The Vitamin D Analog, TX527, Promotes a Human CD4+CD25highCD127low Regulatory T Cell Profile and Induces a Migratory Signature Specific for Homing to Sites of Inflammation

Laboratory of Experimental Medicine and Endocrinology, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 4.92). 01/2011; 186(1):132-42. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1000695
Source: PubMed


The use of hypocalcemic vitamin D analogs is an appealing strategy to exploit the immunomodulatory actions of active vitamin D in vivo while circumventing its calcemic side effects. The functional modulation of dendritic cells by these molecules is regarded as the key mechanism underlying their ability to regulate T cell reactivity. In this article, we demonstrate the capacity of the vitamin D analog, TX527, to target T cells directly. Microarray analysis of purified human CD3(+) T cells, cultured in the presence of TX527, revealed differential expression of genes involved in T cell activation, proliferation, differentiation, and migratory capacity. Accordingly, functional analysis showed a TX527-mediated suppression of the T cell proliferative capacity and activation status, accompanied by decreased expression of effector cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17). Furthermore, TX527 triggered the emergence of CD4(+)CD25(high)CD127(low) regulatory T cells featuring elevated levels of IL-10, CTLA-4, and OX40 and the functional capacity to suppress activation and proliferation of effector T cells. Moreover, the vitamin D analog profoundly altered the homing receptor profile of T cells and their migration toward chemokine ligands. Remarkably, TX527 not only modulated skin-homing receptors as illustrated for the parent compound, but also reduced the expression of lymphoid organ-homing receptors (CD62L, CCR7, and CXCR4) and uniquely promoted surface expression of inflammatory homing receptors (CCR5, CXCR3, and CXCR6) on T cells. We conclude that TX527 directly affects human T cell function, thereby inhibiting effector T cell reactivity while inducing regulatory T cell characteristics, and imprints them with a specific homing signature favoring migration to sites of inflammation.

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Available from: Leentje Van Lommel
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    • "Finally, FOXP3 has a transient expression pattern in the presence of 1,25(OH)2D3 [21], suggesting that vitamin D-induced Tregs do not depend on FOXP3. In a recent study, treatment of human CD4+ T cells with 1,25(OH)2D3 in combination with IL-2 promoted the development of IL-10 producing CTLA-4+FOXP3+ T cells with suppressive capacity [21], and we and others showed increased levels of the regulatory cytokine IL-10 [22], [40]. In vivo, IL-10 was identified as an essential component for vitamin D-mediated inhibition of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis [41] and in vitro, vitamin D-induced IL-10-producing Tregs were able to prevent the induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in an IL-10 dependent way [40]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The emergence of regulatory T cells (Tregs) as central mediators of peripheral tolerance in the immune system has led to an important area of clinical investigation to target these cells for the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes. We have demonstrated earlier that in vitro treatment of T cells from healthy individuals with TX527, a low-calcemic analog of bioactive vitamin D, can promote a CD4+CD25highCD127low regulatory profile and imprint a migratory signature specific for homing to sites of inflammation. Towards clinical application of vitamin D-induced Tregs in autologous adoptive immunotherapy for type 1 diabetes, we show here that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] and TX527 similarly imprint T cells from type 1 diabetes patients with a CD4+CD25highCD127low regulatory profile, modulate surface expression of skin- and inflammation-homing receptors, and increase expression of CTLA-4 and OX-40. Also, 1,25(OH)2D3 and TX527 treatment inhibit the production of effector cytokines IFN-γ, IL-9, and IL-17. Importantly, 1,25(OH)2D3 and TX527 promote the induction of IL-10-producing CD4+CD25highCD127low T cells with a stable phenotype and the functional capacity to suppress proliferation of autologous responder T cells in vitro. These findings warrant additional validation of vitamin D-induced Tregs in view of future autologous adoptive immunotherapy in type 1 diabetes.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "As VDR expression has been shown to inhibit transcription of the IL-2 gene (Alroy et al., 1995; Takeuchi et al., 1998), it is likely that upregulation of VDR serves as a negative feedback mechanism to control potential overreactions of the immune system. Besides inducing the early priming phase of naïve human T cells and possibly ensuring immune integrity, Mathieu and coworkers showed that a 1,25(OH)2D3 agonist drastically changed the surface expression of homing receptors on both CD4 and CD8 T cells, resulting in a profile corresponding to an increased migration ability to sites of infection (Baeke et al., 2011); and hence implying a role for VDR in all phases of T cell differentiation. "
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    ABSTRACT: The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a nuclear, ligand-dependent transcription factor that in complex with hormonally active vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D3, regulates the expression of more than 900 genes involved in a wide array of physiological functions. The impact of 1,25(OH)2D3-VDR signaling on immune function has been the focus of many recent studies as a link between 1,25(OH)2D3 and susceptibility to various infections and to development of a variety of inflammatory diseases has been suggested. It is also becoming increasingly clear that microbes slow down immune reactivity by dysregulating the VDR ultimately to increase their chance of survival. Immune modulatory therapies that enhance VDR expression and activity are therefore considered in the clinic today to a greater extent. As T cells are of great importance for both protective immunity and development of inflammatory diseases a variety of studies have been engaged investigating the impact of VDR expression in T cells and found that VDR expression and activity plays an important role in both T cell development, differentiation and effector function. In this review we will analyze current knowledge of VDR regulation and function in T cells and discuss its importance for immune activity.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Frontiers in Immunology
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    • "To analyze the suppressive function of the Tregs induced in vitro by DCs, autologous mixed cell cultures were performed [30]. Briefly, CD4+CD25+ T cells recovered after five days of co-culture with DCs (T1 cells), were maintained in culture for two additional days in the presence of IL-2 (50 U/ml) (R&D Systems). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Interactions between dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells play a critical role in the development of glomerulonephritis, which is a common cause of chronic kidney disease. DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), an immune-regulating molecule of the C-type lectin family, is mainly expressed on DCs and mediates DC adhesion and migration, inflammation, activation of primary T cells. DC-SIGN triggers immune responses and is involved in the immune escape of pathogens and tumours. In addition, ligation of DC-SIGN on DCs actively primes DCs to induce Tregs. Under certain conditions, DC-SIGN signalling may result in inhibition of DC maturation, by promoting regulatory T cell (Treg) function and affecting Th1/Th2 bias. Methods A rat model of nephrotoxic nephritis was used to investigate the therapeutic effects of an anti-lectin-epidermal growth factor (EGF) antibody on glomerulonephritis. DCs were induced by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. The expression of DC surface antigens were detected using flow cytometry; the levels of cytokines were detected by ELISA and qPCR, respectively; the capability of DCs to stimulate T cell proliferation was examined by mixed lymphocyte reaction; PsL-EGFmAb targeting to DC-SIGN on DCs was identified by immunoprecipitation. Results Anti-Lectin-EGF antibody significantly reduced global crescent formation, tubulointerstitial injury and improved renal function impairment through inhibiting DC maturation and modulating Foxp3 expression and the Th1/Th2 cytokine balance in kidney. Binding of anti-Lectin-EGF antibody to DC-SIGN on human DCs inhibited DC maturation, increased IL-10 production from DCs and enhanced CD4+CD25+ Treg functions. Conclusions Our results suggest that treatment with anti-Lectin-EGF antibody modulates DCs to suppressive DCs and enhances Treg functions, contributing to the attenuation of renal injury in a rat model of nephrotoxic nephritis.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Journal of Translational Medicine
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