Article

Prevalence of Nonfunctional Overreaching/Overtraining in Young English Athletes

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Abstract

Nonfunctional overreaching and overtraining (NFOR/OT) in adults can lead to significant decrements in performance, combined with physical and psychological health problems. Little is known about this condition in young athletes by comparison; thus, the aim of the study was to assess the incidence and symptomatology of NFOR/OT in young English athletes. Three hundred seventy-six athletes (131 girls and 245 boys, age=15.1±2.0 yr) completed a 92-item survey about NFOR/OT. The sample included athletes competing at club to international standards across 19 different sports. Athletes were classified as NFOR/OT if they reported persistent daily fatigue and a significant decrement in performance that lasted for long periods of time (i.e., weeks to months). Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov nonparametric tests. Significant predictors of NFOR/OT were identified using logistic regression analysis. One hundred ten athletes (29%) reported having been NFOR/OT at least once. The incidence was significantly higher in individual sports (P<0.01), low-physical demand sports (P<0.01), females (P<0.01), and at the elite level (P<0.01). Training load was not a significant predictor of NFOR/OT; however, competitive level and gender accounted for a small (4.7% and 1.7%, respectively) but significant explanatory variance of NFOR/OT (P<0.05). Approximately one-third of young athletes have experienced NFOR/OT, making this an issue for parents and coaches to recognize. OT is not solely a training load-related problem with both physical and psychosocial factors identified as important contributors.

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... Youth engagement in a sports programme that focuses on specialisation and the aspiration to reach a professional level is characterised by an intense training routine intended to optimise the athlete's performance (Malina, 2010;Kliethermes et al., 2021). An inappropriate training dose (e.g., high intensity/ volume) and insufficient recovery may result in maladaptive outcomes, such as decreased performance, increased risk of overuse-type injury (Kliethermes et al., 2021), overtraining (Matos et al., 2011;Burešová et al., 2021) or early dropout because of physical and emotional burnout (DiFiori et al., 2014). The occurrence of maladaptive responses becomes particularly important during adolescence, when youth athletes are undergoing different rates of biological maturation and psychological development (McKay et al., 2019). ...
... The prevalence of youth athletes who have experienced nonfunctional over-reaching or overtraining at least once during their sporting life reached up to 29% (Matos et al., 2011), 35% (Raglin et al., 2000), and 37% (Kenttä et al., 2001). Also, some have described that it is not just in elite athletes that these syndromes occur, showing that approximately 20% of youth playing at regional levels experienced the conditions at some point (Matos et al., 2011). ...
... The prevalence of youth athletes who have experienced nonfunctional over-reaching or overtraining at least once during their sporting life reached up to 29% (Matos et al., 2011), 35% (Raglin et al., 2000), and 37% (Kenttä et al., 2001). Also, some have described that it is not just in elite athletes that these syndromes occur, showing that approximately 20% of youth playing at regional levels experienced the conditions at some point (Matos et al., 2011). Providing youth athletes with awareness about the training demands using an easy-to-use and low-cost tool can be a good approach for helping prevent chronic fatigue status. ...
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This study describes a beta version of a mobile application (app) that focuses on preventing chronic fatigue in Czech youth athletes. The first version of the SmartTraining app was developed for athletes as a way to prevent chronic fatigue via alertness and education. For alertness, a multistage process was developed using a combination of parameters about training responses, such as tiredness, well-being, heart rate, energy balance and psychological, and health-related aspects. According to the combination of the multistage parameter outcomes, the algorithm classifies the risk of fatigue based on semaphore light: green corresponds to low, yellow to moderate and red to high risk. The education presented in the app consisted of written and "animated videos" material about the variables involved in training, such as training demands and athletes' responses, regeneration, nutrition and communication between athletes, coaches, and parents. Subsequently, a beta version of the app was created and freely available to download for Android or iOS mobile. The app can be used in daily routines to reduce the risk of chronic fatigue from inadequate training dose response. Prevention can minimise the risk of injury or physical and emotional burnout in youth. Informing athletes on how to carefully handle the training factors can improve athletes' awareness of their performance and health status. Collaboration between sports scientists and the commercial sector allows for the efficient development of an easy-to-use and low-cost tool for use in sports settings. Future steps should be performed to validate the app's accuracy in its alertness and in the efficiency of the educational process.
... On the sample of adult athletes, the percentage of overtrained athletes reaches 21 percent (Hooper, MacKinnon, & Hanrahan, 1997), 48 or even more than 60 percent (Morgan, O'Connor, Sparling, & Pate, 1987), depending on the competition level. Unfortunately, the prevalence of overtraining among young athletes is not negligible, and studies reveal that overtraining has been noted in more than one third of young athletes (Raglin, Sawamura, Alexiou, Hassmén, & Kenttä, 2000;Kenttä, Hassmén, & Raglin, 2001;Matos, Winsley, & Williams, 2011), while the presence of burnout is considerably less (Gustafsson, Kenttä, Hassmén, & Lundqvist, 2007). It can be stated that overtraining is more common in athletes practicing individual sports (48%), than in those practicing team sports (30%), and that 29 % of young athletes are dissatisfied with their relationship with their coach (Kenttä, Hassmén, & Raglin, 2001). ...
... It can be stated that overtraining is more common in athletes practicing individual sports (48%), than in those practicing team sports (30%), and that 29 % of young athletes are dissatisfied with their relationship with their coach (Kenttä, Hassmén, & Raglin, 2001). The amount of time an athlete has spent training is, logically, positively related to the occurrence of overtraining (Matos, Winsley & Williams, 2011). Certain studies (Taylor, Rogers, & Driver, 1997) suggest that by applying psychological preparation techniques the prevalence of overtraining may be decreased, especially applying the cognitive-behavioral techniques (Perna, Antoni, Kumar, Cruess, & Schneiderman, 1998). ...
... The obtained results are almost identical to the results of the studies which report of the lowest percentage of adult overtrained athletes (Hooper, MacKinnon & Hanrahan, 1997), and at the same time they are drastically lower than the results of other studies (Morgan, O Connor, Sparling, & Pate, 1987). The prevalence of overtraining obtained on this sample is even lower than that mentioned in the study of overtraining prevalence in young athletes (Raglin, Sawamura, Alexiou, Hassmen & Kentta, 2000;Kentta, Hassmen, & Raglin, 2001;Matos, Winsley, & Williams, 2011). The low rate of overtrained athletes in this study, as compared to previous studies, may be the result of the fact that the previous studies were based on samples of elite athletes, whereas most of the students in this study do not belong to that group. ...
Article
The occurrence of the overtraining syndrome emerges as one of the most important issues in sport. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of overtraining in sport university students and to examine the connection between the occurrence of this phenomenon and the behavior of coaches and parents. The study includes 107 students who have been competing in sport disciplines for more than two years. The results indicate that 19.6% of them have experienced overtraining syndrome and that the syndrome is more likely to occur in men and athletes who train individual sports. Overtraining occurs in one third of the athletes by the age of seventeen. Overtrained athletes perceive coaches and parents as individuals who push too hard. Suggestions for changing the behavior of coaches and parents of young athletes with the aim of preventing the occurrence of overtraining have been discussed.
... Aerobic capacity is highly regarded as a determinant of soccer performance at elite levels [2,[15][16][17] and is thought to very according to seasonal variation [2,6,8] despite evidence suggesting otherwise [3,5]. Therefore, to consider the impact of seasonal transition(s) with consideration of coaching influence and more specifically the variation in training periods (planned or not) throughout the ATC is necessary to optimize performance [6,8] and protect athletes from developing overtraining syndrome [18][19][20]. ...
... Accumulated training stress experienced during the pre-competitive season can overexert athletes from an overreached state (<2 weeks) [19,23] to an overtrained state (>2 weeks) [4,6] during the competitive season. Overtraining is defined by excessive training stress paired with little rest between competitions and training [24,25], marked by a sustained reduction in performance beyond two weeks, and is typically accompanied by chronic fatigue, respiratory infections, and mood swings [4,6]. ...
... The sustained reduction in performance (AC) beyond two weeks is an indicator of overtraining [4,8,24,25], which our population experienced. Furthermore, female team sport athletes are 26% more likely to become overtrained [27] and therefore planned rest intervals throughout the competitive season is likely to benefit female athletes' performance [18][19][20]. ...
Article
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This study assessed how seasonal transitions and coaching influence affect aerobic capacity (AC) and body composition across the annual training cycle (ATC). Eleven division 1 female soccer players were tested after five predesignated time blocks (B1–B5): post-season 2016 (B1), nine-week transition (B2), spring season (B3), pre-season (B4), and post-season 2017 (B5). Height, weight, and body composition (fat-free mass (FFM)) were measured prior to a standardized 5 min treadmill running and dynamic movement warm up before a maximal AC test. Statistical analysis included a 4 × 5 repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) (dependent variable × time) with the Fishers Least Significant Difference (LSD) post-hoc test when relevant; data are presented as mean ± standard deviation, effect size (ES), and percent change (%). The statistical analysis revealed that the ATC had a significant main effect on AC and FFM (F3,4 2.81, p = 0.001; η2 = 0.22). There were significant increases in AC across the transition period (B1–B2) with reduced training volume (∆ + 12.9%, p = 0.001; ES = 0.50) while AC and FFM peaked after the spring season with directed concurrent training paired with adequate rest B1–B3 (∆ + 16.4%, p < 0.01; ES = 0.81). AC decreased across the pre-season with indirect training (B3–B4) (∆ − 7.0%, p = 0.02; ES = 0.50) and remained suppressed without change (p > 0.05) across the competitive season (B4–B5). Rest, concurrent training, and directed training positively affected AC, while indirect training and high training loads with little rest negatively affected AC.
... A sufficient training stimulus is required to develop the technical/tactical skills and physiological capacities required to achieve success in sport (19,22), whereas inadequate prescription of training load will underprepare the athlete for the demands of competition (22). Despite this, a "more is better" (with inadequate recovery) approach to training may predispose the athlete to a maladaptive training response (e.g., overtraining, overuse injury, and burnout) (41). Previous research has found 20% of school/ club-level athletes experience nonfunctional overreaching at some point in their sporting career, whereas research in elite youth (12-17 years) soccer found the incidence to be 9% for girls and 27% for boys (17,41,63). ...
... Despite this, a "more is better" (with inadequate recovery) approach to training may predispose the athlete to a maladaptive training response (e.g., overtraining, overuse injury, and burnout) (41). Previous research has found 20% of school/ club-level athletes experience nonfunctional overreaching at some point in their sporting career, whereas research in elite youth (12-17 years) soccer found the incidence to be 9% for girls and 27% for boys (17,41,63). Furthermore, 33% of girls and 60% of boys experienced multiple bouts of nonfunctional overreaching meaning a previous period of nonfunctional overreaching is a risk factor for a future bout (63). ...
... Athletes should be exposed to periods of high training volume and/or intensity to provide a sufficient stimulus to provide a progressive overload, facilitating the development of technical and tactical skills (38,39). However, after periods of intensified or voluminous training, recovery must be implemented into the program to provide the athlete the opportunity to dissipate fatigue, adapt, and avoid maladaptive responses such as overuse injury (41). Systematic planned periods of high training load, followed by intentional low training loads, to facilitate recovery and adaptations are likely absent, when multiple stakeholders are planning an athlete's development in isolation, with inherent competing demands (48). ...
... Frequent exposure to sports training, often through participation in multiple sports or for multiple sides within the same sport (Phibbs et al., 2016) provides enjoyment alongside opportunities to improve physical, technical, tactical and psycho-social attributes (Soligard et al., 2016). Despite this, an accumulation of training and subsequent fatigue without adequate recovery may predispose the athlete to a maladaptive training response (e.g., non-functional overreaching, injury) (Matos et al., 2011). Previous research showed that 29% of the youth athletes (ranging from local to international level) suffered from non-functional overreaching at some point in their careers (Matos et al., 2011). ...
... Despite this, an accumulation of training and subsequent fatigue without adequate recovery may predispose the athlete to a maladaptive training response (e.g., non-functional overreaching, injury) (Matos et al., 2011). Previous research showed that 29% of the youth athletes (ranging from local to international level) suffered from non-functional overreaching at some point in their careers (Matos et al., 2011). A prolonged period of non-functional overreaching can lead to a withdrawal from sport negating the benefits of sporting participation and contrasting the aims of youth athletic development (Difiori et al., 2014). ...
... Moderate to high training loads are required within team sports to facilitate adaption and ensure players are capable of meeting the demands of competition (Gabbett, 2016;Hulin et al., 2014). However, a prolonged period of intense training without the incorporation of recovery or "easier" sessions can lead to an accumulation of fatigue and subsequent performance impairment, injury, illness and sporting burnout (Difiori et al., 2014;Matos et al., 2011). Further research is required to enhance the understanding of the psychological, physiological and environmental factors that influence sRPE in youth team sports and how these factors combine with the prescription of external training load variables to distinguish session intensity. ...
Article
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Identifying the external training load variables which influence subjective internal response will help reduce the mismatch between coach-intended and athlete-perceived training intensity. Therefore, this study aimed to reduce external training load measures into distinct principal components (PCs), plot internal training response (quantified via session Rating of Perceived Exertion [sRPE]) against the identified PCs and investigate how the prescription of PCs influences subjective internal training response. Twenty-nine school to international level youth athletes wore microtechnology units for field-based training sessions. SRPE was collected post-session and assigned to the microtechnology unit data for the corresponding training session. 198 rugby union, 145 field hockey and 142 soccer observations were analysed. The external training variables were reduced to two PCs for each sport cumulatively explaining 91%, 96% and 91% of sRPE variance in rugby union, field hockey and soccer, respectively. However, when internal response was plotted against the PCs, the lack of separation between low-, moderate- and high-intensity training sessions precluded further analysis as the prescription of the PCs do not appear to distinguish subjective session intensity. A coach may therefore wish to consider the multitude of physiological, psychological and environmental factors which influence sRPE alongside external training load prescription.
... As mentioned earlier, a number of factors, particularly precompetition anxiety, has a dominant role and is likely to affect the quality, quantity and effectiveness of the sleep of the competitor (Forndran et al., 2012). Pre-competition anxiety, training volume and intensity have got the potency to intervene in the normal sleep pattern of the players (Matos, Winsley, & Williams, 2011). Poor quality and decreased amount of sleep are commonly experienced among the players, particularly before a high level of competition, and it is associated with pre-competition anxiety (Juliff, Halson, Peiffer, 2014). ...
... As mentioned earlier, a number of factors, particularly the pre-competition anxiety have dominant role and is likely to affect the quality, quantity, and effectiveness of the sleep of the competitor (Forndran et al., 2012). Pre-competition anxiety and training volume and intensity have got the potency to Global Educational Studies Review (GESR) intervene in the normal sleep pattern of the players (Matos, Winsley, & Williams, 2011). Poor quality and decreased amount of sleep are commonly experienced among the players, particularly before a high level of competition, and it is associated with the pre-competition anxiety (Juliff, Halson, Peiffer, 2014). ...
Article
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The relationship of sleep, recovery and performance was the pivot of this research study. The role of sleep is vital for the health, physiological, and cognitive functioning of players. However, the complex processes of sleep are yet unclear. A bulk of literature is available documenting the effect of sleep upon human health, and a meager amount of information exists about the role of sleep in the perspectives of players. Respondents of this research study comprised of 82 university players representing Cricket, Foot Ball, Hockey, Volley Ball, Basket Ball, Badminton, Table Tennis, and Track and Field events. Data were collected using an adapted questionnaire, "Athlete Sleep Behavior Questionnaire”. Anova and Coefficients were used for the analysis of data. Analysis revealed that there exists a highly significant association between sleep, recovery, and performance of the players. Similarly,the role of sleep in the perspective of recovery and performance of the player has also been found highly significant. Considering the findings of the study, it is suggested that players should be provided a conducive environment for sound sleep, ensuring having the proper amount of sleep during all three phases, including pre, during, and post-competition to have a rapid recovery and good performance.
... Furthermore, studies occasionally stated that psychological changes had occurred, but this was not corroborated with objective evidence (eg, a validated scale). 30 Therefore, as no study provided actual evidence of objective changes in physical performance and psychological states, as required by the definition of purportedly overtrained athletes, we were unable to describe the physical and psychological changes that occur with OTS. ...
... Further complicating the topic, psychological symptoms have regularly been reported but this has often been done without rigor. 30 Within the literature, athletes have been requested to recall whether a single psychological characteristic has been altered during their training history. Disregarding issues surrounding whether an athlete can accurately recall the length and severity of changes in mood, the ability of a single question to assess psychological change must be questioned. ...
Article
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Context: To understand overtraining syndrome (OTS), it is important to detail the physiological and psychological changes that occur in athletes. Objectives: To systematically establish and detail the physiological and psychological changes that occur as a result of OTS in athletes. Methods: Databases were searched for studies that were (1) original investigations; (2) English, full-text articles; (3) published in peer-reviewed journals; (4) investigations into adult humans and provided (5) objective evidence that detailed changes in performance from prior to the onset of OTS diagnosis and that performance was suppressed for more than 4 weeks and (6) objective evidence of psychological symptoms. Results: Zero studies provided objective evidence of detailed changes in performance from prior to the onset of OTS diagnosis and demonstrated suppressed performance for more than 4 weeks accompanied by changes in psychological symptoms. Conclusions: All studies failed to provide evidence of changes in performance and mood from "healthy" to an overtrained state with evidence of prolonged suppression of performance. While OTS may be observed in the field, little data is available describing how physiological and psychological symptoms manifest. This stems from vague terminology, difficulties in monitoring for prolonged periods of time, and the need for prospective testing. Real-world settings may facilitate the collection of such data, but the ideal testing battery that can easily be conducted on a regular basis does not yet exist. Consequently, it must be concluded that an evidence base of sufficient scientific quality for understanding OTS in athletes is lacking.
... The OR state is characterized by a temporary decrease in performance (Meeusen et al., 2013) and some studies have shown that OR can limit performance gains even when followed by a taper period, in comparison to overload without performance decrements (i.e., acutely fatigued group; Aubry et al., 2014). The prevalence of OR and overtraining syndrome (OTS; defined as long-term performance impairment accompanied or not by psychological and physiological imbalances (Meeusen et al., 2013) during a season have been shown to be around 10% in collegiate swimmers and other endurance athletes (Raglin & Wilson, 2000) and 17% in young team sports athletes (Matos et al., 2011). However, investigations on the prevalence of OR during the water polo season are lacking. ...
... In a study with young swimmers from different countries, found, using questionnaires, that 34.6% of athletes presented OR symptoms during their sporting career. Furthermore, Matos et al. (2011) also showed, using questionnaires, that the incidence of OR in young team sports athletes is 17%. However, it is important to emphasize that the studies cited performed the diagnosis of OR only from questionnaires completed by the athletes and did not evaluate the performance, which is the primary indicator of OR (Meeusen et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Purpose: The purposes of the study were to: i) verify the variations in training load and the subsequent effects on swimming performance parameters, biochemical parameters, and autonomic nervous activity during a water polo season; ii) investigate the sensitivity of physiological markers in tracking training load and performance variations, and iii) verify the overreaching prevalence. Method: The training load of 20 female water polo players was monitored (using the session rating of perceived exertion method [sRPE], training monotony, and strain), and the lactate minimum speed (LMS), repeated sprint ability (RSA), plasma hormone and glutamine concentration, salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA), and heart rate variability (lnRMSSD) were evaluated during the season. Result: The training load parameters were higher in the competitive cycle (p ≤ 0.002). The LMS improved only in the general cycle from baseline (p = .015), while the RSA best time improved in the general (p = .002) and specific cycles (p = .012) from baseline and deteriorated in the competitive from general cycle (p = .008). The SIgA secretion rate presented a reduction only in the specific cycle from baseline (p = .032), while the lnRMSSD increased in the general (p = .038) and competitive (p < .001) cycles from baseline. Five athletes were diagnosed as overreaching state. Conclusion: Therefore, the physiological markers (i.e., plasma hormone and glutamine concentration, SIgA, and lnRMSSD) showed little sensitivity to detect changes in training load and swimming performance. The higher training loads applied in the competitive cycle seem to limit swimming performance gains.
... Be that as it may, it is necessary to look at differences in the demands placed on athletes in different sports disciplines. Research studies repeatedly recorded a more frequent OTS occurrence in girls, who specialized in a sport very early, particularly in individual sports (Matos et al., 2011;Walters et al., 2018). The discrepancy in the prevalence of OTS is caused by a number of limitations of research studies dealing with this subject, for example, the use of different research methods, the heterogeneity of the research sample, data collection at various stages of the training cycle, the competition season, etc. ...
... Many authors perceive overtraining as the last of the three maladaptive phases of training. In this context, Matos et al. (2011) describe the first of these phases as a training plateau, the second as the occurrence of psychophysiological dysfunctions, and in the third phase, which some authors describe as burnout, the athlete's ability to react to stress has been exhausted. However, burnout and OTS are two different concepts, which should not be used interchangeably. ...
Article
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The article presents an overview of important findings concerning the overtraining syndrome (OTS) in elite athletes. Although the scientific community agrees that OTS is a multifactorially determined and individually variable phenomenon, which can have a serious impact on the individual, there are still some inconsistencies. Therefore, in our study we focused on the terminology of the phenomenon, its prevalence, etiology and symptomatology. We paid specific attention to psychological instruments of detecting OTS indicators. Given that in the period of adolescence the training process in the majority of sport disciplines intensifies significantly, the context of developmental changes during this period in relation to OTS is discussed. The final part of the study summarizes the basic principles of prevention of this pathological phenomenon.
... Parental pressure to compete and succeed, academic pressure, competitive level, training load, and gender are different factors that may contribute to overtraining [17,18]. However, recent research showed that training load is not a significant predictor of overtraining [19]. Evidence has shown an incidence from 20% to 30% in overtraining in young athletes, with a higher occurrence in individual sports athletes [18]. ...
... Evidence has shown an incidence from 20% to 30% in overtraining in young athletes, with a higher occurrence in individual sports athletes [18]. In addition, 29% of English athletes reported having been nonfunctional, overreaching, or overtraining [19]. The time to prepare from WYC to WJC, and then to a WC suggests at least four years of training, which means a lot of stressful situations and training that may induce overtraining. ...
Article
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It is reasonable to believe that a young athlete who succeeds in a World Youth Championship, will also be successful as a senior athlete. To determine the percentage of success of all World Youth Championship finalists who also became finalists in a subsequent senior World Championship, considering all athletes and events at World Athletics Championships. This study analyzed the eight male and eight female finalists of all the events conducted at the World Athletics World Youth Championship from 1999 to 2009, who also became finalists at the World Athletics World Championship from 2001 to 2011. Percentage of success was calculated for track and field events, for male, female, and both. For all the events, from 1759 finalists in a World Youth Championship only 83, representing 4.72%, were also finalists in a World Championship in 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, or 2011. Of those 83 athletes, 45 were males and 38 were female. A low rate of success was found. These results were discussed including injuries, early specialization, biological maturation, and/or overtraining, as possible factors related to this low rate of success.
... The lifetime prevalence of overtraining symptoms among athletes is 7-20%, and 30-100% of athletes report symptoms of overtraining after intense training [4]. Overtraining depends on individual differences and capabilities, so coaches and athletes are often unable to accurately determine whether overtraining occurs, which delays the immediate response and causes a long-term decrement in performance. ...
... However, these indicators of overtraining remain unclear due to the variability of the results, so these theories cannot be corroborated. Moreover, overtraining is not only related to a single training load but also has more reciprocal effects with physical, mental, and social factors [4]. Research has indicated detrimental effects of overtraining on athletes' mental health, including increased depression, low motivation, anger, and eating disorders. ...
Article
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Overtraining in athletes usually causes profound and lasting deleterious effects on the maintenance of health and exercise capacity. Here, we established an overtraining animal model to investigate the physiological modulation for future strategic applications in vivo. We subjected C57BL/6 mice to exhaustive treadmill exercises daily for 8 weeks (the exhaustive exercise group). Next, the physiological and psychological outcomes were compared with the regular exercise and sedentary groups. Outcome measures included growth, glucose tolerance, exercise metabolism profiles, cytokine levels, intestinal tight junction gene expression, and psychological behavioral changes. Our results revealed that overtraining negatively affected the physiological and psychological changes in the current model. The exhaustive exercise group exhibited significantly lower endurance performance and imbalanced energy expenditure, causing a decrease in body fat mass and slowing down the growth curve. In addition, the inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β) and immune cells (neutrophils and monocytes) were significantly elevated after successive exhaustive exercise interventions. Furthermore, overtraining-induced stress resulted in increased anxiety status and decreased food intake. Our findings reinforce the idea that an imbalance between exercise and recovery can impair health and performance maintenance after overtraining. This study highlights the maladaptation of overtraining and provides an animal model to determine the effectiveness of possible strategies, including nutrition and monitoring, for treatment and prevention of overtraining syndromes in future studies.
... Therefore, keeping youths involved in sport is of utmost importance however, this is not without a number of distinct challenges. In swimming, the commonly high training volumes at youth level can lead to early sport specialisation (Myer et al. 2015b), overuse injury (Sein et al. 2010, Hibberd and Myers 2013, Post et al. 2017) and overtraining syndrome (Raglin et al. 2000, Matos et al. 2011. Early sport specialisation is defined as intensive year-round training in a single sport at the exclusion of other sports (Jayanthi et al. 2013). ...
... Common symptoms of OT include mood disturbances (Morgan et al. 1987); increased perceptions of effort with training and competition (Kenttä and Hassmén 1998); loss of appetite; sleep disturbances and increased incidences of upper respiratory tract infections (Fry et al. 1991). A study by Matos et al. (2011) investigated the prevalence of OT in 376 youth athletes (15.1 ± 2.0 years) across 19 different individual and team sports. One hundred ten youth athletes (29%) reported having OT at least once in their sporting career. ...
... In normal circumstances, it can take up to five days to return to a balanced physical state (homeostasis) [13], and with increased training load and non-training stressors, it might take up to several weeks to recover [9,17]. The additional stress is not only evident in athletes playing sport at a high-performance level but also in athletes at the lower representative standards, where external pressure from schoolwork, relationship tensions, and pressure from parents and coaches has been reported [18]. Hence, there can be a risk of NFOR and overtraining (OT) for all young athletes. ...
... Hence, there can be a risk of NFOR and overtraining (OT) for all young athletes. Consequently, this is not only an important issue for those adults that are involved in sport but also for coaches and teachers [18]. ...
Article
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Background: Athlete self-report measures (ASRM) are methods of athlete monitoring, which have gained considerable popularity in recent years. The Multicomponent Training Distress Scale (MTDS), consisting of 22 items, is a promising self-report measure to assess training distress among athletes. The present study aimed to investigate the factorial validity of the Norwegian version of MTDS (MTDS-N) among student-athletes (n = 632) attending the optional program subject "Top-Level Sports" in upper secondary schools in Norway. Methods: A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to assess the six-factor model proposed by Main and Grove (2009). McDonald's omega (ω) along with confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate scale reliability. After examining the fit of the CFA model in the total sample, covariates were included to investigate group differences in latent variables of MTDS-N, resulting in the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) model. Further, direct paths between the covariates and the factor indicators were included in an extended MIMIC model to investigate whether responses to items differed between groups, resulting in differential item functioning (DIF). Results: When modification indices (MIs) were taken into consideration, the alternative CFA model revealed that MTDS-N is an acceptable psychometric tool with a good fit index. The factors in MTDS-N all constituted high scale reliability with McDonald's ω ranging from 0.725-0.862. The results indicated statistically significant group differences in factor scores for gender, type of sport, hours of training per week, school program, and school level. Further, results showed that DIF occurred in 13 of the MTDS-N items. The student-athletes' reports of training distress were moderate. Conclusion: The MTDS-N may be suitable for use in a Norwegian population to assess student-athletes' training distress in a reliable manner. The indications of group effects suggest that caution should be used if one is interested in making group comparisons when the MTDS-N is used among student-athletes in Norway until further research is conducted.
... [29][30][31] A study of 376 adolescent athletes across 19 different sports found that 29% had experienced an episode of nonfunctional overreaching or overtraining in their past; such episodes were defined as a significant decrement in performance that persisted for periods of time longer than 2 weeks in the setting of continued training. 32 A burnt-out athlete is unlikely to maintain the motivation or intrinsic drive that has been shown to be essential for achievement and continued participation in sport. 12,33 Developmental Growth Multiple studies have sought to elucidate the social and psychological risks of ESS. ...
... ESS generally leads to increased training intensity and volume, which has been associated with higher rates of withdrawal from sport in the immature athlete. 32 Excessive training volume or intensity can also curtail enjoyment and prevent long-term sport participation. 27 Decreased Progression to an Elite Level Multiple studies comparing elite to near-elite athletes have consistently shown that the elite athletes specialized later than near-elite athletes. ...
Article
Early sports specialization (ESS) is a relatively new trend that has led to many youth athletes to focus on only 1 sport at an increasingly young age. Although parents and coaches perceive that this will improve their athlete's chances of success at the collegiate and professional levels, studies have shown the opposite. ESS leads to increased injury risk, higher rates of burnout, and lower lifelong sports participation without increasing elite achievement. Throwing athletes are particularly vulnerable to these overuse injuries of the shoulder and elbow, which have been shown to correlate directly to the number of throws and innings played.
... Toto celé môže byť spôsobené tým, že jedinec je sociálne izolovaný od svojich rovesníkov. Vzťahy tým pádom nadväzuje iba s ľuďmi, ktorí sú v blízkosti a v spojení s jeho športovou aktivitou (Winsley, Matos, 2010;Matos et al. 2011). Individuálny šport má aj svoje výhody. ...
... Pod vonkajšie motívy spadá okrem motívu zvíťaziť nad súperom i podpora ostatných spoluhráčov, ktorú športovec dostáva v čase najväčšej záťaže. Keďže v individuálnom športe je každý jednotlivec sám za seba, je zrejmé, že u neho bude prevládať zhoršené zvládanie celkovej situácie zápasu (Winsley, Matos, 2010;Matos et al. 2011). Preto môžeme usudzovať, že podpora, ktorú si hráči dávajú navzájom je znakom toho, že práve v kolektívnom športe bude prevládať integrovaná regulácia. ...
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Recenzovaný nekonferenčný zborník vedecko-výskumných a odborných prác, zameraný na prezentáciu poznatkov v oblasti športu, telesnej výchovy, diagnostiky, zdravia, rekreácie, cestovného ruchu, regenerácie, manažmentu, atď
... OTS can be defined as an accumulation of training and/or non-training stressors resulting in prolonged underperformance with a complex etiology involving a wide range of psychological, biochemical, immunological, and neuroendocrine symptoms (Meeusen et al., 2013). Unexpected underperformance have been suggested to affect 20%-60% of athletes throughout their career (Morgan et al., 1987;Kenttä et al., 2001;Matos et al., 2011;Meeusen et al., 2013), although full-blown OTS diagnosis in elite populations are relatively rare (Buyse et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Purpose: To determine the main factors associated with unexpected underperformance and prospectively describe the holistic process of returning to sustainable world-class level in a male cross-country skier. Methods: Longitudinal training data was retrospectively analyzed across nine seasons (2012-2013 to 2020-2021), and categorized into training forms (endurance, strength, and speed), intensities [low- (LIT), moderate- (MIT), and high-intensity training (HIT)], and modes (specific and non-specific). Performance data was obtained from the International Ski and Snowboard Federation. Following two seasons of unexpected underperformance (2019-2020 and 2020-2021), the participant was prospectively followed in the process of returning to sustainable world-class level (2021-2022). Day-to-day training data and physiological tests were analyzed, and interviews with the participant and the head coach conducted. Results: Longitudinal training data from 2012-2013 to 2018-2019 demonstrated a non-linear 30% increase in total training volume (from 772 to 1,002 h), mainly caused by increased volume of ski-specific endurance training without changes in intensity distribution. Coincidingly, the participant gradually reached a world-class performance level. After two seasons of unexpected underperformance with relatively similar training volumes and intensity distributions as in the preceding seasons, the possible contributing factors were identified: lack of training periodization, limited monitoring and intensity control, particularly in connection with a “extreme” regime of training with low carbohydrate availability and days including two MIT sessions, as well as lack of systematic technique training and follow-up by coaches on a daily basis. Consequently, the return to world-class level included the introduction of a clear micro-cycle periodization, more systematic physiological monitoring and testing, more accurate intensity control, increased carbohydrate intake during and between sessions, as well as increased emphasize on technique training and an assistant coach present during day-to-day training. Conclusion: These longitudinal data describe the main factors leading to unexpected underperformance, in addition to providing unique insights into the corresponding process of returning to sustainable world-class level in a male cross-country skier. The holistic approach described in this case study may serve as a theoretical framework for future studies and practical work with underperforming endurance athletes.
... There are unique aspects of the collegiate athletic culture that can increase the risk for mental health concerns. These include the negative impact on self-identity when engrossed in athletics (Taylor, 2014), time demands (Kroshus, 2014), injury (Putukian, 2016), focus on the physical body (McLester et al., 2014), the transition out of athletics (Miller & Buttell, 2018;Smith & Hardin, 2018), over-training syndrome (Matos et al., 2011), and traumatic brain injuries (Kontos et al., 2012). ...
Article
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The high rates of depression, anxiety, suicide, and other mental health disorders among collegiate student-athletes have resulted in the need for appropriate mental health services. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has released a best practices guide for mental health in college sport that includes licensed psychologists (LP), licensed clinical social workers (LCSW), and licensed professional counselors (LPC) as competent to provide mental health services to student-athletes. However, an examination of the differences between these three licenses is absent from the literature. This essay offers an overview on these differences to clarify the purview of each license as there is confusion surrounding the different types of professionals that can provide mental health services. A detailed description of what is means to hold an LP, LCSW, and LPC distinction is provided, followed by a discussion of the difference between mental health licensure and certification as a certified mental performance consultant (CMPC). This will assist administrators, athletic administrators, and student-athletes in making informed decisions about mental health care.
... This aspect is even more important when we refer to young athletes. Some previous studies have found that a 30-35% of young athletes have experienced overtraining (OT) or nonfunctional overreaching (NFOR) [8,9]. In addition, different training contents (and different cycles) can induce diverse metabolic, physiological and performance adaptations [10]. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different training periods and tapering during a macrocycle on heart rate variability (HRV), overtraining states and performance in young elite swimmers. Method Fifteen swimmers (6 men, 9 women) completed an 8-week training period divided into a basic, specific, competitive and transition blocks. HRV measures were recorded 3 days per week before the morning training session in supine position for 5 minutes. Overtraining state was recorded through the questionnaire of early clinical symptoms of the overtraining syndrome (QSFMS), which one considers different contributions to fatigue linked to physical exercising. The overtraining state was registered when the score exceeded 20 negative items out of 54. Training intensity distribution in five zones and training volume were quantified. The results show that, in these elite young swimmers, no changes in HRV were found during the 8-week training period with an average performance improvement (∼3%) in the competition block. In addition, there was no relationship between the QSFMS score and HRV. To conclude it appears that HRV indices within normal baseline levels could help to develop a well-managed and periodized training program that allows improves the performance in young elite swimmers.
... As such, sports-friendly schools need to work in tandem with wider sporting organisations in an integrated effort to balance student-athletes training schedules and develop aligned athlete-focused training plans and goals. This will help prevent the unintentional accumulation of fatigue, which may lead to performance decrement, non-functional overreaching, increased likelihood of injury [96,97], and stagnation in physical development. ...
Article
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In order to understand the features of sport schools and their impacts on the holistic development of student-athletes, it is important to take into account the voice of multiple stakeholders central to the programmes (student-athletes, coaches, teachers). Through a case-study approach, using five focus groups, with 19 student-athletes, and six semi-structured interviews with three coaches and three dual coach and teachers, this study explored the perceived impacts of one sport-friendly school (pseudonym-"Salkeld High") on holistic athlete development and the features that drove these impacts. Using a critical realist approach to thematic analysis, findings indicated a multitude of immediate, intermediate and long-term positive and negative impacts associated with academic/vocational (e.g., academic security vs. second/third choice university), athletic/physical (e.g., performance development vs. injuries), psychosocial (e.g., social skills vs. social scarifies) and psychological (e.g., sport confidence vs. performance pressure) development of "Salkeld High" student-athletes. Overall, "Salkeld High" was viewed as an integrated school environment for sport, academics, and boarding, where academic (e.g., extra-tutoring), athletic (e.g., high volume/frequency of training), and psychosocial/psychological (e.g., pastoral services) features are all in one location. The student-athletes tended to get a well-rounded, balanced holistic experience. However, the intensified and challenging nature of involvement did present some negative impacts that stakeholders should be aware of when designing, implementing, and evaluating sport-friendly school programmes. Furthermore, although "Salkeld High" was seen as an integrated environment within the school, it could do better at collaborating with wider sporting structures.
... If NFOR is left undiagnosed, and the training/recovery imbalance continues, athletes experience a heightened risk of suffering from the OTS, which can take months to years to fully recover (Meeusen et al., 2013). Symptoms of NFOR/OTS occur in individual (37%) and team (17%) sport athletes (Matos et al., 2011), with the incidence in an athletes' career ranging from 30% to 60% (Morgan et al., 1987;Birrer et al., 2013). Despite the high incidence of states of overtraining, little progress has been made on establishing objective and reliable biomarkers for identifying when an athlete may be entering the various states of overtraining following periods of intensified training (Armstrong and VanHeest, 2002). ...
Article
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Background: Intensified training coupled with sufficient recovery is required to improve athletic performance. A stress-recovery imbalance can lead to negative states of overtraining. Hormonal alterations associated with intensified training, such as blunted cortisol, may impair the immune response. Cortisol promotes the maturation and migration of dendritic cells which subsequently stimulate the T cell response. However, there are currently no clear reliable biomarkers to highlight the overtraining syndrome. This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the effect of intensified training on immune cells. Outcomes from this could provide insight into whether these markers may be used as an indicator of negative states of overtraining. Methods: SPORTDiscus, PUBMED, Academic Search Complete, Scopus and Web of Science were searched until June 2022. Included articles reported on immune biomarkers relating to lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and cytokines before and after a period of intensified training, in humans and rodents, at rest and in response to exercise. Results: 164 full texts were screened for eligibility. Across 57 eligible studies, 16 immune biomarkers were assessed. 7 were assessed at rest and in response to a bout of exercise, and 9 assessed at rest only. Included lymphocyte markers were CD3 ⁺ , CD4 ⁺ and CD8 ⁺ T cell count, NK cell count, NK Cytolytic activity, lymphocyte proliferation and CD4/CD8 ratio. Dendritic cell markers examined were CD80, CD86, and MHC II expression. Cytokines included IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ. A period of intensified training significantly decreased resting total lymphocyte ( d= − 0.57, 95% CI − 0.30) and CD8 ⁺ T cell counts ( d= − 0.37, 95% CI − 0.04), and unstimulated plasma IL-1β levels ( d= − 0.63, 95% CI − 0.17). Resting dendritic cell CD86 expression significantly increased ( d = 2.18, 95% CI 4.07). All other biomarkers remained unchanged. Conclusion: Although some biomarkers alter after a period of intensified training, definitive immune biomarkers are limited. Specifically, due to low study numbers, further investigation into the dendritic cell response in human models is required.
... 7 It is evident that these factors do not account for burnout development in its entirety. 8,9 Physiological and psychosocial elements likely contribute. 10 An integrative model proposes an array of causative factors, including both training and non-training stressors such as insufficient recovery, school or work stress, and tense social relations. ...
Article
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When athletes are burning out, performance decreases whereas exhaustion and devaluation increases. Athletes with perfectionistic tendencies may be at greater risk for burnout than those with lower levels. But are there any differences between athletes participating in objectively assessed sports (utilizing unbiased measures, such as time, e.g. swimming) and athletes participating in subjectively assessed sports (relying on coach feedback, competition judges, or internal perceptions to gauge performance, e.g. competitive dancing)? A total of 108 athletes (including 53 athletes in objectively assessed and 55 athletes in subjectively assessed sports) completed the Sport Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale-2 and the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire. Significant relationships were detected between perfectionism and burnout; negative dimensions of perfectionism were more strongly correlated with burnout. However, no significant differences were observed between the sports groupings, either on perfectionism or burnout. This study suggests that perfectionistic concerns are positively associated with athlete burnout, regardless of the athlete's sport being objectively or subjectively assessed.
... In youth athletes, wellbeing monitoring in addition to training load monitoring is particularly important, as youth athletes commonly face stressors from other sources such as school, relationships and pressure from both coaches and parents [65]. Youth athletes' stress is often cyclical, as an athlete's perceived stress level increases gradually throughout the year as academic requirements increase, culminating during exam period(s), after which it significantly decreases [63]. ...
Article
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Participation in youth sports is ever-increasing, along with training and competition demands placed upon youth athletes. Young athletes may experience high training loads due to playing several sports, as well as participating in school physical education. Therefore, monitoring youth athlete load is an emerging area of research that may help limit non-functional overreaching, injury, or illness and assist with long-term athlete development. This narrative review highlights that multiple measures have been explored to monitor both internal and external load. However, the validity, reliability and practicality of these measures are often not fully understood in female youth populations. The most commonly used external monitoring methods are GPS tracking and TRIMP whereas common internal monitoring tools are questionnaires, perceived exertion rating and heart rate measures. The reporting of injuries and menstrual cycles is also crucial for providing completeness when monitoring an athlete. It has been suggested that the combination of training load, recovery and wellbeing monitoring variables is the optimal way to monitor an athlete’s fatigue levels. Whichever monitoring method is applied, in a youth population it is important that the protocol can be individualised, is inexpensive and can be easily implemented and reported so that the monitoring is sustainable.
... On the other hand, too few training loads can lead to non-optimal performance increases. Nearly thirty percent of young athletes experience non-functional overreaching or overtraining at least once in their careers [5]. Therefore, it is important to prescribe a tailored training load for individual athletes. ...
Article
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The aim of this observational study was to examine the differences between training variables as intended by coaches and perceived by junior speed skaters and to explore how these relate to changes in stress and recovery. During a 4-week preparatory period, intended and perceived training intensity (RPE) and duration (min) were monitored for 2 coaches and their 23 speed skaters, respectively. The training load was calculated by multiplying RPE by duration. Changes in perceived stress and recovery were measured using RESTQ-sport questionnaires before and after 4 weeks. Results included 438 intended training sessions and 378 executed sessions of 14 speed skaters. A moderately higher intended (52:37 h) versus perceived duration (45:16 h) was found, as skaters performed fewer training sessions than anticipated (four sessions). Perceived training load was lower than intended for speed skating sessions (−532 ± 545 AU) and strength sessions (−1276 ± 530 AU) due to lower RPE scores for skating (−0.6 ± 0.7) or shorter and fewer training sessions for strength (−04:13 ± 02:06 hh:mm). All training and RESTQ-sport parameters showed large inter-individual variations. Differences between intended–perceived training variables showed large positive correlations with changes in RESTQ-sport, i.e., for the subscale’s success (r = 0.568), physical recovery (r = 0.575), self-regulation (r = 0.598), and personal accomplishment (r = 0.589). To conclude, speed skaters that approach or exceed the coach’s intended training variables demonstrated an increased perception of success, physical recovery, self-regulation, and personal accomplishment.
... Several factors contributing to athlete burnout include extremely high training volume, demanding performance expectations, frequent and intense competitions, inconsistent coaching practices, and negative performance evaluations. Personal characteris-tics also contribute to burnout such as negative perfectionism, a need to please others, obsessive passion, low self-esteem, and unidimensional self-conceptualization (Malina, 2010;Matos, Winsley, & Williams, 2011). In addition, some overuse injuries may result in long-term health consequences, including burnout and previous illnesses related to burnout in young athletes (DiFiori et al., 2014). ...
Article
This study aims to compare physical performance and psychological status between professional football players with no history of ankle sprain and those with recurrent ankle sprains. The participants in this study included 40 male professional football players from 6 football clubs in Thailand. Participants were classified into two groups, those with no history of ankle sprain (control) and those with recurrent ankle sprains, with 20 participants in each group. All participants were asked to perform four physical performance tests, namely, the weight bearing lunge test, star excursion balance test, vertical jump test, and Illinois agility test; and to complete two psychological questionnaires, assessing anxiety and burnout. The physical test results showed that the posteromedial direction in the star excursion balance test was significantly lower in the recurrent ankle sprain group compared to the control (p<0.05). There were no differences in anterior and posterolateral directions. In addition, there were no significant differences in weight bearing lunge, vertical jump, and Illinois agility between the groups. The results of the psychological questionnaires showed a significant difference in terms of the achievement dimension of burnout between the groups (p<0.05), while in other psychological parameters there was no difference. The difference was partially achieved, only in two tests, while in others there was no difference at all. Therefore, in accordance with the achieved results, the coach and rehabilitation team should raise awareness and include treatment programs to help athletes avoid physical and mental problems associated with recurring ankle injuries.
... For the welfare and well-being of student-athletes at sports schools, training and competition workload should be appropriately monitored and assessed. Without careful planning and monitoring, student-athletes are at an increased risk of excessive training loads, insufficient rest and recovery [79][80][81][82][83], injury [84][85][86][87], and burnout [88,89]. While overtraining and nonfunctional overreaching are not exclusively a consequence of training overload, it is likely that sports schools that fail to provide sufficient recovery time for adaptation and natural growth will increase the chances of negative health impacts in youth athletes [79]. ...
Article
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Background To understand the multiple and wide-ranging impacts of intensified youth sport, the need for a holistic approach to athlete development has recently been advocated. Sports schools are an increasingly popular operationalisation of intensified youth sport, aiming to offer an optimal environment for holistic development by combining sport and education. Yet, no study has systematically explored the impacts associated with sports schools. Objectives The aims of this mixed method systematic review were to (1) determine the characteristics and features of sports schools; (2) identify the methods used to evaluate sports school impacts, and (3) evaluate the positive and negative holistic athlete development impacts associated with sports school programme involvement. Methods Adhering to PRISMA guidelines, eight electronic databases were searched until the final return in February 2021. Forty-six articles satisfied the inclusion criteria, were analysed thematically, and synthesised using a narrative approach. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Results Findings indicated (1) sports school student-athletes receive considerable support in terms of academic and athletic services, more intensified training and competition schedules with high-level training partners, but regularly miss school; (2) multiple methods have been used to evaluate student-athlete impacts, making comparison across studies and developing consensus on the impacts of sports schools difficult; and (3) there are a multitude of immediate, short- and long-term positive and negative impacts associated with the academic/vocational, athletic/physical, psychosocial and psychological development of sports school student-athletes. Conclusions This study is the first to systematically review the research literature to understand the impacts associated with sports schools in terms of holistic athlete development. Practitioners should be aware that they can promote (positive) and negate (negative) health impacts through the design of an appropriate learning environment that simultaneously balances multiple training, academic, psychosocial and psychological factors that can be challenging for youth athletes. We recommend that practitioners aim to design and implement monitoring and evaluation tools that assess the holistic development of student-athletes within their sports schools to ensure they are promoting all-round and healthy youth athlete development.
... Training camps are typically characterized by an increase in load and volume and a reduction in rest and recovery time (24). If recovery is insufficient and other nontraining stressors are present, this may lead to maladaptive responses, such as overtraining syndrome, and increase the risk of injury (12,20). ...
Article
Purpose: To assess the training load, energy expenditure, dietary intake, and sleep quality and quantity of junior tennis players during a tennis training camp. Methods: Ten junior academy tennis players (14 [1] y) completed a 6-day camp with daily morning and afternoon training. Players wore accelerometer watches to measure activity energy expenditure and sleep. Global positioning system units were worn to monitor external training load (distance covered, maximum velocity, and PlayerLoad™). Dietary intake was obtained from a food diary and supplementary food photography. Results: Players covered significantly more distance and had higher PlayerLoad™ during morning sessions than afternoon sessions (5370 [505] m vs 4726 [697] m, P < .005, d = 3.2; 725 [109] a.u. vs 588 [96] a.u., P < .005, d = 4.0). Players also ran further (5624 [897] m vs 4933 [343] m, P < .05, d = 1.0) and reached higher maximum velocities (5.17 [0.44] m·s-1 vs 4.94 [0.39] m·s-1, P < .05, d = 0.3) during simulated match play compared with drill sessions. Mean daily energy expenditure was 3959 (630) kcal. Mean energy intake was 2526 (183) kcal, resulting in mean energy deficits of 1433 (683) kcal. Players obtained an average of 6.9 (0.8) hours of sleep and recorded 28 (7) nightly awakenings. Conclusions: Junior academy tennis players failed to achieve energy balance and recorded suboptimal sleep quantity and quality throughout the training camp.
... • In order to increase their performance, athletes are participating in more training programs, practices, and competitions over the course of the year • Fatigue is described as an acute performance impairment with two distinct outcomes, an increase in perceived effort required to exert a force, and eventually an inability to produce this force (Enoka & Stuart, 1992) • Excessive and repeated fatigue (chronic) could lead athletes to a state of non-functional overreaching associated with negative physiological, psychological, and sociological measures as well as a higher risk of injury occurrence (Jones et al., 2017;Matos et al., 2011) • A way for the coaching staff to monitor fatigue of the athletes is a crucial element in program design, yet there is no one widely accepted measure used at this point (Bourdon et al., 2017) ...
Poster
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NCAA Division II women soccer athletes may experience high levels of fatigue which can have a negative impact on their performance during competition. Although coaches agree that monitoring fatigue is an important element in program design, there is not one widely accepted fatigue measure used to monitor women's soccer training. PURPOSE: To provide an investigation on the preferred mode of action by strength and conditioning coaches to reduce fatigue and increase performance of NCAA Division II women's soccer players. METHODS: Eight (n=8) head strength and conditioning coaches, two (n=2) women's soccer coaches, and eighteen (n=18) women's soccer players from the NCAA Division II PSAC participated in this retrospective qualitative case study from the fall 2019 semester. Strength and conditioning coaches and head women's soccer coaches participated in a semi-structured interview while women's soccer players completed an open-ended survey to share their insights to examine the current fatigue monitoring techniques utilized at the NCAA Division II level with all information subsequently analyzed thematically to code the data. RESULTS: All strength and conditioning coaches interviewed believed monitoring fatigue is important (100%) yet only a select number of coaches are currently implementing such fatigue monitoring techniques (38%). Of the fatigue techniques currently being implemented, the women's soccer players believed the programs did help reduce fatigue (72%) and increase performance (78%). Thematic analysis of the barriers that strength and conditioning coaches face to implement a fatigue monitoring program were also identified which include limited staff, budget, and facilities at the NCAA Division II level. CONCLUSION: With the wide range of fatigue monitoring techniques available, selection and implementation of the most appropriate test based on the various factors at each specific university can provide an effective and productive system to garner the most out of each athlete during training and competition.
... 6 With a prevalence of around 30% at age 15 years within young English athletes across different sports, OTS is not infrequent. 50 Because of the lack of a gold standard diagnostic test, OTS remains a challenging diagnosis of exclusion. 52 While systematic reviews aim to answer precise research questions, scoping reviews are appropriate to systematically summarize a field of research that has not been comprehensively reviewed yet. ...
Article
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Context Overtraining syndrome (OTS) is a condition characterized by a long-term performance decrement, which occurs after a persisting imbalance between training-related and nontraining-related load and recovery. Because of the lack of a gold standard diagnostic test, OTS remains a diagnosis of exclusion. Objective To systematically review and map biomarkers and tools reported in the literature as potentially diagnostic for OTS. Data Sources PubMed, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus were searched from database inception to February 4, 2021, and results screened for eligibility. Backward and forward citation tracking on eligible records were used to complement results of database searching. Study Selection Studies including athletes with a likely OTS diagnosis, as defined by the European College of Sport Science and the American College of Sports Medicine, and reporting at least 1 biomarker or tool potentially diagnostic for OTS were deemed eligible. Study Design Scoping review following the guidelines of the Joanna Briggs Institute and PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR). Level of Evidence Level 4. Data Extraction Athletes’ population, criteria used to diagnose OTS, potentially diagnostic biomarkers and tools, as well as miscellaneous study characteristics were extracted. Results The search yielded 5561 results, of which 39 met the eligibility criteria. Three diagnostic scores, namely the EROS-CLINICAL, EROS-SIMPLIFIED, and EROS-COMPLETE scores (EROS = Endocrine and Metabolic Responses on Overtraining Syndrome study), were identified. Additionally, basal hormone, neurotransmitter and other metabolite levels, hormonal responses to stimuli, psychological questionnaires, exercise tests, heart rate variability, electroencephalography, immunological and redox parameters, muscle structure, and body composition were reported as potentially diagnostic for OTS. Conclusion Specific hormones, neurotransmitters, and metabolites, as well as psychological, electrocardiographic, electroencephalographic, and immunological patterns were identified as potentially diagnostic for OTS, reflecting its multisystemic nature. As exemplified by the EROS scores, combinations of these variables may be required to diagnose OTS. These scores must now be validated in larger samples and within female athletes.
... In addition the physiological and psychological demands of a large range of sports may lead to detrimental effects on sporting ability, or desire to participate and managing maturity status alongside training load is paramount to a positive wellbeing experience in sport. 2,[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15] It has been suggested that youth athletes should not spend more than their age in hours training per week, with at least one rest day, 12 although this advice has no context to the level of athlete (recreational or elite). However, literature has shown that this statement has not been fulfilled in many sports. ...
Article
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The intent to improve a youth athlete’s ability is developed through structured focused training in the competencies within their sport. To date there is little evidence around how multi-discipline youth athletes organise their training load (TL) outlook in a multitude of sports. The aim of this study was to analyse the daily TL, distribution and wellness in aspiring 10-15yr old pentathletes (n = 31) over 152 ± 35 days. Athletes completed daily reports documenting sport mode, session duration, session rate of perceived exertion (sRPE) and wellness (sleep, stress, mood, fatigue, muscle soreness). Parental understanding of training periodisation was used to contextualise the athletes training patterns (n = 15) through semi-structured interviews. Weekly training duration was 5 h 59 min ± 3 h 38 min. The swimming discipline dominates the overall time spent training (50.5%). Pentathlon specific TL was significantly higher in the 14–15 yrs (3000 ± 1207 AUT) in comparison to 10–11 yrs (1837 ± 874 AUT). Weekly micro TL fluctuations showed significant peaks on the weekend compared to Tuesday and Friday (p < 0.05). Wellness scores were significantly worse on Monday to Wednesdays (p < 0.05), compared to Fridays. Parent interviews suggest a multitude of coach input from solo disciplines over a typical week, with little inter-coach discussions. In conclusion there is little structure on a micro or macro level in youth pentathletes training showing multiple-coach input with little coach crossover. Implications for the training/competition is based around convenience/holidays/availability of resources rather than overall individual development, which suggests the potential need for an early specialisation approach to support athletes within this style of multi-discipline sport.
... In the current sample, the prevalence of specific depressive symptoms (symptoms present at least most of the days in the past 2 weeks) ranged from 1.6% for suicidal ideation to 12.2% for fatigue. As shown in our data and previous research, fatigue (low energy/tiredness) is a common symptom in athletes (Birrer, Lienhard, Williams, Röthlin, & Morgan, 2013;Matos, Winsley, & Williams, 2011) and could, therefore, represent an important target for future prevention programs independent of the type of athletes the program is designed for. ...
Article
The aim of the study was to explore the prevalence of specific symptoms of depression in athletes and to test differences in the likelihood of athletes exhibiting these symptoms across age, sex, type of team sport, and level of competition. A sample of Icelandic male and female team sport athletes (N = 894, 18-42 years) was included in the study. Of the athletes exhibiting clinically significant depressive symptoms on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, 37.5% did not exhibit core symptoms of depression. Compared with males, females were significantly more likely to exhibit depressed mood, feelings of worthlessness/guilt, and problems with sleep, fatigue, appetite, and concentration. Within males, differences were mostly related to neurovegetative aspects of depression (sleep and appetite), whereas in females, differences were related to cognitive/ emotional aspects (e.g., depressed mood, guilt/worthlessness). The findings underline the importance of exploring specific symptoms of depression to provide a richer understanding of depressive symptomology in athletes. Within the past decade, depression-related research in athletes has aimed at establishing an improved understanding of athletes' susceptibility to depression and depressive symptoms (Golding,
... Therefore, an appropriate diagnostic marker and/or protocol to warn practitioners that NFOR/OTS may occur without a modification of training/competition, would be of benefit in practice. Especially, given rates of NFOR can be considered high in some circumstances, with 30-60% prevalence reported in elite athletes, elite runners, non-elite runners and adolescent swimmers (Birrer et al., 2013;Matos et al., 2011;Morgan et al., 1987). ...
Article
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Athletes physically overload to improve performance. Unbalanced stress/recovery may induce over-training, which is difficult to diagnosis as no diagnostic marker exists. Hormonal responses to a 55/80 cycle (30-min of alternating blocks of 1-min at 55% and 4-min at 80% maximum work rate) may highlight early-stage overtraining (overreaching), as blunted cortisol and testosterone responses to 55/80 follows intensified training. However, the reliability of hormonal responses to 55/80 when not overreached is unknown. Therefore, reported blunted hormonal responses could be due to inconsistent cortisol and testosterone responses to 55/80. Participants (n = 23) completed three 55/80 bouts, >7 days apart, with no exercise 24 h pre-trials. Pre-exercise urine osmolality and stress questionnaire responses were measured. Pre, post, and 30-min post-exercise saliva samples were collected for cortisol and testosterone assessment. Salivary cortisol and testosterone responses, osmolality and well-being were not different between trials. Salivary cortisol and testosterone elevated from pre-to post-exercise [by 4.2 nmol. L −1 (cortisol) and 307 pmol. L −1 (testosterone)], and 30 min post-exercise [by 160 pmol. L −1 (testosterone) only]. Intraclass correlation coefficients for pre to peak post-exercise cortisol (0.89; good) and testosterone (0.53; moderate) were calculated. This demonstrates that 55/80 induces reliable elevations of salivary cortisol and testosterone when in a healthy state.
... Overtraining has been defined as the accumulation of training stress resulting in long-term decrements in performance with or without associated physiological and psychological signs and symptoms of maladaptation [25,82]. Indeed, some of the symptoms associated with overtraining (i.e., frequent injuries, sleep issues, and burnout) have been reported among various types of sports [83,84]. ...
Article
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Over the past several decades, periodization has been widely accepted as the gold standard of training theory. Within the literature, there are numerous definitions for periodization, which makes it difficult to study. When examining the proposed definitions and related studies on periodization, problems arise in the following domains: (1) periodization has been proposed to serve as the macro-management of the training process concerning the annual plan, yet research on long-term effects is scarce; (2) periodization and programming are being used interchangeably in research; and (3) training is not periodized alongside other stressors such as sport (i.e., only resistance training is being performed without the inclusion of sport). Overall, the state of the literature suggests that the inability to define periodization makes the statement of its superiority difficult to experimentally test. This paper discusses the proposed definitions of periodization and the study designs which have been employed to examine the concept.
... The present study showed that physical enjoyment was negatively correlated with stress during the intensified training period, although sleep quality explained a small but significant amount of variability in physical enjoyment. These results may be explained by the negative psychological impacts of accumulated training stress during intensified training [30]. In fact, intense training may be related to increased mental fatigue and negative emotional states during exercise among athletes [31]. ...
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This study investigated the relationship between well-being indices and the session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE), recovery (TQR), and physical enjoyment (PE) during intensified, tapering phases of judo training. Sixty-one judo athletes (37 males, ranges 14-17 years, 159-172 cm, 51-67 kg) were randomly assigned to three experimental (i.e., randori, uchi-komi, running) and control groups (regular training). Experimental groups trained four times per week for 4 weeks of intensified training followed by 12 days of tapering. Session-RPE, well-being indices (i.e., sleep, stress, fatigue, delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS), Hooper index (HI)), and TQR were measured every session, whereas PE was recorded after intensified, tapering periods. Recovery (TQR) was negatively correlated with sleep, stress, fatigue, DOMS, HI, session-RPE in intensified period and was negatively correlated with sleep, stress, fatigue, DOMS, HI in tapering. Session-RPE was positively correlated with sleep, fatigue, DOMS, HI in intensified period and positively correlated with fatigue, DOMS in tapering. PE was negatively correlated with stress in intensified training. Enjoyment could be partially predicted by sleep only in intensified periods. Session-RPE could be partially predicted by TQR, fatigue during intensified periods and by sleep, and HI during tapering. Sleep, recovery state, pre-fatigue states, and HI are signals contributing to the enjoyment and internal intensity variability during training. Coaches can use these simple tools to monitor judo training.
... Burnout has been defined as the result of chronic stress causing a youth athlete to discontinue participation in a sport that was previously enjoyable [79,83]. An estimated 20-30% of youth athletes experience overtraining at some point in their athletic career [84][85][86]. While training load or volume of sports activity may be the primary contributors to overtraining syndrome, additional factors may include both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. ...
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Purpose of review: The goal of the present paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of mental health concerns in young athletes, with a focus on common disorders, as well as population-specific risk factors. Recent findings: Athletes experience similar mental health concerns as non-athlete peers, such as anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation, ADHD, eating disorders, and substance abuse. However, they also experience unique stressors that put them at risk for the development or exacerbation of mental health disorders. Student athletes have to balance academics with rigorous training regimens while focusing on optimal performance and managing high expectations. Physical injuries, overtraining, concussion, sleep disorders, and social identity are some of the factors that also impact the mental health of student athletes. Existing literature highlights the need to develop proactive mental health and wellness education for young athletes, and to develop services that recognize the unique needs of this population.
... A commonly cited factor by children with OTS/Burnout was that their sport became allencompassing and that they spent little time each week doing anything else. Matos et al. (2011) reported that 24% of children who had experienced NFOR/OTS spent less than 5 h·week -1 in activities outside their sport. With many talented young athletes reporting that they spend 15- In addition, these young athletes become defined by their sport and sporting success in the eyes of their peers, teachers, adults in their lives, and their global self-esteem becomes disproportionally influenced by their physical achievements (Tortolero, Taylor and Murray, 2000). ...
... Based on the competition level, 37% of national athletes were overtrained, at the international level 45% of athletes were overtrained. 4 About 65% of national and international runners experienced overtraining at least once throughout their careers. 5 Overtraining will reduce athlete's performance due to decreasement of brain function in the process of learning, and memory as it is used to enhance the skills of motion, and the execution of movement by a stimuli. ...
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... Approximately one-third of young English athletes have experienced excessive physical exercise (3). It was reported that 35% of adolescent swimmers had been experienced excessive exercise at least once. ...
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Background: Physical exercise aims to improve or maintain physical fitness. However, excessive physical exercise may cause increase of oxidative stress which leads to cellular injury, including in the proximal tubules of kidney. This research aims to find out the effect of single- and repeated- excessive swimming exercise to the kidney histopathology of male wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus). Methods: This research was an experimental study with complete random and post test only control group design. Twenty seven male wistar rats were divided into three treatment groups: control group, single- excessive swimming exercise group (45 minutes for one day), and repeated- excessive swimming exercise group (45 minutes/day for seven days). In the end of the treatment, the kidney of the rats were taken to be analyzed by using hematoxylin-eosin stain. The mean of proximal tubules injury of kidneys were counted by two observers using blinded method. Data were analyzed by using one way anova test. Result: The analysis showed there was a significant difference in the mean percentage of proximal tubules injury between control group and single swimming group as well as the repeated swimming group (Anova p=0,000), also there was significant difference between the treatment groups (p=0,020). The highest average of proximal tubules injury was in the single swimming group. Conclusion: Single- and repeated- excessive swimming exercise causes the proximal tubules injury of kidney.
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Introduction Sport specialization has been shown to have negative effects on athletes but has not been studied within rock climbing. This study seeks to evaluate the proportion and impact of specialization in pediatric climbers. Methods Climbers (ages 8–18 y) were recruited from throughout the United States to complete a 1-time survey regarding climbing experience, training patterns, and injury history. The main outcome of proportion of climbers suffering an injury was assessed within the last 12 mo and within their entire climbing experience (defined as “lifetime” injury). Early specialization was defined as exclusive participation in climbing, with training for >8 mo‧y⁻¹, prior to age 12 y (late specialization if after age 12 y). Results Participants (n=111, 14±3 y [mean±SD], 69 females) were high-level climbers. Fifty-five percent of participants specialized in climbing, and 69% of those specialized early. Hand and ankle injuries occurred most commonly. Seventy-eight percent of late specialized climbers had a lifetime injury. Late specialized climbers were 1.6 times (95% CI: 1.1–2.3) more likely than early specialized climbers to have had a lifetime injury and 1.8 times (95% CI: 1.1–2.8) more likely to have had an injury in the last 12 mo. No difference in overuse injuries was found between specialization groups. Conclusions Early specialization is common among youth climbers but was not associated with an increase in injuries. Late specialization was associated with a higher likelihood of having had a climbing injury in the last 12 mo and during an entire climbing career.
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The article summarizes the approaches to examination of athletes and personsparticipating in mass sports events by primary care physicians.
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This chapter describes the reported functions of natural astaxanthin on muscle physiology and performance. The first section discusses oxidative stress in skeletal muscle during exercise and how natural astaxanthin interacts with the endogenous antioxidant system. It further gives an insight into how astaxanthin is incorporated into cell membranes, particularly within the mitochondria, describing the effects seen on mitochondrial functions such as ATP production and fat metabolism. The following section describes the results seen in clinical trials on muscle endurance and muscle strength in populations ranging from well-trained young people to the elderly. This also includes the additional outcomes of natural astaxanthin on exercise in connection with sarcopenia. Finally, it covers the impact of astaxanthin on muscle recovery and the reduction in exercise-induced inflammation.
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Yüksek Antrenman Sendromu (Over Training Sendrome)
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Impact statement: The diagnosis of overtraining syndrome and overreaching poses a great challenge. Military training aims at improving the physical performance of the conscripts, but an excessive training load could also lead to overreaching. This study of Finnish conscripts provides new insights into the pathophysiology of overreaching and overtraining through amino acids concentrations. In addition to confirming the possible use of plasma glutamine/glutamate concentration to indicate and predict overreaching, we made a novel finding, i.e. low alanine and arginine concentrations might have a role in performance decrement and fatigue related to overreaching. Moreover, this study is the first to show the possible association between amino acids with putative neuronal properties and overreaching. Thus, the present findings might help to detect and prevent overreaching and offer a reliable diagnostic approach. In order to avoid overreaching, military training should be planned more periodically and individually, especially during the first four weeks of military service.
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The growing prevalence and popularity of interval training necessitate additional guidelines in regard to maximal levels of time and intensity. Purpose: To correlate salivary hormones and time in varying heart-rate (HR) zones. The hypothesis was that chronic exercise durations >9% of total exercise time in the >90% maximum HR zone would lead to decreased variation in salivary cortisol concentration after exercise in a 2-bout high-intensity protocol compared with less or more time in this zone. Methods: A total of 35 healthy adults who regularly exercised for an average of 8 hours per week recorded their HR during every training session for 3 weeks. Later, they completed an experimental day composed of two 30-minute high-intensity interval sessions separated by 4 hours of nonactive recovery. The authors collected saliva samples before, immediately following, and 30 minutes after each exercise session to assess changes in cortisol concentrations. Results: There was a correlation between weekly time training at an intensity >90% maximum HR and the variables associated with overtraining. Salivary cortisol concentration fluctuated less in the participants who exercised in this extreme zone for >40 minutes per week (P < .001). Conclusion: Based on the current study data, for individuals who regularly exercise, 4% to 9% total training time above 90% maximum HR is the ideal duration to maximize fitness and minimize symptoms related to overreaching.
Chapter
Athletes typically train to enhance performance and achieve competition goals; however, too much exercise training with insufficient recovery can result in the athlete becoming overtrained. When the overtraining syndrome occurs, decrements in performance are the most prominent symptom, but others include fatigue, changes in mood state, competitive incompetence, and changes in sleep patterns, just to name a few. As the endocrine system is very involved in physiological adaptations and recovery to stress, it has received substantial attention in the overtraining literature. Ultimately, it appears that there is no single endocrine marker capable of identifying overtraining, and evidence to date suggests there probably never will be. Since the primary symptom of overtraining is a decrement in performance, regular monitoring is key to preventing its development through guiding the planning of training sessions to ensure sufficient recovery and consistent positive adaptations.
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Most explanations of burnout among young athletes identify chronic, excessive stress as the cause. Strategies for preventing burnout emphasize techniques that help athletes control stress and adjust to the conditions of sport participation. However, informal interviews with 15 adolescent athletes identified as cases of burnout suggest that the roots of burnout are grounded in the social organization of high performance sport; these roots are tied to identity and control issues. The model developed in this paper conceptualizes burnout as a social problem grounded in forms of social organization that constrain identity development during adolescence and prevent young athletes from having meaningful control over their lives. This model is intended as an alternative to more widely used stress-based models of burnout. Recommendations for preventing burnout call for changes in the social organization of high performance sport, changes in the way sport experiences are integrated into the lives of young athletes,...
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Adolescent swimmers (N = 231) from Greece, Japan, Sweden, and the U.S. completed questionnaires on training practices, mood state, staleness prevalence, and symptoms. Contrasts were made across countries and between stale and healthy groups. Of the total sample, 34.6% reported having been stale, ranging from 20.5% to 45.1% across countries. The mean length of staleness episodes was 3.6 weeks. Stale swimmers had faster (p < .01) personal best times in the 100-m freestyle compared with healthy swimmers. Mood disturbance was elevated (p < .05) during peak training for all countries except Japan. Stale swimmers reported greater (p < .05) mood disturbance at all assessments compared with healthy swimmers. The pattern of staleness symptoms was similar across all countries, with perception of training effort being the most affected.
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The purpose of this review is to define physiological indices of overtraining, examine psychological factors involved with youth sports, and suggest corrective alternatives for coaches to avoid overtraining of youth athletes. Overtraining is common among athletes. Incremental stages of overtraining of youth athletes include (a) overreaching, (b) overtraining, (c) staleness, (d) burnout, and (e) injury/withdrawal. The body of literature which addressed overtraining has been primarily physiological. Physiological systems affected by overtraining have been both parasympathetic and sympathetic processes. However. the consistency of these findings have been suspect and difficult to differentiate from normal training response. Identification of psychological factors, however, have been more consistent with a large body of investigation using psychometric instruments such as the Profile of Mood States. Psychological factors which effect overtraining include stressand susceptible personality characteristics. Overtraining may be avoided by providing a clear system of rewards and scheduling. Periodization training schedules, implementing psychological testing, and monitoring dietary intake can reduce the potential for overtraining. These suggestions require careful consideration by coaches for useful applications within their own sport situation. Often coaches have limited time and/or finances to implement elaborate screening and prevention programs. However, the syndromes associated with chronic training can cause lack of enjoyment for the participants and a failure to achieve desired effects for coaches. With increased awareness of these issues, a coach can provide a structured sport program that enhances the total sports experience of young athletes.
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Successful training must involve overload but also must avoid the combination of excessive overload plus inadequate recovery. Athletes can experience short term performance decrement, without severe psychological, or lasting other negative symptoms. This Functional Overreaching (FOR) will eventually lead to an improvement in performance after recovery. When athletes do not sufficiently respect the balance between training and recovery, Non-Functional Overreaching (NFOR) can occur. The distinction between NFOR and the Overtraining Syndrome (OTS) is very difficult and will depend on the clinical outcome and exclusion diagnosis. The athlete will often show the same clinical, hormonal and other signs and symptoms. A keyword in the recognition of OTS might be ‘prolonged maladaptation' not only of the athlete, but also of several biological, neurochemical, and hormonal regulation mechanisms. It is generally thought that symptoms of OTS, such as fatigue, performance decline, and mood disturbances, are more severe than those of NFOR. However, there is no scientific evidence to either confirm or refute this suggestion. One approach to understanding the aetiology of OTS involves the exclusion of organic diseases or infections and factors such as dietary caloric restriction (negative energy balance) and insufficient carbohydrate and/or protein intake, iron deficiency, magnesium deficiency, allergies, etc. together with identification of initiating events or triggers. In this paper we provide the recent status of possible markers for the detection of OTS. Currently several markers (hormones, performance tests, psychological tests, biochemical and immune markers) are used, but none of them meets all criteria to make its use generally accepted. We propose a “check list” that might help the physicians and sport scientists to decide on the diagnosis of OTS and to exclude other possible causes of underperformance.
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This paper utilizes a feminist theoretical framework to explore the contemporary social meanings of sports violence. Two levels of meaning are explored: first, the broad, socio-cultural and ideological meanings of sports violence as mediated spectacle; second, the meanings which male athletes themselves construct. On the social/ideological level, the analysis draws on an emergent critical/feminist literature which theoretically and historically situates sports violence as a practice which helps to construct hegemonic masculinity. And drawing on my own in-depth interviews with male former athletes, a feminist theory of gender identity is utilized to examine the meanings which athletes themselves construct around their own participation in violent sports. Finally, the links between these two levels of analysis are tentatively explored: how does the athlete's construction of meaning surrounding his participation in violent sports connect with the larger social construction of masculinities and men's power relations with women?
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Most explanations of burnout among young athletes identify chronic, exces-sive stress as the cause. Strategies for preventing burnout emphasize tech-niques that help athletes control stress and adjust to the conditions of sport participation. However, informal interviews with 15 adolescent athletes iden-tified as cases of burnout suggest that the roots of burnout are grounded in the social organization of high performance sport; these roots are tied to identity and control issues. The model developed in this paper conceptualizes burnout as a social problem grounded in forms of social organization that constrain identity development during adolescence and prevent young athletes from having meaningful control over their lives. This model is intended as an alternative to more widely used stress-based models of burnout. Recom-mendations for preventing burnout call for changes in the social organization of high performance sport, changes in the way sport experiences are integrated into the lives of young athletes, and changes in the structure and dynamics of .relationships between athletes and their significant others. This presentation is partially grounded in my experiences with undergradu-ates and with people outside the university, often in sport organizations. Over the past 15 years I have found it increasingly difficult to get these people to use the "sociological imagination" (Mills, 1959). Their analyses of behavior, events, and issues are firmly framed in psychological terms; their recommendations for change are based almost exclusively on a "personal troubles" approach. In other words, their analyses of behavior focus on the character of individuals, and change is seen as the outcome of altering individual character and the immediate social relationships believed to shape it. Although this approach is sometimes used to argue that no one can truly help anyone else, it usually leads to the conclusion that there is a need for more control over the lives of people who experience problems. This control, it is believed, will create new forms of adjustment as well as character changes that
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Eleven elite kayakers performed an identical weekly training schedule each week during a 3-week training-camp. The Profile of Mood States (POMS) inventory (''right now'' instructions) was completed before and after selected workouts each week to assess both training-induced mood disturbances and the extent of recovery following short and long rest. The ratio of POMS vigour to POMS fatigue scores was used as an ''energy index''. Energy index scores were compared with ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) to address the size of the training load. Performance measures were obtained during the first and last week. The results showed that the energy index decreased (p B/0.01) throughout the camp and did not return to initial values following either the short (one night) or long rest (two nights and one day). Performance measures and RPE remained unaffected throughout training, as did the POMS depression scores, indicating that the athletes experienced an overreached state but did not develop staleness. Our results suggest that repeated evaluation using POMS fatigue, vigour, and depression scores during periods of intensified training may help prevent athletes from becoming severely overreached and reduce the likelihood of staleness.
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Overtraining syndrome is a serious problem marked by decreased performance, increased fatigue, persistent muscle soreness, mood disturbances, and feeling 'burnt out' or 'stale.' The diagnosis of overtraining is usually complicated, there are no exact diagnostic criteria, and physicians must rule out other diseases before the diagnosis can be made. An orthostatic challenge shows promise as a diagnostic tool, but the subjective feelings of the patient remain one of the most reliable early warning signs. Prevention is still the best treatment, and certain subjective and objective parameters can be used by athletes and their trainers to prevent overtraining. Further studies are needed to find a reliable diagnostic test and determine if proposed aids to speed recovery will be effective.
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Mood state (POMS) and self-motivation (SMI) were assessed in 84 women vying for a position on a collegiate freshman rowing team. Forty-four of these rowers also completed a standardized rowing ergometer task. Mood state was assessed three additional times during the season with 22 rowers who adhered to training throughout the entire season. No differences (P greater than 0.05) in baseline mood state were observed between the dropouts (N = 62) and those who adhered to the training (N = 22). However, the dropouts possessed significantly lower self-motivation (P less than 0.05) and took longer to complete the rowing task than did the adherers (P less than 0.05). Near the end of the season, rowers were chosen by the coaching staff to compete in regional competition (i.e., successful adherers). Initial self-motivation and ergometer performance did not differ significantly (P greater than 0.05) between the successful and unsuccessful adherers. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed that global mood disturbance (P less than 0.05) increased during the training season in both groups. At the end of the training season, the unsuccessful adherers still possessed significantly (P less than 0.05) elevated mood disturbance, whereas the mood of the successful group had returned to baseline. It is concluded that female rowers who adhere to a season of competitive training have higher self-motivation and superior ergometer performances at the outset than do the eventual dropouts.
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Mood, as measured by the Profile of Mood States questionnaire, and resting salivary cortisol levels were examined in 14 female college swimmers during progressive increases and decreases in training volume, and were compared to the same measures in eight active college women who served as controls. Training volume increased from 2,000 yards/day in September (baseline) to a peak of 12,000 yards/day in January (overtraining), followed by a reduction in training (taper) to 4,500 yards/day by February. The swimmers experienced significant (p less than 0.01) alterations in tension, depression, anger, vigor, fatigue and global mood across the training season compared to the controls. Salivary cortisol was significantly (p less than 0.01) greater in the swimmers compared to the controls during baseline and overtraining, but was not different between the groups following the taper. Salivary cortisol was significantly correlated with depressed mood during overtraining (r = .50; p less than 0.05) but not at baseline or taper. Global mood, depression, and salivary cortisol were significantly (p less than 0.05) higher during the overtraining phase in those swimmers classified as stale, compared to those swimmers who did not exhibit large performance decrements.
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In recent years, researchers and policymakers have used data from large-scale surveys of physicians to address important issues. A review of several of these surveys explores potential problems in this method of gathering data on physicians' services. To obtain a better grasp of the limitations such problems may pose, we examine several recent surveys, comparing response rates and survey findings, and in one survey the reliability of individual items. Response rates appear highly sensitive to differences in the approaches made to respondents and their perceptions of the goals of individual investigations. Reliability of survey items seems to depend on the specificity of information requested. Variation in the findings from different surveys may occur for many reasons, but is most likely to be found in response to items whose presentation differs in each survey's research instrument. Data from these surveys appear clearly useful for some important purposes. The large-scale medical practice survey seems particularly valuable in generating an understanding of differences among specialties in resources used in the delivery of care. Nevertheless, researchers and policymakers must understand the steps necessary to obtain reliable results and possible limitations in the accuracy of findings to make the best use of survey methodology as applied to medical practice.
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It is widely agreed that overtraining should be employed in order to achieve peak performance but it is also recognised that overtraining can actually produce decrements in performance. The challenge appears to be one of monitoring stress indicators in the athlete in order to titrate the training stimulus and prevent the onset of staleness. The present paper summarises a ten-year research effort in which the mood states of competitive swimmers have been monitored at intervals ranging from 2-4 weeks during individual seasons for the period 1975-1986. The training cycle has always involved the indoor season which extends from September to March and the athletes who served as subjects were 200 female and 200 male competitive swimmers. The results indicate that mood state disturbances increased in a dose-response manner as the training stimulus increased and that these mood disturbances fell to baseline levels with reduction of the training load. Whilst these results have been obtained in a realistic setting devoid of experimental manipulation, it is apparent that monitoring of mood state provides a potential method of preventing staleness.
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Chronic fatigue in the athletic population is a common but difficult diagnostic challenge for the sports physician. While a degree of fatigue may be normal for any athlete during periods of high-volume training, the clinician must be able to differentiate between this physiological fatigue and more prolonged, severe fatigue which may be due to a pathological condition. As chronic fatigue can be the presenting symptom of many curable and harmful diseases, medical conditions which cause chronic fatigue have to be excluded. The clinician must then be able to differentiate between chronic fatigue associated with training or chronic fatigue from other medical causes, and also between the chronic fatigue syndrome and the overtraining syndrome. Once the clinician has excluded all of the above medical conditions which cause chronic fatigue in athletes, a significant proportion of fatigued athletes remain without a diagnosis. Novel data indicate that skeletal muscle disorders may play a role in the development of symptoms experienced by the athlete with chronic fatigue. The histological findings from muscle biopsies of athletes suffering from the 'fatigued athlete myopathic syndrome' are presented. We have designed a clinical approach to the diagnosis and work-up of the athlete presenting with chronic fatigue. The strength of this approach is that it hinges on the participation of a multidisciplinary team in the diagnosis and management of the athlete with chronic fatigue. The athlete, coach, dietician, exercise physiologist and sport psychologist all play an important role in enabling the physician to make the correct diagnosis.
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The overtraining syndrome affects mainly endurance athletes. It is a condition of chronic fatigue, underperformance, and an increased vulnerability to infection leading to recurrent infections. It is not yet known exactly how the stress of hard training and competition leads to the observed spectrum of symptoms. Psychological, endocrinogical, physiological, and immunological factors all play a role in the failure to recover from exercise. Careful monitoring of athletes and their response to training may help to prevent the overtraining syndrome. With a very careful exercise regimen and regeneration strategies, symptoms normally resolve in 6-12 weeks but may continue much longer or recur if athletes return to hard training too soon.
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Fiercer competition between athletes and a wider knowledge of optimal training regimens dramatically influence current training methods. A single training bout per day was previously considered sufficient, whereas today athletes regularly train twice a day or more. Consequently, the number of athletes who are overtraining and have insufficient rest is increasing. Positive overtraining can be regarded as a natural process when the end result is adaptation and improved performance: the supercompensation principle--which includes the breakdown process (training) followed by the recovery process (rest)--is well known in sports. However, negative overtraining, causing maladaptation and other negative consequences such as staleness, can occur. Physiological, psychological, biochemical and immunological symptoms must be considered, both independently and together, to fully understand the 'staleness' syndrome. However, psychological testing may reveal early-warning signs more readily than the various physiological or immunological markers. The time frame of training and recovery is also important since the consequences of negative overtraining comprise an overtraining-response continuum from short to long term effects. An athlete failing to recover within 72 hours has presumably negatively overtrained and is in an overreached state. For an elite athlete to refrain from training for > 72 hours is extremely undesirable, highlighting the importance of a carefully monitored recovery process. There are many methods used to measure the training process but few with which to match the recovery process against it. One such framework for this is referred to as the total quality recovery (TQR) process. By using a TQR scale, structured around the scale developed for ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), the recovery process can be monitored and matched against the breakdown (training) process (TQR versus RPE). The TQR scale emphasises both the athlete's perception of recovery and the importance of active measures to improve the recovery process. Furthermore, directing attention to psychophysiological cues serves the same purpose as in RPE, i.e. increasing self-awareness. This article reviews and conceptualises the whole overtraining process. In doing so, it (i) aims to differentiate between the types of stress affecting an athlete's performance: (ii) identifies factors influencing an athlete's ability to adapt to physical training: (iii) structures the recovery process. The TQR method to facilitate monitoring of the recovery process is then suggested and a conceptual model that incorporates all of the important parameters for performance gain (adaptation) and loss (maladaptation).
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To assess coaches' perceptions about the role of parents and their positive and negative behaviours in junior tennis. A national survey of 132 United States junior tennis coaches was completed. The extent and seriousness/impact of parent-child interaction problems and positive behaviours were rated. Parents were perceived as very important for junior tennis success. Most parents (59%) that these coaches had worked with were seen as having a positive influence on their player's development. However, the respondents also felt that 36% of parents negatively influenced their child's development. Positive parental behaviours included providing logistical, financial, and social-emotional support, as well as tennis opportunities and unconditional love. Negative parent behaviours included overemphasising winning, holding unrealistic expectations, and criticising their child. Findings are discussed relative to current sport parenting and athletic talent development research and theorising. The need to educate parents is emphasised.
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Fiercer competition between athletes and a wider knowledge of optimal training regimens dramatically influence current training methods. A single training bout per day was previously considered sufficient, whereas today athletes regularly train twice a day or mon. Consequently, the number of athletes who are overtraining and have insufficient rest is increasing. Positive overtraining can be regarded as a natural process when the end result is adaptation and improved performance; the supercompensation principle which includes the breakdown process (training) followed by the recovery process (rest)- is well known in sports. However, negative overtraining, causing maladaptation and other negative consequences such as staleness, can occur. Physiological, psychological, biochemical and immunological symptoms must be considered, both independently and together, to fully understand the 'staleness' syndrome. However, psychological testing may reveal early-warning signs more readily than the various physiological or immunological markers. The time frame of training and recovery is also important since the consequences of negative overtraining comprise an overtraining-response continuum from short to long term effects. An athlete failing to recover within 72 hours has presumably negatively overtrained and is in an overreached state. For an elite athlete to refrain from training for >72 hours is extremely undesirable, highlighting the importance of a carefully monitored recovery process. There are many methods used to measure the training process but few with which to match the recovery process against it. One such framework for this is referred to as the total quality recovery (TQR) process. By using a TQR scale, structured around the scale developed for ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), the recovery process can be monitored and matched against the breakdown (training) process (TQR versus RPE). The TQR scale emphasises both the athlete's perception of recovery and the importance of active measures to improve the recovery process. Furthermore, directing attention to psychophysiological cues serves the same purpose as in RPE, i.e. increasing self-awareness. This article reviews and conceptualises the whole overtraining process. In doing so, it (i) aims to differentiate between the types of stress affecting an athlete's performance; (ii) identifies factors influencing an athlete's ability to adapt to physical training; (iii) structures the recovery process. The TQR method to facilitate monitoring of the recovery process is then suggested and a conceptual model that incorporates all of the important parameters for performance gain (adaptation) and loss (maladaptation).
Article
This study examined the factorial validity of the Eades Burnout Inventory (EABI) and the prevalence of burnout in adolescent elite athletes and whether burnout is more common in individual sports than in team sports. The EABI was distributed to 980 athletes (402 females and 578 males) in 29 different sports. Confirmatory-factor analyses revealed an acceptable factorial validity for a theoretically supported four-factor model of the EABI. Between 1% and 9% of the athletes displayed elevated burnout scores on these four subscales. The hypothesis of higher prevalence of burnout in individual sports was, however, not supported. Furthermore, no correlation between training load and burnout scores was found. These findings suggest that factors other than training load must be considered when athletes at risk for burnout are investigated.
Article
This was an exploratory study to determine the most frequent sources of stress reported by high school golfers and also to ascertain the perceived causes of athlete burnout in golf. A guided interview approach consisting of both open-ended and specific questions related to golfing experiences was used to collect data from 10 high school competitive golfers. A typological analysis of the interviews identified a number of competitive sources of stress for golfers, including playing a particularly difficult shot, playing up to personal standards, and striving to meet parental expectations. All golfers said they had experienced a short period of burnout. Some of the most frequently cited reasons for burnout in golf were, too much practice or play, a lack of enjoyment, and too much pressure from self and others to do well. It was concluded that the perceived sources of stress need to be considered when investigating the causes of athlete burnout in golf.
Article
Overtraining is an imbalance between training and recovery. Short term overtraining or ‘over-reaching’ is reversible within days to weeks. Fatigue accompanied by a number of physical and psychological symptoms in the athlete is an indication of ‘stateness’ or ‘overtraining syndrome’. Staleness is a dysfunction of the neuroendocrine system, localised at hypothalamic level. Staleness may occur when physical and emotional stress exceeds the individual coping capacity. However, the precise mechanism has yet to be established. Clinically the syndrome can be divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic types, based upon the predominance of sympathetic or parasympathetic activity, respectively. The syndrome and its clinical manifestation can be explained as a stress response. At present, no sensitive and specific tests are available to prevent or diagnose overtraining. The diagnosis is based on the medical history and the clinical presentation. Complete recovery may take weeks to months.
Article
When prolonged, excessive training stresses are applied concurrent with inadequate recovery, performance decrements and chronic maladaptations occur. Known as the overtraining syndrome (OTS), this complex condition afflicts a large percentage of athletes at least once during their careers. There is no objective biomarker for OTS and the underlying mechanism is unknown. However, it is not widely recognised that OTS and clinical depression [e.g. major depression (MD)] involve remarkably similar signs and symptoms, brain structures, neurotransmitters, endocrine pathways and immune responses. We propose that OTS and MD have similar aetiologies. Our examination of numerous shared characteristics offers insights into the mechanism of OTS and encourages testable experimental hypotheses. Novel recommendations are proposed for the treatment of overtrained athletes with antidepressant medications, and guidelines are provided for psychological counselling.
Article
Training stress is defined as having both positive and negative adaptation responses. Positive adaptations to training stress are desirable and generally demonstrate appropriate responses to physical and psychological overloads imposed to initiate a training effect. Negative adaptations to training stress generally occur when an imbalance exists between imposed training demands and coping capacities. The purpose of this paper is to present conceptual models that define the nature of positive and negative adaptations to training stress. The positive response to training stress is presented in a model emphasizing that training stress is necessary for training gain. Thus not all training stress leads to negative adaptation at psychological or physiological response levels. Negative training stress responses are hypothesized to regress along a continuum from staleness to overtraining to burnout. This regressive pattern is labeled the training stress syndrome. Clear definitions and distinctions for staleness, overtraining and burnout are presented along with the conceptual models for positive and negative adaptation to training stress. The paper also examines exploratory data from an intercollegiate sample of athletes that describes their perceptions of staleness, overtraining and burnout. Descriptive data are also presented on the frequency. severity, causes and symptoms of each phase of the training stress syndrome as perceived by a sample of collegiate athletes.
Article
The present study explored the experiences of five competitive endurance athletes (1 female, 4 male) diagnosed with the overtraining syndrome (OTS). A multicontextual method of inquiry was used, which first involved a medical examination whereby OTS was diagnosed according to established criteria. In addition, 2 questionnaires were administered: the Athlete Daily Hassle Scale (Albinson & Pearce, 1998) and the Coping Response Inventory (Moos, 1992), and a semistructured interview was conducted. Individual case studies were then developed and cross-case analysis carried out. Findings from the present study illustrate that together with sport stress, nonsport stress appears to make an important contribution to the experience of those athletes diagnosed with the OTS. This finding provides evidence to support anecdotes in previous reports. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Article
Presents a case study of an American former female elite gymnast, and applies the social cognitive approach to achievement motivation to explain the behavior of this S, her coaches, and her parents. Throughout her career, the S practiced and competed while seriously injured, employed unhealthy eating practices, overtrained, and ignored medical advice in order to continue her quest towards the Olympic team. The S participated in 3 unstructured interviews which were grounded in a feminist view of sport and research (S. Harding, 1991; V. Krane, 1994). Findings show an ego-involved motivational environment was developed and reinforced by the S's coaches and parents. Her ego-involved goal orientation was revealed through her reliance on social comparison, emphasis on external feedback, need to demonstrate her superiority, and acting out behaviors in the face of adversity. Implications for developing a task-oriented climate for sports are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Elite athletes repeatedly completed the Profile of Mood States (POMS) during a six-mo training season to determine whether athletes who are stale show different values from those who are intensely trained but not stale. Nineteen elite male and female swimmers were studied at five time points: three times during training (early-, mid-, and late-season), during tapering prior to, and then shortly after major competitions. Of 14 Ss who completed the entire monitoring program, three were classified as stale based on several criteria including poorer performance and prolonged, high levels of fatigue. Two stale swimmers showed higher scores for several POMS measures throughout the season compared with non-stale swimmers. Several POMS measures were significantly correlated with training intensity but not with training volume. It was concluded that stale athletes may not always demonstrate different mood scores from non-stale athletes but that total mood disturbance score (TMD) as evaluated by the POMS may be used to indicate those athletes predisposed to the condition long before symptoms of poor performance and prolonged fatigue are observed. TMD scores were chosen to monitor staleness since they represent a synthesis of the six specific mood states measured by the POMS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
17 adult US national champion figure skaters who held their titles between 1985 and 1990 were interviewed about the stress they experienced as national champions and were asked to identify specific sources of stress. Qualitative methodology was used to inductively analyze the interview transcripts. 71% of the Ss experienced more stress after winning their title than before doing so. Stress source dimensions included relationship issues, expectations and pressure to perform, psychological demands on skater resources, physical demands on skater resources, environmental demands on skater resources, life direction concerns, and a number of specific uncategorizable sources. In general, findings parallel the elite figure skaters stress source research of T. K. Scanlan et al (see record 1991-34917-001), although there is some divergence around types of stressors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The effectiveness of high performance training should be examined at short intervals in order to recognize overtraining promptly. Field or laboratory tests can usually not be performed with such frequency. Easy-to-measure biological, training-relevant parameters are being sought to use in their place. Since the importance of the sympathetic nervous system for adaptation of stress and the relationship between physical training and the activity of the sympathetic nervous system are well accepted, and since an impairment of the sympathetic nervous system is assumed in an overtraining syndrome, we examined the relevance of nocturnal "basal" urinary excretion of free catecholamines with respect to its practical application: 1. during a pilot study (training of road and track cyclists before the 1988 Olympic Games in Seoul), 2. through a 4-week prospective, experimental study in 1989 and 1990 (middle- and long-distance runners), 3. during the competitive season and winter break of a soccer team between August 1990 and April 1991. The following hypothesis was made: An overtraining or exhaustion syndrome in athletes may usually be accompanied by at least a 50% decrease in basal dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline excretion. When training is effective or the athletes are not exhausted, the decrease of the excretion rate--with the exception of dopamine--is more likely to be lower (noradrenaline, adrenaline). Generalization of these results requires further expansion of the experimental basis.
Article
Overtraining appears to be caused by too much high intensity training and/or too little regeneration (recovery) time often combined with other training and nontraining stressors. There are a multitude of symptoms of overtraining, the expression of which vary depending upon the athlete's physical and physiological makeup, type of exercise undertaken and other factors. The aetiology of overtraining may therefore be different in different people suggesting the need to be aware of a wide variety of parameters as markers of overtraining. At present there is no one single diagnostic test that can define overtraining. The recognition of overtraining requires the identification of stress indicators which do not return to baseline following a period of regeneration. Possible indicators include an imbalance of the neuroendocrine system, suppression of the immune system, indicators of muscle damage, depressed muscle glycogen reserves, deteriorating aerobic, ventilatory and cardiac efficiency, a depressed psychological profile, and poor performance in sport specific tests, e.g. time trials. Screening for changes in parameters indicative of overtraining needs to be a routine component of the training programme and must be incorporated into the programme in such a way that the short term fatigue associated with overload training is not confused with the chronic fatigue characteristic of overtraining. An in-depth knowledge of periodisation of training theory may be necessary to promote optimal performance improvements, prevent overtraining, and develop a system for incorporating a screening system into the training programme. Screening for overtraining and performance improvements must occur at the culmination of regeneration periods.
Article
Overtraining is an imbalance between training and recovery. Short term overtraining or 'over-reaching' is reversible within days to weeks. Fatigue accompanied by a number of physical and psychological symptoms in the athlete is an indication of 'staleness' or 'overtraining syndrome'. Staleness is a dysfunction of the neuroendocrine system, localised at hypothalamic level. Staleness may occur when physical and emotional stress exceeds the individual coping capacity. However, the precise mechanism has yet to be established. Clinically the syndrome can be divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic types, based upon the predominance of sympathetic or parasympathetic activity, respectively. The syndrome and its clinical manifestation can be explained as a stress response. At present, no sensitive and specific tests are available to prevent or diagnose overtraining. The diagnosis is based on the medical history and the clinical presentation. Complete recovery may take weeks to months.
Article
A coding scheme is presented for classifying physical activity by rate of energy expenditure, i.e., by intensity. Energy cost was established by a review of published and unpublished data. This coding scheme employs five digits that classify activity by purpose (i.e., sports, occupation, self-care), the specific type of activity, and its intensity as the ratio of work metabolic rate to resting metabolic rate (METs). Energy expenditure in kilocalories or kilocalories per kilogram body weight can be estimated for all activities, specific activities, or activity types. General use of this coding system would enhance the comparability of results across studies using self reports of physical activity.
Article
Overtraining is an imbalance between training and recovery, exercise and exercise capacity, stress and stress tolerance. Stress is the sum of training and nontraining stress factors. Peripheral (short-term overtraining, STO) or peripheral and central fatigue may result (long-term overtraining, LTO). STO lasting a few days up to 2 wk is termed overreaching. STO is associated with fatigue, reduction, or stagnation of the 4 LT performance capacity (performance at 4 mmol lactate or comparable criterion), reduction of maximum performance capacity, and brief competitive incompetence. Recovery is achieved within days, so the prognosis is favorable. LTO lasting weeks or months causes overtraining syndrome or staleness. The symptomatology associated with overtraining syndrome has changed over the last 50 yr from excitation and restlessness (so-called sympathetic form) to phlegmatic behavior and inhibition (so-called parasympathetic form). Increased volume of training at a high-intensity level is likely the culprit. The parasympathetic form of overtraining syndrome dominates in endurance sports. Accumulation of exercise and nonexercise fatigue, stagnation, or reduction of the 4 LT performance capacity, reduction in maximum performance capacity, mood state disturbances, muscle soreness/stiffness, and long-term competitive incompetence can be expected. Complete recovery requires weeks and months, so the prognosis is unfavorable. Other optional or further confirmation requiring findings include changes in blood chemistry variables, hormone levels, and nocturnal urinary catecholamine excretion. Based on the findings reported, recommendations for training monitoring can be made, but their relevance in the practice must still be clarified.
Article
Heavy training in combination with inadequate recovery actions can result in the overtraining/staleness syndrome and burnout. Even young and aspiring elite athletes develop staleness. The aim was therefore to determine the incidence and nature of staleness, and its association with training behavior and psychosocial stressors in young elite athletes. A sample of 272 individuals from 16 sports completed questionnaires on training, staleness, and psychosocial stress and 37% reported being stale at least once. The incidence rate was higher for individual sports (48%) compared with team (30%) and less physically demanding sports (18%). Stale athletes reported greater perceptual changes and negatively elevated mood scores in comparison to healthy athletes. Staleness was distinguished from burnout on the basis of motivational consequences; 41 % of the athletes lost their motivation for training, which in turn indicates a state of burnout. Further, 35 % of the athletes reported low satisfaction with time spent on important relationships, 29% rated the relationship with their coach as ranging from very, very bad to only moderately good. The results indicate that staleness is a widespread problem among young athletes in a variety of sports, and is not solely related to physical training, but also to non-training stressors.