ve mutluluk puanları da yüksektir. Ayrıca araştırmada erkek ergenlerin iyi oluş toplam puan, bağlılık, iyimserlik ve mutluluk puan ortalamalarının kız ergenlerden anlamlı bir şekilde daha yüksektir. Okul psikolojik danışmanları tarafından iyi oluşu artırmaya dönük geliştirilecek ve uygulanacak psiko-eğitim programlarında ve yapılacak diğer çalışmalarda ergenlerin bilişsel esnekliklerini ve öz-şefkatlerini artırmaya odaklanılabilir.
Article
The paper touches upon the relationships between the psychological constitution of an individual and organizational behaviour of employees as a manifestation of the behavioural pattern shaped in the process of the university professional training. The research analyses the differences in the display of the Dark Triad (DT) traits in students of various specializations within the Economics and Management field. The research methods include the Short Dark Triad personality test by Jones and Paulhus, a comparative analysis of curricula and the content of discipline programmes, and the methods of descriptive statistics. The research results demonstrate that there is an association between the DT traits formed by the organizational behaviour model and the specialization, which confirms the hypothesis that there is a need for a differentiated approach to shaping the organizational behaviour model. The complete psychological DT profile indicator has the highest average “darkness” level for the Business Informatics (BI) students, and the lowest was found for the Financial Management (FM) students. Comparing the specializations by the proportion of students with “potentially harmful” DT traits and “extremely harmful general psychological profile” shows that among the FM students there are no persons with toxicity exceeding the psychometric norm. At the same time, the State and Municipal Administration specialization attracts persons with a higher narcissism level, and BI is attractive to students with an elevated level of Machiavellianism and psychopathy. The research has not revealed a statistically significant relationship between the manifestation of toxicity in management students of different specializations and the content of educational programmes for six semesters. The resulting conclusion about the presence of a relationship between toxic personality traits and the choice of the specialization by Russian students is consistent with the findings of studies in other countries. The authors believe that the management training programmes should include the disciplines that support the development of interpersonal communication skills and entrepreneurial thinking as key elements of the organizational behaviour model demanded by employers.
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Working largely independently, numerous investigators have explored the role of self-focused attention in various clinical disorders. This article reviews research examining increased self-focused attention in these disorders. Using information processing constructs, a model of self-focused attention is proposed, and it is suggested that certain deviations in this process constitute a psychopathological kind of attention. A meta-construct model of descriptive psychopathology is then outlined to examine how certain aspects of attention can be considered specific to certain disorders and others common to different disorders
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Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the openness which cannot be understood as the culture that is acquired through education or good breeding, not as intellect or any other cognitive ability. Openness must be viewed in both structural and motivational terms. Openness is seen in the breadth, depth, and permeability of consciousness and in the recurrent need to enlarge and examine experience. Openness also suggests a passive or uncritical receptivity, which is clearly inappropriate. Open people actively seek out experience and are apt to be particularly reflective and thoughtful about the ideas they encounter. A structural account of openness may be necessary, but it does not seem to be sufficient. Open people are not the passive recipients of a barrage of experiences they are unable to screen out; they actively seek out new and varied experiences. Openness involves motivation, needs for variety cognition sentience, and understanding. The heritability of openness might be explained by the heritability of intelligence. Psychologists have spent more time and effort studying intelligence, than any other trait by adopting the term “Intellect.” Personality psychologists could claim this vast literature as their own. Openness could be construed as intelligence itself or as the reflection of intelligence in the personality sphere.
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Past behavior guides future responses through 2 processes. Well-practiced behaviors in constant contexts recur because the processing that initiates and controls their performance becomes automatic. Frequency of past behavior then reflects habit strength and has a direct effect on future performance. Alternately, when behaviors are not well learned or when they are performed in unstable or difficult contexts, conscious decision making is likely to be necessary to initiate and carry out the behavior. Under these conditions, past behavior (along with attitudes and subjective norms) may contribute to intentions, and behavior is guided by intentions. These relations between past behavior and future behavior are substantiated in a meta-analytic synthesis of prior research on behavior prediction and in a primary research investigation.
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Recent developments in the study of cognitive emotion regulation illustrate how functional imaging is extending behavioral analyses. Imaging studies have contributed to the development of a multilevel model of emotion regulation that describes the interactions between neural systems implicated in emotion generation and those implicated in emotional control. In this article, we review imaging studies of one type of cognitive emotion regulation: reappraisal. We show how imaging studies have contributed to the construction of this model, illustrate the interplay of psychological theory and neuroscience data in its development, and describe how this model can be used as the basis for future basic and translational research.
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Several literatures converge on the idea that approach and positive affect related to goal pursuit are managed by one self-regulatory system and that avoidance (or withdrawal) and negative affect related to threats are managed by a second self-regulatory system. After briefly reviewing these literatures, the authors consider the relation of these themes to the broader domain of personality. In particular, they map individual differences in the responsivity of the approach system onto the personality dimension of extraversion and map individual differences in the responsivity of the withdrawal system onto the dimension of neuroticism. This mapping requires a slight refocusing of current conceptions of extraversion and neuroticism. However, such a refocusing brings a gain as well as a cost: In particular, it would embed these dimensions more explicitly in a process-oriented conceptualization of action control.
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We propose that to some extent, people treat the resources, perspectives, and identities of close others as their own. This proposal is supported by allocation, attribution, response time, and memory experiments. Recently, we have applied this idea to deepening understanding of feeling “too close” (including too much of the other in the self leading to feeling controlled or a loss of identity), the effects of relationship loss (it is distressing to the extent that the former partner was included in the self, liberating to the extent that the former partner was preventing self-expansion), ingroup identification (including ingroup in the self), and the effect of outgroup friendships on outgroup attitudes (including outgroup member in the self entails including outgroup member's identity in the self).
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How do people know whether they have an answer to a question before they actually find it in their memory? We conducted 2 experiments exploring this question, in which Ss were trained on relatively novel 2-digit × 2-digit arithmetic problems (e.g., 23 × 27). Before answering each problem, Ss made a quick feeling of knowing judgment as to whether they could directly retrieve the answer from memory or had to compute it. Knowing the answer initially appeared to be linearly related to having a feeling of knowing the answer; however, when the frequency of exposure to complete problems and the frequency of exposure to parts of the problems were separately varied, feeling of knowing was better predicted by the frequency of presentation of the problem parts, not by knowledge of the answer. This suggests that the processes involved in knowing the answer are different from those involved in having a feeling of knowing. Specifically, an early feeling of knowing is not just based on an early read of the answer.
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Two studies were conducted investigating the relationship between the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) scales and well-being measures in British (N = 179) and Russian (N = 289) student samples. On the basis of person-oriented approach, a cluster-analysis operationalization of Balanced Time Perspective (BTP) using ZTPI was proposed and validated, demonstrating more evidence for its validity than the previously suggested cut-off-point approach. Four distinct time perspective patterns were discovered in both samples: future-oriented, present-oriented, balanced and negative. The clusters revealed significant differences in well-being, with members of the BTP cluster demonstrating the highest scores in both samples. The relationship between ZTPI and Temporal Life Satisfaction Scale in the British sample was found to be non-uniform for past, present and future. Based on these findings, a distinction between three aspects of time perspective is theoretically proposed, and its implications for the future development of the ZTPI are discussed.
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Given recent attention to emotion regulation as a potentially unifying function of diverse symptom presentations, there is a need for comprehensive measures that adequately assess difficulties in emotion regulation among adults. This paper (a) proposes an integrative conceptualization of emotion regulation as involving not just the modulation of emotional arousal, but also the awareness, understanding, and acceptance of emotions, and the ability to act in desired ways regardless of emotional state; and (b) begins to explore the factor structure and psychometric properties of a new measure, the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). Two samples of undergraduate students completed questionnaire packets. Preliminary findings suggest that the DERS has high internal consistency, good test–retest reliability, and adequate construct and predictive validity.
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Discriminative facility was proposed as a cognitive process and need for closure was proposed as a motivational process underlying coping flexibility. The dual-process model posits that need for closure influences discriminative facility, which in turn modifies coping flexibility and psychological adjustment. In Study 1, results of structural equation modeling provided support for the dual-process model. This model was further examined using experimental methods (Study 2) and a prospective design (Study 3). Consistent with the dual-process model, results from all 3 studies showed that participants who were more motivated to seek alternative coping strategies tended to encode stressful situations in a more differentiated way. These individuals used a greater variety of strategies to fit different situational demands and were better adjusted.
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This study examined the development of individuals whose motivations and skills led them to develop in different but equally positive ways. C. D. Ryff's (1989) scales for Environmental Mastery (EM) and Personal Growth (PG) were used to identify three configurations of positive mental health in 111 women of the Mills Longitudinal Study: Achievers, high on both scales; Conservers, high on EM, low on PG; and Seekers, high on PG, low on EM. Each pattern showed a distinctive profile of strengths on four criteria of maturity - competence, generativity, ego development, and wisdom - and each was predicted by distinctive features of positive and negative emotionality, identity processes, and change in self-control across 31 years of adulthood. Identity at age 43 mediated the influence of personality at age 21 in predicting positive mental health pattern at age 60.
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Dealing with time is a fundamental feature of the human experience, both objective, or so-called clock time, and subjective, personal constructions of time. The focus of this chapter is the construct of time perspective (TP), which is viewed as an integral part of the subjective or personal experience of "lived time". Time perspective is considered to have cognitive, emotional, and social components. The Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) is the latest modification of the STPI, which has addressed the shortcomings of the previous scales. Zimbardo and Boyd demonstrate that both Past-Negative and Present-Fatalistic perspectives are associated with strong feelings of depression, anxiety, anger, and aggression. Despite being conceived primarily at a theoretical level, the constructs of TP and a balanced TP offer considerable potential for practical interventions in clinical and occupational psychology. The construct of TP has a potential to provide a theoretical underpinning for time management interventions.
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This research sought to formulate a theoretically based conceptualization of coping flexibility and to adopt a multimethod approach in assessing this construct. A self-report daily measure and an experiment were designed geared to theoretical and empirical grounds. The new daily measure was used in Study I to examine coping flexibility in a life transition. Findings showed individual differences in patterns of coping flexibility across different real-life stressful events. In Study 2, coping flexibility was examined in both real-life and laboratory settings. Results replicated those of Study I and further revealed consistency between the self-report and the experiment data. Study 3 extended previous studies by adopting a longitudinal design over a 3-month time span. Participants' flexibility in coping with laboratory tasks was found to predict how flexible they would be in handling real-life stressful events.
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This study rested the idea of habits as a form of goal-directed automatic behavior. Expanding on the idea that habits are mentally represented as associations between goals and actions, it was proposed that goals are capable of activating the habitual action. More specific, when habits are established (e.g., frequent cycling to the university), the very activation of the goal to act (e.g., having to attend lectures at the university) automatically evokes the habitual response (e.g., bicycle). Indeed, it was tested and confirmed that, when behavior is habitual, behavioral responses are activated automatically. in addition, the results of 3 experiments indicated that (a) the automaticity in habits is conditional on the presence of an active goal (cf. goal-dependent automaticity; J. A. Bargh, 1989), supporting the idea that habits are mentally represented as goal-action links, and (b) the formation of implementation intentions (i.e., the creation of a strong mental link between a goal and action) may simulate goal-directed automaticity in habits.
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A theory of ironic processes of mental control is proposed to account for the intentional and counterintentional effects that result from efforts at self-control of mental states. The theory holds that an attempt to control the mind introduces 2 processes: (a) an operating process that promotes the intended change by searching for mental contents consistent with the intended state and (b) a monitoring process that tests whether the operating process is needed by searching for mental contents inconsistent with the intended state. The operating process requires greater cognitive capacity and normally has more pronounced cognitive effects than the monitoring process, and the 2 working together thus promote whatever degree of mental control is enjoyed. Under conditions that reduce capacity, however, the monitoring process may supersede the operating process and thus enhance the person's sensitivity to mental contents that are the ironic opposite of those that are intended.
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A theoretical framework is outlined in which the key construct is the need for(nonspecific) cognitive closure. The need for closure is a desire for definite knowledge on some issue. It represents a dimension of stable individual differences as well as a situationally evocable state. The need for closure has widely ramifying consequences for social-cognitive phenomena at the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and group levels of analysis. Those consequences derive from 2 general tendencies, those of urgency and permanence. The urgency tendency represents an individual's inclination to attain closure as soon as possible, and the permanence tendency represents an individual's inclination to maintain it for as long as possible. Empirical evidence for present theory attests to diverse need for closure effects on fundamental social psychological phenomena, including impression formation, stereotyping, attribution, persuasion, group decision making, and language use in intergroup contexts.
Book
An ACT Approach Chapter 1. What is Acceptance and Commitment Therapy? Steven C. Hayes, Kirk D. Strosahl, Kara Bunting, Michael Twohig, and Kelly G. Wilson Chapter 2. An ACT Primer: Core Therapy Processes, Intervention Strategies, and Therapist Competencies. Kirk D. Strosahl, Steven C. Hayes, Kelly G. Wilson and Elizabeth V. Gifford Chapter 3. ACT Case Formulation. Steven C. Hayes, Kirk D. Strosahl, Jayson Luoma, Alethea A. Smith, and Kelly G. Wilson ACT with Behavior Problems Chapter 4. ACT with Affective Disorders. Robert D. Zettle Chapter 5. ACT with Anxiety Disorders. Susan M. Orsillo, Lizabeth Roemer, Jennifer Block-Lerner, Chad LeJeune, and James D. Herbert Chapter 6. ACT with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Alethea A. Smith and Victoria M. Follette Chapter 7. ACT for Substance Abuse and Dependence. Kelly G. Wilson and Michelle R. Byrd Chapter 8. ACT with the Seriously Mentally Ill. Patricia Bach Chapter 9. ACT with the Multi-Problem Patient. Kirk D. Strosahl ACT with Special Populations, Settings, and Methods Chapter 10. ACT with Children, Adolescents, and their Parents. Amy R. Murrell, Lisa W. Coyne, & Kelly G. Wilson Chapter 11. ACT for Stress. Frank Bond. Chapter 12. ACT in Medical Settings. Patricia Robinson, Jennifer Gregg, JoAnne Dahl, & Tobias Lundgren Chapter 13. ACT with Chronic Pain Patients. Patricia Robinson, Rikard K. Wicksell, Gunnar L. Olsson Chapter 14. ACT in Group Format. Robyn D. Walser and Jacqueline Pistorello
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• Many aspects of panic attacks, eg, palpitations, tremor, sweating, and an emotional sense of "fear," have been theorized to arise from sympathetic nervous system activation. However, most studies have not demonstrated clearly increased levels of catecholamines during an attack, which is contrary to this hypothesis. To explore another possible cause for the physiological changes known to occur during a panic attack, we assessed parasympathetic nervous system activity by measuring vagal tone during treatments known to produce panic symptoms: sodium lactate administration and hyperventilation. Our findings showed a marked reduction in vagal tone during both procedures. We postulate that withdrawal of parasympathetic activity may explain some of the physiological changes occurring in panic attacks and be contributing to the origin of panic.
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Building on and extending existing research, this article proposes a 4-phase model of interest development. The model describes 4 phases in the development and deepening of learner interest: triggered situational interest, maintained situational interest, emerging (less-developed) individual interest, and well-developed individual interest. Affective as well as cognitive factors are considered. Educational implications of the proposed model are identified.
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Although a balanced life has always been viewed as de-sirable, there are problems with extant conceptualizations and measures of this construct. Here we introduce 2 new life-balance measures, based on time-use profiles, that address these problems. One defines life balance as objectively equitable time use across multiple life domains, and the other defines life balance as low subjective discrepancy between actual and ideal time-use profiles. Study 1 finds that both measures predict concurrent well-being, in both U.S. and Indian samples. Study 2 shows that fluctuations in balance predict fluctuations in well-being over a 3-week period. Study 3 replicates the Study 1 findings using a different time assessment technique, based on the Day Reconstruction Method. Study 4 assigns participants the month-long goal of enhancing their life balance, finding that those who achieve this goal enhance their well-being. In all 4 studies, the balance effects on well-being were mediated by psychological need satisfaction associated with balance. Unbalanced lifestyles are endemic to Western culture. Modern people work longer hours than ever before, and the task of integrating work life with family life and child rearing is becoming ever more difficult, especially given the increasing percentage of dual-career couples. This phenomenon has been referred to as the ''scarcity hypothesis'' (Chapman, Ingersoll-Dayton, & Neal, 1994), in which the overalloca-tion of time to work leaves less time and energy available for other domains, such as family. This can create stress and conflict that Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Kennon M. Shel-don, 112 McAlester Hall,
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Curiosity, interest, and intrinsic motivation are critical to the development of competence, knowl- edge, and expertise. Without a mechanism of intrinsic motivation, people would rarely explore new things, learn for its own sake, or engage with uncertain tasks despite feelings of confusion and anxiety. This article explores two sides of interest: momentary feelings (the emotion of inter- est) and enduring traits (the character strength of curiosity). Recent theories in emotion psychol- ogy can explain why and when people experience feelings of interest; recent research has illuminated the role of curiosity in cultivating knowledge, meaning in life, close relationships, and physical and mental resilience. The problem for future research - and for social and personality psychology more generally - is how to bridge the dynamics of everyday experience with stable, lifespan aspects of personality.
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It is typically assumed that people always want to feel good. Recent evidence, however, demonstrates that people want to feel unpleasant emotions, such as anger or fear, when these emotions promote the attainment of their long-term goals. If emotions are regulated for instrumental reasons, people should want to feel pleasant emotions when immediate benefits outweigh future benefits, but when future benefits outweigh immediate benefits, people may prefer to feel useful emotions, even if they are unpleasant. In this article, I describe an instrumental account of emotion regulation, review empirical evidence relevant to it, and discuss its implications for promoting adaptive emotional experiences.
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Anxiety/uncertainty management theory explains interpersonal and intergroup communication. It suggests that managing uncertainty and anxiety are central processes that affect our communication with strangers and that the anxiety and uncertainty that we experience when we communicate with others are related to each other. This research is concerned with the association of anxiety and uncertainty with avoidance in interpersonal and intercultural communication. The effect of anxiety and uncertainty on avoidance was examined through communication between strangers of the same and different cultures. The results indicate that anxiety and uncertainty are associated with avoidance in communication with strangers from both the same and different cultures. Furthermore, the data suggest that anxiety and uncertainty may be good predictors of avoidance. When studying communication between strangers of a different culture, anxiety and uncertainty were found to be associated with one another. Nevertheless, anxiety and uncertainty were not related to each other in communication between strangers of the same culture. These results provide partial support for AUM theory.
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• In the last half-generation or so there has been increased emphasis on an understanding of personality functioning. It is asked what, if anything, is known or agreed to in this field. Is there a typical mother of schizophrenics, for example? In all the talk about the "creative personality" or the "authoritarian personality" just what is meant by these terms? What really is "hysteria"? Doctor Jack Block's monograph introduces the California Q-set—a method for describing comprehensively in contemporary psychodynamic terms an individual's personality. This method for encoding personality evaluation will prove highly useful in research applications by psychiatrists, psychologists, and sociologists, for it permits quantitative comparisons and calibrations of their evaluations of patients. He compares the Q-sort procedure with conventional rating methods and adjective check lists. He considers in detail the various forms of application of Q-sort procedure and appropriate statistical procedures to employ for these applications. Included in the Appendices are conversion tables for calculation of Q-sort correlations, California Q-set descriptions of various clinical concepts to be employed for calibration purposes, and an adjective Q-set for use by non-professional sorters. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved) • In the last half-generation or so there has been increased emphasis on an understanding of personality functioning. It is asked what, if anything, is known or agreed to in this field. Is there a typical mother of schizophrenics, for example? In all the talk about the "creative personality" or the "authoritarian personality" just what is meant by these terms? What really is "hysteria"? Doctor Jack Block's monograph introduces the California Q-set—a method for describing comprehensively in contemporary psychodynamic terms an individual's personality. This method for encoding personality evaluation will prove highly useful in research applications by psychiatrists, psychologists, and sociologists, for it permits quantitative comparisons and calibrations of their evaluations of patients. He compares the Q-sort procedure with conventional rating methods and adjective check lists. He considers in detail the various forms of application of Q-sort procedure and appropriate statistical procedures to employ for these applications. Included in the Appendices are conversion tables for calculation of Q-sort correlations, California Q-set descriptions of various clinical concepts to be employed for calibration purposes, and an adjective Q-set for use by non-professional sorters. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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![Figure][1] The vogue for the past three decades or so has been to see the ‘ correct’ treatment for depression (as well as a host of other psychiatric disorders) as being centred on a combination of medication and CBT (cognitive-behavioural therapy). Behaviour therapists criticised the
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There are two problems concerning the often hypothesized relationship between neuroticism and behavioral rigidity. First, are there personality dimensions other than neuroticism which affect the relationship? Eysenck (1947) hypothesized that introverted neurotics are rigid, but that extroverted neurotics are not. Second, Rokeach (1960) offered a distinction between rigidity and dogmatism, in which rigidity can be defined as the inability to produce novel or changed responses while dogmatism can be defined as an inability to utilize novel responses which have been produced. Which of these two types of inflexibility characterizes neurotics? To explore for answers for these two questions, a 2 × 2 experimental design was set up. Two conclusions follow from this study. The first is that it is inappropriate to speak loosely of the "rigidity" or "inflexibility" of neurotic behavior, as it was shown that neurotics are not different from non-neurotics in their ability to produce novel responses, but only in their ability to utilize such responses. Secondly, not all neurotics manifest this inability; it is shown by introverted neurotics only.
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Three studies, with 734 undergraduates, tested the hypothesis that differences in performance due to achievement-related motives are moderated by individuals' uncertainty orientation––the degree to which situations of certainty vs uncertainty are cognitively relevant. The validity of this hypothesis was investigated for 3 predictions derived from J. W. Atkinson and J. O. Raynor's (1974) theory of achievement motivation: (a) Differences in performance due to achievement-related motives are greatest in situations of intermediate difficulty; (b) differences in performance due to achievement-related motives are greatest on tasks that must be successfully completed in order to move on to further tasks (contingent path tasks); and (c) differences in course grades due to achievement-related motives are greatest among those individuals who perceive the course as instrumental to their future goals. All 3 predictions were confirmed for uncertainty-oriented Ss, but results were actually reversed for certainty-oriented Ss. It is argued that the present formulation subsumes and integrates the existing cognitive and motivational interpretations of achievement behavior. (42 ref)