Epidemiology of Post-Traumatic Limb Amputation: A National Trauma Databank Analysis

Division of Trauma Surgery and Surgical Critical Care, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA.
The American surgeon (Impact Factor: 0.82). 11/2010; 76(11):1214-22.
Source: PubMed


The purpose of this study was to examine the epidemiology and outcomes of posttraumatic upper (UEA) and lower extremity amputations (LEA). The National Trauma Databank version 5 was used to identify all posttraumatic amputations. From 2000 to 2004 there were 8910 amputated patients (1.0% of all trauma patients). Of these, 6855 (76.9%) had digit and 2055 (23.1%) had limb amputation. Of those with limb amputation, 92.7 per cent (1904/2055) had a single limb amputation. LEA were more frequent than UEA among patients in the single limb amputation group (58.9% vs 41.1%). The mechanism of injury was blunt in 83 per cent; most commonly after motor vehicle collisions (51.0%), followed by machinery accidents (19.4%). Motor vehicle collision occupants had more UEA (54.5% vs 45.5%, P < 0.001), whereas motorcyclists (86.2% vs 13.8%, P < 0.001) and pedestrians (91.9% vs 8.1%, P < 0.001) had more LEA. Patients with LEA were more likely to require discharge to a skilled nursing facility; whereas those with UEA were more likely to be discharged home. Traumatic limb amputation is not uncommon after trauma in the civilian population and is associated with significant morbidity. Although single limb amputation did not impact mortality, the need for multiple limb amputation was an independent risk factor for death.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction The purpose of this study was to analyze the epidemiology and outcomes after traumatic amputation of the upper (UEA) and lower (LEA) extremities. Methods The Los Angeles County + University of Southern California Medical Center trauma registry was utilized to identify all patients sustaining traumatic amputation during the years 1996–2007. The demographics, mechanism of injury, clinical characteristics, associated injuries, surgical procedures, complications, and outcomes were obtained for these patients. Results During the 12-year study period, 130 patients suffered limb amputation, accounting for 0.25% of all trauma admissions. Thirteen patients (10%) were excluded because they were transferred from another facility after amputation or died in the emergency department. Of the remaining 117 patients, mean age was 38.1 ± 16.4 years and 77.8% were male. The predominant mechanism of injury was automobile versus pedestrian (27.4%), followed by work-related accidents (23.9%). Patients struck by vehicles were more likely to suffer LEA (93.8% versus 6.2%, p < 0.001), while patients with work-related accidents were more likely to sustain UEA (81.5% versus 18.5%, p < 0.001). Only nine patients underwent reattachment, all of which were for UEA and unsuccessful. Overall, 24.8% developed a complication during their hospital course, 55.2% of which were extremity related. Overall mortality was 3.4%, primarily attributed to associated severe traumatic brain injuries and thoracic injuries. Patients with LEA had longer hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay; however, after adjusting for confounders, this difference did not reach statistical significance (adjusted mean difference: 2.1 and 1.2 days, p = 0.69 and 0.79, respectively). A higher percentage of patients with LEA required discharge to a skilled nursing facility or rehabilitation center when compared with patients with UEA (29.6% versus 4.8%, p = 0.001). Conclusions Traumatic limb amputation is a rare consequence of civilian trauma. Amputation is rarely the primary cause of death; however, these devastating injuries are associated with significant intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay. Although no mortality difference was detected, when compared with patients with upper extremity amputations, patients with lower extremity amputations were more severely injured, required revision extremity surgery more often, had a higher complication rate, and more frequently required discharge to a long-term facility.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chronic pain is the leading cause of disability in the United States. The transition from acute to persistent pain is thought to arise from maladaptive neuroplastic mechanisms involving three intertwined processes, peripheral sensitization, central sensitization, and descending modulation. Strategies aimed at preventing persistent pain may target such processes. Models for studying preventive strategies include persistent post-surgical pain (PPP), persistent post-trauma pain (PTP) and post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). Such entities allow a more defined acute onset of tissue injury after which study of the long-term effects is more easily examined. In this review, we examine the pathophysiology, epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment strategies for the prevention of chronic pain using these models. Both pharmacological and interventional approaches are described, as well as a discussion of preventive strategies on the horizon.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011
Show more