Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Causes Different Changes in Longitudinal, Radial, and Circumferential Mechanics in Patients with Hypertension: A Two-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Study
Systolic reserve is an important compensatory mechanism against increasing afterload. Although longitudinal systolic dysfunction with preserved ejection fraction has been reported in hypertensive hearts, radial and circumferential function has not been fully examined. The aim of this study was to investigate three-directional systolic function and its relationships with left ventricular geometry in asymptomatic hypertensive patients using two-dimensional speckle-tracking imaging.
Echocardiographic evaluations were performed in 74 hypertensive patients and 55 age-matched control subjects.
Longitudinal strain was significantly reduced in the hypertrophy groups compared with that in control subjects (concentric, -15.1 ± 4.0%; eccentric, -15.9 ± 4.4%; control, -18.9 ± 3.3%; P < .05). Conversely, radial strain was significantly higher in the normal geometry group than in control subjects (53.8 ± 19.4% vs 40.3 ± 15.1%, P < .05). However, this augmentation was attenuated in the other geometries.
Hypertrophic remodeling attenuates compensatory augmentation of radial systolic function and is associated with latent longitudinal systolic dysfunction.
Available from: Masato Nakamura
- "Thus, in a clinical setting, measurement of midwall EF is effective for quantifying the impairment of LV function due to LVH. It is reported that the longitudinal strain is a useful method for assessing myocardium systolic dysfunction in patients with LVH . Nonetheless, the correlation of LVMI with midwall EF was higher than with longitudinal strain in our study. "
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In patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), LV midwall fractional shortening (FS) is used as a measure of LV systolic performance that is more physiologically appropriate than conventional FS. For evaluation of LV volume and ejection fraction (EF), 2-dimensional (2D) echocardiography is more accurate than M-mode echocardiography. The purpose of this study was to assess systolic performance by midwall EF using 2D speckle tracking echocardiography (STE).
Sixty patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into two groups with LVH (n = 30) and without LVH (control group, n = 30). LV systolic function was compared between the two groups and the relationships of left ventricular mass index (LVMI) with LV systolic parameters, including midwall EF, were investigated.
Midwall EF in the LVH group was significantly lower than that in the control group (42.8±4.4% vs. 48.1±4.1%, p <0.0001). Midwall FS was also significantly lower in the LVH group (13.4±2.8% vs. 16.1±1.5%, p <0.0001), but EF did not differ significantly between the two groups. There were significant correlations between midwall EF and LVMI (r=0.731, p <0.0001) and between midwall FS and LVMI (r=0.693, p <0.0001), with midwall EF having the higher correlation.
These results show that midwall EF can be determined using 2D STE. Midwall EF can be used to monitor LV systolic dysfunction, which is not possible with conventional EF. Evaluation of midwall EF may allow assessment of new parameters of LV systolic function in patients with LV geometric variability.
Available from: Kazuhisa Nishimura
- "Sixty-eight consecutive patients with untreated essential hypertension with normal geometry or concentric LVH  were enrolled in this study. Patients with any of the following criteria were excluded: diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, secondary hypertension, a history of congestive heart failure, significant valvular heart disease , atrial fibrillation, and LVH due to other etiology. "
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ABSTRACT: Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) is a novel technology that directly measures regional left ventricular (LV) wall contraction. This study aimed to directly measure inner-layer thickening (radial strain) of the LV using 2D-STE, and to examine the relationship between radial strain and the degree of hypertrophy.
The study enrolled 63 untreated hypertensive patients with normal geometry (N group, n=32) or concentric hypertrophy (CH group, n=31), classified according to LV mass index (LVMI) and relative wall thickness (RWT). Thirty normotensive subjects (C group, n=30) served as controls. Radial strain (ɛ) in the inner half (ɛi) and all layers of the LV wall (ɛa) were calculated from the LV short-axis view by 2D-STE.
LV ejection fraction did not differ significantly among the groups. However, ɛi and ɛa were significantly lower in the CH group compared with the C and N groups (p<0.01). A ratio of ɛi to ɛa was significantly lower in the CH group compared with the C and N groups (p<0.01). A multivariate regression model that included midwall fractional shortening, E/e', LVMI, RWT, and LV ejection fraction showed that LVMI (p=0.002) and RWT (p=0.014) were independent predictors (R(2)=0.59) of ɛi.
Radial strain in the inner half layer of the LV wall decreases in parallel with the degrees of LV concentricity and hypertrophy in hypertensive patients. Radial strain in the inner half layer may identify subtle systolic dysfunction even in hypertensive patients with preserved LV chamber function.
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ABSTRACT: A new multiple-token ring access control scheme, referred to as the register insertion with self-token protocol, is described. In the protocol, each node distributed on a ring has a private token, called a self-token, and a fixed-length register to carry out register insertion control. The protocol, then, is expected to have good properties, inherited from both register insertion control and token access control schemes. A comparison between the register insertion/self-token protocol and the IEEE 802.5 is carried out
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