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... Evidence for the self-referential processing hypothesis is currently scant. In addition to the two fMRI studies reviewed earlier [Jarcho et al., 2011;Kitayama et al., 2013], there are three additional fMRI studies on post-choice attitude change [Izuma et al., 2010;Qin et al., 2011;Sharot et al., 2009]. These studies focused on neural activations during the pre-and post-choice rating periods rather than in-choice activations. ...
... It is, therefore, not surprising that these studies did not find any evidence for the selfreferential processing hypothesis. The remaining study [Qin et al., 2011] used an incentive compatible procedure where participants received one of the music CDs they chose and found that the activation of both dorsal and ventral regions of the mPFC during the post-choice rating of chosen options predicts the post-choice attitude change for them. Importantly, none of the above studies tested functional connectivity during the pre-choice or postchoice rating tasks and it is, therefore, unclear whether functional connectivity might be involved in facilitating post-choice attitude change. ...
... Altogether, our work goes beyond previous work that has examined post-choice mechanisms of choice justification [Izuma et al., 2010;Qin et al., 2011;Sharot et al., 2009]. Unlike Izuma et al. [2010] and Sharot et al. [2009], we used an incentive compatible procedure where participants received one of the options they chose. ...
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Prior research shows that after making a choice, decision makers shift their attitudes in a choice-congruous direction. Although this post-choice attitude change effect is robust, the neural mechanisms underlying it are poorly understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that decision makers elaborate on their choice in reference to self-knowledge to justify the choice they have made. This self-referential processing of the choice is thought to play a pivotal role in the post-choice attitude change. Twenty-four young American adults made a series of choices. They also rated their attitudes toward the choice options before and after the choices. In support of the current hypothesis, we found that changes in functional connectivity between two putative self-regions (medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus]) during the post-choice (vs. pre-choice) rating of the chosen options predicted the post-choice shift of the attitudes toward the chosen options. This finding is the first to suggest that cognitive integration of various self-relevant cognitions is instrumental in fostering post-choice attitude change. Hum Brain Mapp, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... Studies using the free-choice paradigm, have involved healthy adult humans as well as amnesia patients (Lieberman et al., 2001), 4-year-old children and capuchin monkeys (Egan et al., 2007(Egan et al., , 2010. More recently, the brain mechanisms underlying choice-induced preference modulation have been extensively studied with the same paradigm (Sharot et al., 2009(Sharot et al., , 2010aIzuma et al., 2010;Jarcho et al., 2011;Qin et al., 2011;Kitayama et al., 2013). ...
... The original paper describing the methodological flaw was made available to the public as a working paper in 2008 and attracted the attention of researchers (see Chen and Risen, 2009;Sagarin and Skowronski, 2009a,b). However, despite the fact that their critique could potentially undermine the conclusions of any study that uses the paradigm, behavioral, and neuroimaging studies using the paradigm continue to be published without addressing the critique (Sharot et al., 2009(Sharot et al., , 2010aCoppin et al., 2010Coppin et al., , 2012Imada and Kitayama, 2010;Lee and Schwarz, 2010;West et al., 2010;Harmon-Jones et al., 2011;Jarcho et al., 2011;Qin et al., 2011;Kimel et al., 2012;Kitayama et al., 2013). Furthermore, although some researchers have already provided evidence for the existence of choice-included preference change using new paradigms or modifications of the free-choice paradigm, some of them are not sufficiently compelling, as detailed later. ...
... Three fMRI studies previously investigated which brain regions during the choice task (Jarcho et al., 2011;Kitayama et al., 2013) or the second rating task (Qin et al., 2011) tracks the degree of preference change on an item-by-item basis. Our simulation study showed that noise in the rating and choice phases alone could produce ostensible preference change. ...
Article
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Choices not only reflect our preference, but they also affect our behavior. The phenomenon of choice-induced preference change has been of interest to cognitive dissonance researchers in social psychology, and more recently, it has attracted the attention of researchers in economics and neuroscience. Preference modulation after the mere act of making a choice has been repeatedly demonstrated over the last 50 years by an experimental paradigm called the "free-choice paradigm." However, Chen and Risen (2010) pointed out a serious methodological flaw in this paradigm, arguing that evidence for choice-induced preference change is still insufficient. Despite the flaw, studies using the traditional free-choice paradigm continue to be published without addressing the criticism. Here, aiming to draw more attention to this issue, we briefly explain the methodological problem, and then describe simple simulation studies that illustrate how the free-choice paradigm produces a systematic pattern of preference change consistent with cognitive dissonance, even without any change in true preference. Our stimulation also shows how a different level of noise in each phase of the free-choice paradigm independently contributes to the magnitude of artificial preference change. Furthermore, we review ways of addressing the critique and provide a meta-analysis to show the effect size of choice-induced preference change after addressing the critique. Finally, we review and discuss, based on the results of the stimulation studies, how the criticism affects our interpretation of past findings generated from the free-choice paradigm. We conclude that the use of the conventional free-choice paradigm should be avoided in future research and the validity of past findings from studies using this paradigm should be empirically re-established.
... The medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) is preferentially activated in tasks that entail self-referential processing, such as reflecting upon one's own personality traits, feelings, and physical attributes (e.g., Jenkins & Mitchell, 2011) or reporting one's attitudes and preferences (for reviews, see Mitchell, 2009;Northoff & Bermpohl, 2004). Indeed, the effect of selfreferential processing on MPFC activity is robust at many levels of analysis, having been observed across cultures (e.g., Wang et al., 2011) and across different sensory modalities (e.g., Northoff et al., 2006). Self-referential processing is also thought to have important implications for personal decision making. ...
... Although the purpose of the present investigation was to investigate how need satisfaction modulates MPFC activity across levels of decisional conflict (i.e., low-conflict and high-conflict), it is also interesting to consider the present results in light of emerging research on the neural correlates of cognitive dissonance (e.g., Izuma et al., 2010;Jarcho, Berkman, & Lieberman, 2011;Qin et al., 2011). Indeed, the HC-H condition of the occupational choice task utilized in the present study is reminiscent of research in cognitive dissonance using decision-making paradigms in which participants are asked to make preference-based choices among a set of similarly valued objects (e.g., food items, CDs, etc.). ...
... To alleviate this postdecisional dissonance, people sometimes increase their preference for the chosen object and decrease their preference for the rejected object, a phenomenon known as the "spreading of alternatives." In keeping with the MPFC's purported role in the regulation of decisional conflicts (Nakao et al., 2009;Nakao, Osumi, et al., 2010), these initial investigations on dissonance suggest that the MPFC-in concert with several other cortical and subcortical regions -may play a role in decision-induced attitude change Jarcho et al., 2011;Qin et al., 2011). ...
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Research has shown that people's abilities to develop and act from a coherent sense of self are facilitated by satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy. The present study utilized functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to examine the effect of need satisfaction on activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), a key region in processing information about the self. Participants completed a decision-making task (e.g., Which occupation would you prefer, dancer or chemist?) in which they made a series of forced choices according to their personal preferences. The degree of decisional conflict (i.e., choice difficulty) between the available response options was manipulated on the basis of participants' unique preference ratings for the target stimuli, which were obtained prior to scanning. Need satisfaction predicted elevated MPFC activity during high-conflict relative to low-conflict situations, suggesting that one way need satisfaction may promote self-coherence is by enhancing the utilization of self-knowledge in the resolution of decisional conflicts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
... Studies using the free-choice paradigm, have involved healthy adult humans as well as amnesia patients (Lieberman et al., 2001), 4-year-old children and capuchin monkeys (Egan et al., 2007(Egan et al., , 2010. More recently, the brain mechanisms underlying choice-induced preference modulation have been extensively studied with the same paradigm (Sharot et al., 2009(Sharot et al., , 2010aIzuma et al., 2010;Jarcho et al., 2011;Qin et al., 2011;Kitayama et al., 2013). ...
... The original paper describing the methodological flaw was made available to the public as a working paper in 2008 and attracted the attention of researchers (see Chen and Risen, 2009;Sagarin and Skowronski, 2009a,b). However, despite the fact that their critique could potentially undermine the conclusions of any study that uses the paradigm, behavioral, and neuroimaging studies using the paradigm continue to be published without addressing the critique (Sharot et al., 2009(Sharot et al., , 2010aCoppin et al., 2010Coppin et al., , 2012Imada and Kitayama, 2010;Lee and Schwarz, 2010;West et al., 2010;Harmon-Jones et al., 2011;Jarcho et al., 2011;Qin et al., 2011;Kimel et al., 2012;Kitayama et al., 2013). Furthermore, although some researchers have already provided evidence for the existence of choice-included preference change using new paradigms or modifications of the free-choice paradigm, some of them are not sufficiently compelling, as detailed later. ...
... Three fMRI studies previously investigated which brain regions during the choice task (Jarcho et al., 2011;Kitayama et al., 2013) or the second rating task (Qin et al., 2011) tracks the degree of preference change on an item-by-item basis. Our simulation study showed that noise in the rating and choice phases alone could produce ostensible preference change. ...
Article
Full-text available
Choices not only reflect our preference, but they also affect our behavior. The phenomenon of choice-induced preference change has been of interest to cognitive dissonance researchers in social psychology, and more recently, it has attracted the attention of researchers in economics and neuroscience. Preference modulation after the mere act of making a choice has been repeatedly demonstrated over the last 50 years by an experimental paradigm called the "free-choice paradigm." However, Chen and Risen (2010) pointed out a serious methodological flaw in this paradigm, arguing that evidence for choice-induced preference change is still insufficient. Despite the flaw, studies using the traditional free-choice paradigm continue to be published without addressing the criticism. Here, aiming to draw more attention to this issue, we briefly explain the methodological problem, and then describe simple simulation studies that illustrate how the free-choice paradigm produces a systematic pattern of preference change consistent with cognitive dissonance, even without any change in true preference. Our stimulation also shows how a different level of noise in each phase of the free-choice paradigm independently contributes to the magnitude of artificial preference change. Furthermore, we review ways of addressing the critique and provide a meta-analysis to show the effect size of choice-induced preference change after addressing the critique. Finally, we review and discuss, based on the results of the stimulation studies, how the criticism affects our interpretation of past findings generated from the free-choice paradigm. We conclude that the use of the conventional free-choice paradigm should be avoided in future research and the validity of past findings from studies using this paradigm should be empirically re-established.
... Despite the broad relevance of cognitive dissonance and dissonance reduction processes for different research traditions in psychology, knowledge about their neural substrates is still meager. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have suggested that the detection of the cognitive conflict generated by the inconsistency between attitudes and actions may be related to activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) (van Veen et al. 2009;Izuma et al. 2010), while the associated aversive autonomic arousal would be linked to activity in the anterior insula (van Veen et al. 2009;Qin et al. 2011). Once conflict is detected by the dACC and dissonance is aroused, decision-related attitude change may occur rapidly (Harmon-Jones, . ...
... Previous research has shown that activity in the left, right, or bilateral DLPFC may be associated with decision-induced preference change, however to date none have used noninvasive brain stimulation methods to draw causal inference from brain to behavior. For example, Qin et al. (2011) showed that postchoice neural activity in frontal regions (including the left DLPFC) predicted individual difference in the postchoice change in preferences, the so called "spread", reflecting the increase of preference for the chosen items and the decrease of preference for the rejected items. Notably, Harmon-Jones, Gerdjikov, et al. (2008) manipulated left DLPFC activity by EEG biofeedback training and found that participants who received neurofeedback training to decrease-left frontal cortical activity showed a significant reduction in the postdecision preference changes, suggesting an important role of left DLPFC in this behavior. ...
... Moreover, we hypothesize that if DLPFC is necessary for adjusting attitudes into line with behavior, active tDCS over this region might lead participants to reduce or not show any postdecision preference change. In particular, since cognitive dissonance implies some degree of rationalization and self-control (Brehm 1956;Festinger 1957;Aronson et al. 1995;Harmon-Jones and Harmon-Jones 2002;van Veen et al. 2009;Izuma et al. 2010;Jarcho et al. 2010;Qin et al. 2011) and the left hemisphere is particularly involved in such processes (Ramachandran 1995(Ramachandran , 1996Gazzaniga et al. 1996;Tomarkenand and Keener 1998;Boggio et al. 2008;Ochsner and Gross 2008;Berkman and Lieberman 2009), we hypothesized that participants' ratings would remain relatively stable over time after stimulation of left, but not right, DLPFC. ...
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In everyday life, people often find themselves facing difficult decisions between options that are equally attractive. Cognitive dissonance theory states that after making a difficult choice between 2 equally preferred options, individuals no longer find the alternatives similarly desirable. Rather, they often change their existing preferences to align more closely with the choice they have just made. Despite the relevance of cognitive dissonance in modulating behavior, little is known about the brain processes crucially involved in choice-induced preference change. In the present study, we applied cathodal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) with the aim of downregulating the activity of the left or the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during a revised version of Brehm's (in 1956. Post-decision changes in the desirability of alternatives. J Abnorm Soc Psychol. 52:384–389) free-choice paradigm. We found that cathodal tDCS over the left, but not over the right, DLPFC caused a reduction of the typical behavior-induced preference change relative to sham stimulation. Our findings highlight the role of prefrontal cortex in cognitive dissonance and provide evidence that left DLPFC plays a necessary role in the implementation of choice-induced preference change.
... Steele et al., 1993;Heine and Dehman, 1997), not only in healthy adult subjects but also in amnesic patients (Lieberman et al., 2001), 4-year-old children and capuchin monkeys (Egan et al., 2007(Egan et al., , 2010. Brain mechanisms underlying the reduction of dissonance in the free-choice paradigm have also been studied (Sharot et al., 2009;Izuma et al., 2010;Jarcho et al., 2011;Qin et al., 2011;Kitayama et al., 2013). ...
... Moreover, the brain mechanisms related to dissonance reduction have been explored using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The striatum and the ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) have been associated with choice-induced preference change (Sharot et al., 2009;Izuma et al., 2010;Jarcho et al., 2011;Qin et al., 2011;Kitayama et al., 2013), while the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the insula have been implicated in the detection of the conflict induced by the choices (Izuma et al., 2010;Jarcho et al., 2011;Qin et al., 2011;Kitayama et al., 2013). Interestingly, similar brain areas have been implicated in cognitive dissonance resolution, using another experimental paradigm, the induced compliance paradigm (van Veen et al., 2009). ...
... Moreover, the brain mechanisms related to dissonance reduction have been explored using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The striatum and the ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) have been associated with choice-induced preference change (Sharot et al., 2009;Izuma et al., 2010;Jarcho et al., 2011;Qin et al., 2011;Kitayama et al., 2013), while the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the insula have been implicated in the detection of the conflict induced by the choices (Izuma et al., 2010;Jarcho et al., 2011;Qin et al., 2011;Kitayama et al., 2013). Interestingly, similar brain areas have been implicated in cognitive dissonance resolution, using another experimental paradigm, the induced compliance paradigm (van Veen et al., 2009). ...
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When we perceive a word, a picture or a sound, we do not access an ‘objective’ representation of them. Rather we gain immediate access to a subjective interpretation. This interpretation reflects the combination of our prior knowledge about the world with data sampled in the environment. An interesting issue is to understand how we deal with inconsistencies between our prior knowledge and the data from the environment. During this PhD, responses to inconsistencies both in the environment and in subjects’ own behavior were explored. The first series of studies address how subjects process regularities in the environment and how these processes relate to conscious access. To do so, two levels of auditory regularities were studied in epileptic patients implanted with intracranial electrodes. In a second experiment, we used a paradigm derived from the Stroop task to test responses to frequent conscious or unconscious conflicts. Behavioral measures and scalp EEG were used to assess changes in subjects’ strategy when processing trials conflicting with current expectations. In the second series of studies, we analyzed how subjects adapt their interpretations when confronted with inconsistencies in their own behavior, using the framework of cognitive dissonance. The implication of explicit memory was tested in a behavioral experiment and in an fMRI study. The results of these four studies are discussed around two main issues. First, these results highlight the existence of processes which rely on conscious stimuli but are not conscious themselves. Second, we examine what could explain our tendency to constantly seek consistency both in the external world and in our own behavior.
... This process engenders an increase in the preference for the chosen item and an increase in the likelihood of choosing the same item at the following opportunity. Consistent with the proposal by Akaishi et al. 46 , neuroimaging studies of choice-induced preference change have shown activation within typical neural substrates of reward-based reinforcement learning (e.g., ventral striatum, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex) 40,[49][50][51][52] . However, those earlier studies examined brain activities after stimulus onset for free choice between two items 50,52 or for preference ratings of respective items 40,49,51 using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). ...
... Consistent with the proposal by Akaishi et al. 46 , neuroimaging studies of choice-induced preference change have shown activation within typical neural substrates of reward-based reinforcement learning (e.g., ventral striatum, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex) 40,[49][50][51][52] . However, those earlier studies examined brain activities after stimulus onset for free choice between two items 50,52 or for preference ratings of respective items 40,49,51 using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Consequently, although neural activities related to choice response are expected to play a crucially important role in CBL because the choice itself induces the value change, the relation between CBL and neural activities related to the response remains unclear. ...
... Additionally, we expect that a difference of CBL between IDM and EDM is observed in the relation between the change of decision consistency and the neural activities related to the response. Although no strong activation within the reward-related neural substrates was reported in CBL of EDM 46 , it was reported in CBL of IDM 40,[49][50][51][52] . This evidence suggests that CBL in IDM is associated with reinforcement processes such as reward-based reinforcement learning, different from CBL in EDM, even if the item is not visibly reinforced by the externally delivered reward. ...
Article
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Choosing an option increases a person’s preference for that option. This phenomenon, called choice-based learning (CBL), has been investigated separately in the contexts of internally guided decision-making (IDM, e.g., preference judgment), for which no objectively correct answer exists, and externally guided decision making (EDM, e.g., perceptual decision making), for which one objectively correct answer exists. For the present study, we compared decision making of these two types to examine differences of underlying neural processes of CBL. As IDM and EDM tasks, occupation preference judgment and salary judgment were used, respectively. To compare CBL for the two types of decision making, we developed a novel measurement of CBL: decision consistency. When CBL occurs, decision consistency is higher in the last-half trials than in first-half trials. Electroencephalography (EEG) data have demonstrated that the change of decision consistency is positively correlated with the fronto-central beta–gamma power after response in the first-half trials for IDM, but not for EDM. Those results demonstrate for the first time the difference of CBL between IDM and EDM. The fronto-central beta–gamma power is expected to reflect a key process of CBL, specifically for IDM.
... Many neuroimaging studies (Izuma et al., 2010;Qin et al., 2011;Sharot, De Martino, & Dolan, 2009) have employed the free-choice paradigm by focusing on neural activity during the rating II task. Such an approach implies that preference changes take place during the rating II task when participants reduce cognitive dissonance by reevaluation of the option. ...
... Both fMRI and EEG studies have linked the activity of the left dlPFC with post-decisional preference change, which indicates the important role of the left dlPFC in cognitive dissonance resolution (Harmon-Jones, Gerdjikov, & Harmon-Jones, 2008;Qin et al., 2011). A recent study by Managrelli et al. (2015) found that post-decisional preference changes were significantly reduced after cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the left (but not the right) dlPFC, which showed the causal role of the left dlPFC in cognitive dissonance. ...
... The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) has been associated with an extensive number of cognitive functions, including conscious awareness and cognitive control (Leech, Kamourieh, Beckmann, & Sharp, 2011), emotional memory encoding (Maddock, Garrett, & Buonocore, 2001), memory retrieval and planning (Vann, Aggleton, & Maguire, 2009), maintaining changes in the external environment (Pearson, Heilbronner, Barack, Hayden, & Platt, 2011), and controlling the balance between external and internal attention (Leech & Sharp, 2014). Previous fMRI studies have observed stronger activity of the PCC either during difficult choices (Kitayama et al., 2013;Qin et al., 2011;Tompson, Chua, & Kitayama, 2016) or after difficult choices (Izuma et al., 2010) as compared to easy choices. Another study showed that PCC activity is positively correlated with the perceived desirability of objects (Kawabata & Zeki, 2008). ...
... Many neuroimaging studies (Izuma et al., 2010;Qin et al., 2011;Sharot, De Martino, & Dolan, 2009) have employed the free-choice paradigm by focusing on neural activity during the rating II task. Such an approach implies that preference changes take place during the rating II task when participants reduce cognitive dissonance by reevaluation of the option. ...
... Both fMRI and EEG studies have linked the activity of the left dlPFC with post-decisional preference change, which indicates the important role of the left dlPFC in cognitive dissonance resolution (Harmon-Jones, Gerdjikov, & Harmon-Jones, 2008;Qin et al., 2011). A recent study by Managrelli et al. (2015) found that post-decisional preference changes were significantly reduced after cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the left (but not the right) dlPFC, which showed the causal role of the left dlPFC in cognitive dissonance. ...
... The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) has been associated with an extensive number of cognitive functions, including conscious awareness and cognitive control (Leech, Kamourieh, Beckmann, & Sharp, 2011), emotional memory encoding (Maddock, Garrett, & Buonocore, 2001), memory retrieval and planning (Vann, Aggleton, & Maguire, 2009), maintaining changes in the external environment (Pearson, Heilbronner, Barack, Hayden, & Platt, 2011), and controlling the balance between external and internal attention (Leech & Sharp, 2014). Previous fMRI studies have observed stronger activity of the PCC either during difficult choices (Kitayama et al., 2013;Qin et al., 2011;Tompson, Chua, & Kitayama, 2016) or after difficult choices (Izuma et al., 2010) as compared to easy choices. Another study showed that PCC activity is positively correlated with the perceived desirability of objects (Kawabata & Zeki, 2008). ...
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In the current paper, the interrelation between the friendliness of the home environment and family attitudes is investigated. The friendliness of the home environment includes three parameters: the number of functions provided by home (functionality), the congruence of these functions with inhabitants’ needs (relevance), and home attachment. We assumed that friendly home environment positively contributes to the inhabitants’ family attitudes, and positive family attitudes, in turn, predict a perceived friendly home image. The sample consisted of 393 participants (295 females and 98 males), students of different faculties of the Higher School of Economics. We used the Functionality of the Home Environment Questionnaire, the Relevance of the Home Environment Questionnaire (short version), the Home Attachment Questionnaire, and Attitudinal Familism Scale. The results of the regression analysis show that family attitudes are significantly related with such parameters as the Home Attachment, Pragmatism, Protection, Plasticity, Self-Presentation, Ergonomics, and Development of the home environment. And, vice versa, almost all the parameters of the functionality and relevance of the home environment have been significantly impacted by family attitudes. Home Attachment is significantly mutually related with attitudes towards family. The study’s results can be helpful in designing home environment, in forming individual profiles of preferred home environment preferences, and intensification home’ resource function as a factor of family atmosphere’s improvement.
... One weakness of the traditional account is that it is not clear how the chooser manages to make a choice when the attractiveness of the choice options is equal. Another weakness stems from the fact that although behavioral studies traditionally tested participants as they made only one choice (e.g., Brehm, 1956), more recent studiesparticularly neuroimaging studieshad subjects make dozens of choices (Izuma et al., 2010;Jarcho et al., 2011;Qin et al., 2011;Sharot et al., 2010). Even under the multiple choices condition, a significant SOA effect has been observed. ...
... Most of the available fMRI studies on the free choice paradigm (Izuma et al., 2010;Qin et al., 2011;Sharot et al., 2009) tested brain activation patterns both before and after choices, but not during the choices. Only one study (Jarcho et al., 2011) scanned participants while they made a series of choices between two equally attractive items. ...
... For example, researchers showed that self-construals are associated with multiple cognitive/affective neural processes, such as moderating associations between trait creativity and social brain network, affecting the functional organization of the human brain and behavior under different cultural backgrounds [3,13,14]. Other researchers also reported the brain modulation mechanisms for the orientations of independence and interdependence in other cognitive activities such as choice justification [15], reward [16], pain perception [17]. Specifically, from the perspective of fMRI, existing studies reported correlations between self-construals and task-based brain activities [18][19][20][21]. ...
... Previous research reported that activity in the frontal cortex, including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), was enhanced during general trait and contextual trait judgments. These regions are thought to associate with self-knowledge and self-construals [15,19,[56][57][58][59]. Our results showed that functional connectivity across the mPFC, the parahippocampal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, insular gyrus, and the middle frontal gyrus linked to independence and interdependence, consistent with the previous studies [10,60,61]. ...
Article
The self-construal is one of the most significant cultural markers in humans. Accordingly, mapping the relationship between brain activity and self-construal contributes to understanding the nature of such psychological traits. Existing studies have mainly focused on static functional brain activities in specific brain regions. However, evidence has suggested that the functional connectivity of the brain network is dynamic over time and the high-level psychological processes might require collaboration among multiple regions. In the present study, we explored the dynamic connection patterns of the two most representative types of self-construal traits, namely independence and interdependence, using machine learning-based models. We performed resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) on a sample of young adults (n=359) who completed Singelis' Self-Construal Scale, and constructed the efficiency-based dynamic functional connectivity (FC) networks. XGBoost Regression was subsequently applied to learn the relationship between the dynamic FC and the two self-construals without any priori bias or hypothesis. The performance of the regression model was validated by the nested 10-fold cross-validation. The results showed that the efficiency-based dynamic FC could identify the orientations of independence and interdependence. The comparison analyses revealed that prediction accuracy using this dynamic FC method was significantly improved compared to the conventional static FC method. By exploring key connectivities selected by the regression model, we observed that the independence orientation was mainly characterized by the right-hemisphere FC, while the interdependence orientation by the left-hemisphere FC. The results suggest that the self-construals are associated with distributed neural networks the entire brain. These findings provide the pivotal ingredients toward the biological essence of culturally related variables in the brain by taking advances in cultural psychology, neuroscience, together with machine-learning analytic technologies. Index Terms-self-construal, resting state functional connectivity (rsFC), nodal efficiency, dynamic functional connectivity Received in XX,XX,XXXX. Y. Zhu, X. Li are with the
... Several neuroimaging studies have been conducted to examine the neural mechanisms underlying choice-induced preference change (Izuma et al., 2010;Jarcho, Berkman, & Lieberman, 2011;Kitayama, Chua, Tompson, & Han, 2013;Qin et al., 2011;Sharot, De Martino, & Dolan, 2009). Specifically, these studies sought to address the following two main questions. ...
... Consistent with choice-induced preference change, participants' preference changed in line with their choice À in the second rating task, destinations they chose showed increased preference, whereas destinations they rejected showed decreased preference in comparison to the first rating task. Importantly, they also observed that post-choice changes in preference were correlated with the caudate nucleus activity (within the striatum), indicating that choiceinduced preference can be observed even in the neural representation of preference (see also Qin et al., 2011). ...
Chapter
Studies in psychology have long revealed that making personal choice involves multiple motivational consequences. It has only been recent, however, that the literature on neuroscience started to examine the neural underpinnings of personal choice and motivation. This chapter reviews this sparse, but emergent, body of neuroscientific literature to address possible neural correlates underlying personal choice. By conducting the review, we encourage future systematic research programs that address this topic under the new realm of "autonomy neuroscience." The chapter especially focused on the following motivational aspects: (i) personal choice is rewarding, (ii) personal choice shapes preference, (iii) personal choice changes the perception of outcomes, and (iv) personal choice facilitates motivation and performance. The reviewed work highlighted different aspects of personal choice, but indicated some overlapping brain areas-the striatum and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)-which may play a critical role in motivational processes elicited by personal choice. © 2017 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.
... Subjects asked to re-rate alternatives following a decision or in anticipation of one increase their ratings of chosen alternatives and in some cases diminish ratings of non-chosen alternatives (Kitayama et al., 2004;Lieberman et al., 2001;Sharot et al., 2010;Wakslak, 2012). Studies employing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) indicate preferencerelated brain activity contemporaneous with the changes in individuals' subjective rating of stimuli accompanying decisions or actions (Izuma et al., 2010;Jarcho et al., 2011;Kitayama et al., 2013;Qin et al., 2011;Sharot et al., 2009;Tompson et al., 2016;Van Veen et al., 2009). Festinger 's (1962) theory of cognitive dissonance explains some of these phenomena conceptually in terms of individuals preferring their actions to be aligned with their beliefs; when they are not aligned, the theory contends, people may become uncomfortable and so alter their beliefs to restore a sense of comfort. ...
... First, it offers an advance in 3 Recent evidence supports the notion that individuals change their attitudes to support their actions through a discretionary or quasi-discretionary process involving classic rationalization (Jarcho et al., 2011) and the expenditure of effort (Kitayama et al., 2013). The notion that the process is essentially a rational one is supported by evidence on the influence of mediating factors that conceivably relate to the costs and benefits of the decision, including the individual's cultural background (Kitayama et al., 2004;Qin et al., 2011), whether the choice is perceived to be more self-relevant (Jarcho et al., 2011;Kitayama et al., 2013), and whether the matter is construed as relating to high ideals or trivial secondary features (Wakslak, 2012). 4 Rabin (1994) and Oxoby (2003Oxoby ( , 2004 posit agents who engage in dissonance reduction by making costly changes to their beliefs or preferences, hence utility parameters, with respect to the value of moral behavior and status consumption, respectively. ...
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This paper develops a model of individual decision-making under bounded rationality in which discretionary cognitive adjustment creates a durable stock that complements choice of action. While it increases utility, adjustment also entails a cost, because focusing attention optimally is effortful and mental resources are scarce. Associated behavioral phenomena are categorized based on whether the operative motivation in adjusting is forward-looking utility maximization or justification of prior action. The theory is in line with prior conceptions of cognitive dissonance, but also offers a more empirically consistent explanation of the endowment effect, persuasive advertising, and sunk-cost effects than existing accounts.
... The results might therefore have reflected responses to this reminder rather than any representations of the pertinent food options that might be altered by the choice. The same confound existed in another imaging study by Qin et al. (2011). Hence, for our purposes, implications of these studies are uncertain. ...
Article
Drawing on recent advances in both neuroscience and animal behavior, we propose a biosocial model of affective decision making, which holds that when people face a conflict between two competing behavioral options (e.g., go vs. no-go, approach vs. avoidance), they develop a new affective disposition that resolves the conflict. This newly emerging affect will enable one to select a response while forming the basis for an elaborate cognition that justifies the selected response. The model reconceptualizes cognitive dissonance as fundamentally affective and involving both predecisional and postdecisional components. Furthermore, by postulating both top-down and bottom-up neural pathways to regulate the sensitivity to behavioral conflict, it integrates prior evidence on factors that moderate dissonance, including action orientation, self-affirmation, mortality salience, and culture. It also offers new insights into a disparate set of motivational phenomena including animal behaviors that mimic cognitive dissonance, sunk-cost fallacy, addiction, and ego-depletion. Lastly, the biosocial model has implications for how humans may be affectively and motivationally attached to symbols of culture. Directions for future research are discussed.
... This is consistent with the literature, as the insula has been strongly implicated in treatment response. In particular, the insula has been found to be important in the processing of emotional experiences (Phan, Wager, Taylor, & Liberzon, 2002), interoception (Critchley, Wiens, Rothstein, Ohman, & Dolan, 2004), cognitive dissonance, behavior change (van Veen, Krug, Schooler, & Carter 2009;Izuma et al., 2010;Qin et al., 2011), substance-related cues (e.g., Schneider et al., 2001;Paulus, Tapert, & Schuckit, 2005), and substance-related decision making (Naqvi & Bechara, 2010). Additionally, recent volumetric studies with cannabis users found reduced cortical thickness in the insula (Lopez-Larson et al., 2011), suggesting that an intact and functional insula may be protective against and/or reflective of lower levels of substance use. ...
Chapter
Substance use affects a large proportion of the American population. For example, among adults, approximately 17% of men and 8% of women meet criteria for alcohol dependence at some point during their lives. This chapter chooses motivational interviewing (MI) as an example of psychosocial intervention for several reasons. It reviews the key findings from the cognitive neuroscience research to highlight the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying MI. MI has gained support for its robust effects in reducing substance use behaviors among adults. The chapter elucidates the neural substrates of change talk (CT) by using an innovative temporal approach. More specifically, while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) offers excellent spatial resolution, its temporal resolution is not as strong. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) provides a direct measure of neuronal activity that captures rapid (millisecond) changes in neuronal firing patterns, but with lower spatial resolution than fMRI.
... In keeping with the idea that the right-IFG regulates conflict-related distress, Jarcho et al. (2011) found that activity in the right-IFG during decisional conflict was negatively associated with activity in the anterior insula, a region associated with aversive somatic arousal. Moreover, these researchers found that increased activity in the right-IFG was also associated with dissonance-induced attitude change, predicting the extent to which participants increased their reported liking of the items that they had chosen during the experimental task (also see Izuma et al., 2010;Qin et al., 2011). ...
... Harmon-Jones, Harmon-Jones, Fearn, Sigelman, & Johnson, 2008) and another used transcranial direct current stimulation to decrease left dorsolateral frontal cortical activity (Mengarelli, Spoglianti, Avenanti, & di Pellegrino, 2013). Also, a functional MRI (fMRI) study found that greater spreading of alternatives after difficult decisions was predicted by post-decision activity in the left lateral prefrontal cortex (Qin et al., 2011). Another experiment manipulated the action-oriented state following a difficult decision (E. ...
Article
The action-based model extends the original theory of cognitive dissonance by proposing why cognitive inconsistency causes both dissonance and dissonance reduction. The model begins by assuming that many perceptions and cognitions automatically impel us to act in specific ways. It then posits that the negative affective state of dissonance is aroused not by all cognitive conflict but, specifically, when cognitions with action implications are in conflict with each other, making it difficult to act. The dissonance signals to the organism that there is a problem and that the cognitive inconsistency needs to be resolved so that behavior can occur. After presenting the action-based model, we review results from behavioral and neuroscience experiments that have tested predictions derived from it.
... Indeed, recent years have witnessed an explosion of studies aimed precisely at identifying the neural correlates of desires, on the one hand, and the neural bases of decision-making, on the other (e.g. Schroeder 2004;Gold and Shadlen 2007;Fehr and Camerer 2007;Glimcher 2007, 2009;Glimcher,etal 2009;Caplin et al. 2010;Qin et al. 2011;Lee et al. 2012). The ambitious agenda pursued by researchers working in the field of neuroeconomics encourages us to think that the sceptic's initial complaint might eventually be addressed in a satisfactory way. ...
Article
According to a popular strategy amongst economists and philosophers, in order to solve the problem of interpersonal utility comparisons, we have to look at how ordinary people make such comparisons in everyday life. The most recent attempt to develop this strategy has been put forward by Goldman in his “Simulation and Interpersonal Utility” (Ethics 4:709–726, 1995). Goldman claims, first, that ordinary people make interpersonal comparisons by simulation and, second, that simulation is reliable for making interpersonal comparisons. In this paper, I focus on Goldman’s latter claim. After updating Goldman’s account of how ordinary people make interpersonal comparisons in the light of Goldman’s newest formulation of his simulation theory of mental ascription (Goldman, Simulating Minds. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006), I develop and assess Goldman’s arguments in favour of the reliability of simulation for interpersonal comparisons. I argue that, under certain conditions, there may be room for a scientifically acceptable solution to the problem of interpersonal utility comparisons.
... In the past two decades, neuroscience research on social psychological processes became very prolific (Cacioppo et al., 2007;Lieberman, 2010). Cognitive dissonance is not an exception, and a number of researchers have examined neural correlates of cognitive dissonance in the brain (e.g., Izuma et al., 2010;Qin et al., 2011;van Veen, Krug, Schooler, & Carter, 2009). More recently, cultural neuroscience research has started to examine cultural variation in brain structure and neural activity (Chiao & Ambady, 2007). ...
Article
Are people always motivated to strive for cognitive consistency? Does culture influence a person’s motivation to maintain cognitive consistency between attitudes and actions or between preferences and choices? When and how do people in different cultures experience cognitive dissonance, engage in justification of their behavior, and use self-affirmation? When and how are people with different models of agency motivated to maintain a preference-choice consistency? In this paper, culturally variable self-schemata and models of agency, independent self and agency dominant in North American culture and interdependent self and agency prevalent in Asian culture, are considered as the source of cultural variations in cognitive consistency. These culturally divergent self-systems create variance in situations in which North Americans and Asians are motivated to maintain cognitive consistency. In this paper, related cross-cultural research is reviewed. Some future research agenda are also discussed.
... The results might therefore have reflected responses to this reminder rather than any representations of the pertinent food options that might be altered by the choice. The same confound existed in another imaging study by Qin et al. (2011). Hence, for our purposes, implications of these studies are uncertain. ...
Chapter
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Drawing on recent advances in both neuroscience and animal behavior, we propose a biosocial model of affective decision making, which holds that when people face a conflict between two competing behavioral options (e.g., go vs. no-go, approach vs. avoidance), they develop a new affective disposition that resolves the conflict. This newly emerging affect will enable one to select a response while forming the basis for an elaborate cognition that justifies the selected response. The model reconceptualizes cognitive dissonance as fundamentally affective and involving both predecisional and postdecisional components. Furthermore, by postulating both top-down and bottom-up neural pathways to regulate the sensitivity to behavioral conflict, it integrates prior evidence on factors that moderate dissonance, including action orientation, self-affirmation, mortality salience, and culture. It also offers new insights into a disparate set of motivational phenomena including animal behaviors that mimic cognitive dissonance, sunk-cost fallacy, addiction, and ego-depletion. Lastly, the biosocial model has implications for how humans may be affectively and motivationally attached to symbols of culture. Directions for future research are discussed.
... The rationale for having participants make initial preference ratings between two items presented at a time rather than have them rate each item independently as is usually done in cognitive dissonance experiments (Sharot et al., 2009(Sharot et al., , 2012Izuma et al., 2010;Jarcho et al., 2011;Qin et al., 2011;Kitayama et al., 2013) was to avoid the possible confounds raised by Chen and Risen (Chen and Risen, 2010;Izuma and Murayama, 2013). Indeed, in the conventional "Free Choice Paradigm, " participants are first asked to provide individual ratings for a number of items. ...
Article
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While there is evidence that implicit self-esteem transfers to chosen objects (associative self-anchoring), it is still unknown whether this phenomenon extends to explicit self-esteem. Moreover, whether the knowledge that these objects might belong to the self in the future or not affects the evaluation of these objects has received little attention. Here, we demonstrate that evaluations of chosen objects are further enhanced when they are obtainable as compared to when they are not in participants with high explicit self-esteem, whereas participants with low explicit self-esteem exhibit the opposite pattern. These findings extend previous results and shed new light on the role of self-esteem in altering preferences for chosen objects depending on their obtainability.
... Further, recent research has demonstrated that Cathodal tDCS (negatively charged electrodes) over the lateral prefrontal cortex decreases the expected behavioral adjustments that would typically occur following deviations of social norm compliance (Ruff et al., 2013). Interestingly, this is the same region that predicted individual differences in post-choice change in preference in non-social contexts (Jarcho et al., 2010;Qin et al., 2011;Mengarelli et al., 2013). Such a finding could be taken to suggest that the rejection of partisan support may be based on the same process of cognitive conflict that appears to determine alterations of preference and choice in non-political domains. ...
Article
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People generally have imperfect introspective access to the mechanisms underlying their political beliefs, yet can confidently communicate the reasoning that goes into their decision making process. An innate desire for certainty and security in ones beliefs may play an important and somewhat automatic role in motivating the maintenance or rejection of partisan support. The aim of the current study was to clarify the role of the DLPFC in the alteration of political beliefs. Recent neuroimaging studies have focused on the association between the DLPFC (a region involved in the regulation of cognitive conflict and error feedback processing) and reduced affiliation with opposing political candidates. As such, this study used a method of non- invasive brain simulation (tRNS) to enhance activity of the bilateral DLPFC during the incorporation of political campaign information. These findings indicate a crucial role for this region in political belief formation. However, enhanced activation of DLPFC does not necessarily result in the specific rejection of political beliefs. In contrast to the hypothesis the results appear to indicate a significant increase in conservative values regardless of participant’s initial political orientation and the political campaign advertisement they were exposed to.
... Environmentally conscious consumers are intrinsically motivated to buy products that match their sense of responsibility, this reduces their cognitive dissonance. In justifying their choice of green brands, consumers will have positive feelings toward the green brand and a decreased preference for non-green brands (Qin et al., 2011). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to answer the following questions: What factors influence attitude toward green brands among Pakistani millennials? Does attitude toward green brands affect purchase intention? Does gender moderate the effect? Design/methodology/approach Data was collected through an online questionnaire distributed through multiple academic and professional networks. The questionnaire was answered by 242 Pakistani millennials. SmartPLS was used to conduct partial least square-structural equation modeling analysis. The analysis was conducted using a two-stage protocol typically followed in SEM analysis. First, an outer model assessment was done to measure construct reliability and validity. This was followed by hypotheses testing in the inner model assessment. Moderating effects were tested using the multigroup analysis feature of SmartPLS. Findings The antecedent factors tested in this study are green brand skepticism, environmental consciousness and attitude toward green campaigns. Results show that these factors do influence a person’s attitude toward a green brand, which, in turn, influences his/her purchase intention regarding that brand. Marketers of green brands can use the factors outlined in this study to improve consumer attitudes toward their company and products. This study showed that women are more positively affected by green campaigns. Green campaigns in Pakistan may be more successful if directed at female millennials. Practical implications This study conveys helpful implications for marketing managers, as specific antecedents are found to be significant predictors of purchase intention for green brands. Companies should not let the fear of consumer skepticism stop them from advocating their green products and initiatives. Green marketing campaigns can inspire millennials to encourage their social groups to be environmentally conscious. By actively helping the environment, these consumers may feel a sense of pride for their cohort and their country. As a result, Pakistan might undergo a transition to buying green brands, adopting green lifestyles and demanding green products from non-green brands. Originality/value Most of the research on green marketing and branding for millennials pertains to developed countries. However, as roughly 90% of the global millennial population live in developing countries, it is important to conduct research in developing countries. This paper specifically focuses on Pakistan, a developing country in South Asia. A propensity toward environmental issues among millennials makes this study an important one, both for the Pakistani market and for generalizations in populated developing countries having a similar profile.
... (Pancrat, 2011 (Jarcho et al., 2011 ;Izuma et al., 2010 ;Kitayama et al., 2013), lorsqu'ils doivent évaluer des objets ambivalents (Luttrell et al., 2016 ;Nohlen et al., 2013), et lorsqu'ils se rappellent de comportements réalisés qui vont en contradiction avec les valeurs qu'ils soutiennent (de Vries et al., 2015). En revanche, cette activation ne semble pas se produire lorsqu'on demande à un participant de faire un choix entre deux objets d'attractivité équivalente sans qu'il ne soit clair si cette absence est due à des modifications d'ordre méthodologiques ou théoriques (Jarcho et al., 2011 ;Qin et al., 2011). De nombreuses autres situations qui peuvent s'interpréter en terme d'inconsistance sont aussi liées à une activation du CCA, telles que se retrouver exclu d'un jeu (Eisenberger, Lieberman, & Williams, 2003), se rappeler de sa propre mortalité (Quirin et al., 2012), voir d'autres personnes regarder des photographies embarrassantes de nous (Morita et al., 2014), recevoir un traitement inéquitable dans un jeu (Güroğlu et al., 2011), recevoir une récompense différente de celle escomptée (Fouragnan et al., 2018), lire des scénarios décrivant des comportements violant des normes morales (Denke et al., 2014), ou recevoir un feedback allant à l'encontre de ses attentes (Oliveira et al., 2007). ...
Thesis
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Étude de l'inconsistance dans une perspective large et intégrative (i.e., dissonance cognitive, conflits cognitifs, MMM...). La première partie se concentre sur la nature même de ce qu'est une inconsistance et sur la façon dont elle est identifiée par le cerveau. La deuxième partie s'intéresse aux conséquences affectives de l'exposition à l'inconsistance et examine en particulier la nature, les propriétés et les conséquences de l'affect lié à l'inconsistance. Enfin, la troisième partie s'intéresse à la régulation de l'affect et de l'inconsistance, en se focalisant sur l'étude d'une régulation particulière : la prise de risque.
... Although most studies report an activation of the anterior cingulate cortex in dissonance situations, this finding is not ubiquitous, and other discrepancies in activated areas can be seen between studies (for a review, see de Vries, Byrne, & Keho, 2015). Especially, two studies using the free-choice paradigm have not found the same activation pattern, and it is not clear if these differences are due to methodological or theoretical variations (Jarcho et al., 2010;Qin et al., 2011). Moreover, recent general criticisms of neuronal studies questioned the precision of neuronal results and it is likely that many variations between paradigms are currently missed (see Hong, Yoo, Wager, & Woo, 2019). ...
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Little is actually known about the nature and characteristics of the cognitive dissonance state. In this paper, we review the actual knowledge and the main limitations of past studies. Then, we present two studies that investigate the characteristics of the cognitive dissonance state from the perspective the Pleasure Arousal Dominance model of emotion. Study 1 (N = 102) used the hypocrisy paradigm and Study 2 (N = 130) used a counterattitudinal essay. In Study 1, participants in the Dissonance condition reported less Pleasure with each inconsistent behaviour remembered. In Study 2, participants in the Dissonance condition reported less Pleasure than participants in the Control Condition. In both studies, no significant difference was found on the Arousal and Dominance indexes. These results are among the first to link cognitive dissonance to a general model of emotions, an approach that should be pursued further.
... These findings suggest that making choices for others and making choices in the presence of social cues have similar effects. Indeed, mere exposure to a face cue automatically evokes a social context for those who have a relatively high interdependent self-construal (Qin et al., 2010;Park and Kitayama, 2014). ...
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Previous research has suggested that stability of self-concept differs across cultures: in North American cultural contexts, people’s self-concept is stable across social contexts, whereas in Japan, different self-concepts are activated within specific social contexts. We examined the implications of this cultural difference for preference-choice consistency, which is people’s tendency to make choices that are consistent with their preferences. We found that Japanese were less likely than Americans to choose items that they liked the most, showing preference-choice inconsistency. We also investigated the conditions in which Japanese might exhibit greater preference-choice consistency. Consistent with research showing that in Japanese culture, the self is primarily conceptualized and activated by social contexts, we found that subtle social cues (e.g., schematic representations of human faces) increased preference-choice consistency among Japanese, but not among Americans. These findings highlight that choices do not reveal preferences to the same extent in all cultures, and that the extent to which choices reveal preferences depends on the social context.
... Across a range of experimental scenarios, individuals have been shown routinely to undergo a sort of mental re-positioning relative to choices they make, such that they change their stated preferences and even undergo measurable physiological changes that manifest hedonic shifts. 2 The evidence suggests the process is not merely, or not always, one of post-hoc justification (e.g., to reduce cognitive dissonance). Preference-related maneuvering has been found to occur prior to commitment to a choice, which gives reason to believe that such maneuvering is integral to the decision process (Simon et al. 2004;Jarcho et al. 2011;Qin et al. 2011;Kitayama et al. 2013). Also, while in some studies subjects have been found to reduce their ratings of non-chosen alternativesbehavior that indicates a clear motivation to justify a decision-in more recent studies subjects are found only to increase ratings of chosen alternatives-behavior that appears focused, rather, on enhancing the anticipatory or future experience of the chosen object (Kitayama et al. 2013;Tompson et al. 2016). ...
Article
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The paper considers how consumers’ cognitive efforts at preference adjustment at the time of decision affect prices in competitive markets with differentiated products. Greater ease of self-persuasion implies higher prices when self-persuasion reinforces first impressions and lower prices when the best opportunities to persuade oneself exist for consumers with weak initial impressions. Exogenous interventions to ease decision-complementing cognition—e.g., advertising—predictably increase or reduce prices, depending upon how they are targeted. While facilitation of consumers’ adjustment always improves welfare in a covered market, firms’ appropriation of surplus may make consumers worse off even as they learn better to love what they get.
... Although the implications of that study are complicated by simultaneous auditory and visual presentation of change language, the use of change language from only a single exercise, as well as the use of an alcohol cueing paradigm during stimulus presentation, one consistent finding observed in both studies was activity in the insula related to the perception of change language. Given the evidence of a role for the insula in cognitive dissonance and attitude change (Izuma et al., 2010;Qin et al., 2011;van Veen, Krug, Schooler, & Carter, 2009), the observed activation may provide biological support for the theorized role of cognitive dissonance in MI. ...
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Motivational interviewing (MI) is a directive, client-centered therapeutic method employed in the treatment of substance abuse, with strong evidence of effectiveness. To date, the sole mechanism of action in MI with any consistent empirical support is "change talk" (CT), which is generally defined as client within-session speech in support of a behavior change. "Sustain talk" (ST) incorporates speech in support of the status quo. MI maintains that during treatment, clients essentially talk themselves into change. Multiple studies have now supported this theory, linking within-session speech to substance use outcomes. Although a causal chain has been established linking therapist behavior, client CT, and substance use outcome, the neural substrate of CT has been largely uncharted. We addressed this gap by measuring neural responses to clients' own CT using magnetoencephalography (MEG), a noninvasive neuroimaging technique with excellent spatial and temporal resolution. Following a recorded MI session, MEG was used to measure brain activity while participants heard multiple repetitions of their CT and ST utterances from that session, intermingled and presented in a random order. Results suggest that CT processing occurs in a right-hemisphere network that includes the inferior frontal gyrus, insula, and superior temporal cortex. These results support a representation of CT at the neural level, consistent with the role of these structures in self-perception. This suggests that during treatment sessions, clinicians who are able to evoke this special kind of language are tapping into neural circuitry that may be essential to behavior change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
... But they refrain from citing a group of studies that did find direct evidence of affective arousal that is largely consistent with predictions from CDT. These studies employ a variety of methodologies, including self-reports (Elkin & Leippe, 1986;Elliot & Devine, 1994), electromyogram (Carpenter, Yates, Preston, & Chen, 2016), electroencephalogram (Harmon-Jones, Gerdjikov, & Harmon-Jones, 2008), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (Qin et al., 2011;Van Veen, Krug, Schooler, & Carter, 2009). ...
... Each of these studies made use of scanner-compatible tasks that were modeled after paradigms used in the classic dissonance studies. Four of the studies (Izuma et al., 2010;Jarcho et al., 2011;Kitayama et al., 2013;Qin et al., 2011) employed a decision-induced attitude change paradigm (Brehm, 1956) in which forced choices between pre-rated foods, CDs, or paintings, led to more favorable attitudes to chosen items as compared to rejected items. The idea is that dissonance reduction motivated the attitude change. ...
Article
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This fMRI study explored the neural substrates of cognitive dissonance during dissonance ‘induction’. A novel task was developed based on the results of a separate item selection study (n=125). Items were designed to generate dissonance by prompting participants to reflect on everyday personal experiences that were inconsistent with values they had expressed support for. Three control conditions (justification, consonance, non-self related inconsistency) were used for comparison. Items of all four types were presented to each participant (n=14) in a randomized design. The fMRI analysis used a whole brain approach focusing on the moments dissonance was induced. Results showed that in comparison with the control conditions the dissonance experience led to higher levels of activation in several brain regions. Specifically dissonance was associated with increased neural activation in key brain regions including the anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula, inferior frontal gyrus, and precuneus. This supports current perspectives which emphasize the role of anterior cingulate and insula in dissonance processing. Less extensive activation in the prefrontal cortex than in some previous studies is consistent with this study’s emphasis on dissonance induction, rather than reduction. This paper also contains a short review and comparison with other fMRI studies of cognitive dissonance.
Article
Human attitudes and preferences are susceptible to social influence. Recent social neuroscience studies, using theories and experimental paradigms from social psychology, have begun to elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying how others influence our attitudes through processes such as social conformity, cognitive inconsistency and persuasion. The currently available evidence highlights the role of the posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) in social conformity and cognitive inconsistency, which represents the discrepancy between one's own and another person's opinion, or, more broadly, between currently inconsistent and ideally consistent states. Research on persuasion has revealed that people's susceptibility to persuasive messages is related to activation in a nearby but more anterior part of the medial frontal cortex. Future progress in this field will depend upon the ability of researchers to dissociate underlying motivations for attitude change in different paradigms, and to utilize neuroimaging methods to advance social psychological theories of social influence.
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Many companies are increasing their efforts to have sustainable operations and offer environmentally preferable products. However, consumers are often unaware of the environmental benefits because the companies are not communicating in ways that are compatible with the consumer's schema regarding environmental issues. The current study identifies emerging marketing strategies that are influencing Millennials' awareness of environmentally preferable products and also impacting their consumption behavior. Data were collected over a three-year period. Results indicate Millennials are taking note of a company's reputation, reading product labels, and looking for clues on product packaging to discern if a product is environmentally preferable. Specific symbols and terms are identified as being effective in conveying the green message.
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Prior work shows that people respond more plastically to environmental influences, including cultural influences, if they carry the 7 or 2‐repeat (7/2R) allelic variant of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4). The 7/2R carriers are thus more likely to endorse the norms and values of their culture. So far, however, mechanisms underlying this moderation of cultural acquisition by DRD4 are unclear. To address this gap in knowledge, we tested the hypothesis that DRD4 modulates the processing of reward cues existing in the environment. About 72 young adults, preselected for their DRD4 status, performed a gambling task, while the electroencephalogram was recorded. Principal components of event‐related potentials aligned to the Reward‐Positivity (associated with bottom‐up processing of reward prediction errors) and frontal‐P3 (associated with top‐down attention) were both significantly more positive following gains than following losses. As predicted, the gain‐loss differences were significantly larger for 7/2R carriers than for noncarriers. Also, as predicted, the cultural backgrounds of the participants (East Asian vs. European American) did not moderate the effects of DRD4. Our findings suggest that the 7/2R variant of DRD4 enhances (a) the detection of reward prediction errors and (b) controlled attention that updates the context for the reward, thereby suggesting one possible mechanism underlying the DRD4 × Culture interactions. Is there a genetic basis for cultural learning? Recent work suggests carriers of 7‐ or 2‐repeat allele of the dopamine DRD4 are more likely than non‐carriers to acquire their culture's beliefs and practices. We show carriers are more closely attuned to reward signals compared to non‐carriers. This finding offers a possible missing link in the analysis of the co‐evolutionary dynamic between genes and culture.
Chapter
Na and Chan examine the cultural variations in reasoning style. They highlight the well-documented differences in cognition that paints Easterners as being holistic processors and Westerners being analytic processors. Na and Chan assess this overarching construct by reviewing the cultural differences of attention, attribution, and motivation. Attention has shown cultural differences where Easterners are more relational and Westerners are more focused. Across various attention tasks, Easterners attend widely to a scene including contextual cues while Westerners are more concerned with focal elements. The neuroimaging evidence for these differences indicates cultural differences in frontoparietal activation for attention tasks. Cultural differences in attribution show that Easterners use relational reasoning with making attributes about behavior while Westerners focus more on the central figures. Na and Chan detail a study using event-related potential on a lexical decision task that suggests differences in attribution-based neural activity between cultures. Additional neuroimaging studies of phenomena similar to attribution are also discussed. Easterners have been shown to believe that broad social contexts operate to make choices while Westerners believe a choice is an act of self-expression. Na and Chan detail neuroimaging studies that investigate cognitive dissonance and choice justification to examine the cultural differences. These studies show a wide variety of neural responses that underlie cultural differences in cognitive dissonance. Na and Chan conclude by discussing how the understanding of cultural differences in reasoning style could be used in our multicultural world.
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Structural balance theory is a foundational theory of social network research. Despite enduring interest in seeking network evidence for the theory, the fundamental question of why people care about structural (im)balance has received relatively little attention. The original answer to the question, dating back to Heider’s work six decades ago, is that structural imbalance causes a person to experience cognitive dissonance and sentimental disturbance. In this paper, we used a state-of-the-art neuroimaging technique to test the argument. Our study shows that individuals’ psychological states, evidenced by the activation of brain areas, are different when they are situated in unbalanced rather than balanced triads. More specifically, the differences in the brain activation between triadic imbalance and balance were found in brain regions known for processing cognitive dissonance, as discovered by previous research. Our study provides novel brain evidence in support of Heider’s original account for the psychological and biological foundations of structural balance theory in the formation of social networks.
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Depression is a debilitating mental health problem in which inner conflict plays a major role. How a person experiences and resolves inner conflict has been well developed in cognitive dissonance theory. The use of dissonance theory has remained mostly limited to the field of social psychology and the link between depression and dissonance theory is largely unexplored. By researching the application of cognitive dissonance theory to experiences of individuals with depression it may be possible to expand our understanding of depression. The overall aim of this study was to explore how the process of depression might be related to the mechanism of cognitive dissonance. The objectives of the study were: to identify and compare episodes of cognitive dissonance in two participant groups (depressed and nondepressed), to analyse how different elements of cognitive dissonance are experienced by participants, and finally to develop a conceptual model that illustrates the potential relationship between depression and dissonance.
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Cambridge Core - Philosophy of Science - Pascal's Wager - edited by Paul Bartha
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Researchers have long debated whether knowledge about the self is unique in terms of its functional anatomic representation within the human brain. In the context of memory function, knowledge about the self is typically remembered better than other types of semantic information. But why does this memorial effect emerge? Extending previous research on this topic (see Craik et al., 1999), the present study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate potential neural substrates of self-referential processing. Participants were imaged while making judgments about trait adjectives under three experimental conditions (self-relevance, other-relevance, or case judgment). Relevance judgments, when compared to case judgments, were accompanied by activation of the left inferior frontal cortex and the anterior cingulate. A separate region of the medial prefrontal cortex was selectively engaged during self-referential processing. Collectively, these findings suggest that self-referential processing is functionally dissociable from other forms of semantic processing within the human brain.
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Recent developments in the study of cognitive emotion regulation illustrate how functional imaging is extending behavioral analyses. Imaging studies have contributed to the development of a multilevel model of emotion regulation that describes the interactions between neural systems implicated in emotion generation and those implicated in emotional control. In this article, we review imaging studies of one type of cognitive emotion regulation: reappraisal. We show how imaging studies have contributed to the construction of this model, illustrate the interplay of psychological theory and neuroscience data in its development, and describe how this model can be used as the basis for future basic and translational research.
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Traditional dissonance theory predicts a spreading apart of chosen and rejected alternatives following a decision. More recent constraint satisfaction models of this classic free-choice paradigm suggest that these effects may vary with the overall attractiveness of the choice options. This prediction was tested with 13-year-olds choosing among posters. As in prior computer simulations, a difficult choice between generally less desirable alternatives produced a large increase in participants’ evaluations of the chosen alternative, whereas a difficult choice between generally more desirable alternatives produced a large decrease in evaluations of the rejected alternative. The results were discussed in terms of the relative amounts of dissonance created in the various conditions. The utility of the consonance constraint satisfaction model that generated these novel predictions was stressed.
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People in different cultures have strikingly different construals of the self, of others, and of the interdependence of the 2. These construals can influence, and in many cases determine, the very nature of individual experience, including cognition, emotion, and motivation. Many Asian cultures have distinct conceptions of individuality that insist on the fundamental relatedness of individuals to each other. The emphasis is on attending to others, fitting in, and harmonious interdependence with them. American culture neither assumes nor values such an overt connectedness among individuals. In contrast, individuals seek to maintain their independence from others by attending to the self and by discovering and expressing their unique inner attributes. As proposed herein, these construals are even more powerful than previously imagined. Theories of the self from both psychology and anthropology are integrated to define in detail the difference between a construal of the self as independent and a construal of the self as interdependent. Each of these divergent construals should have a set of specific consequences for cognition, emotion, and motivation; these consequences are proposed and relevant empirical literature is reviewed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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According to economic theories, preference for one item over others reveals its rank value on a common scale. Previous studies identified brain regions encoding such values. Here we verify that these regions can valuate various categories of objects and further test whether they still express preferences when attention is diverted to another task. During functional neuroimaging, participants rated either the pleasantness (explicit task) or the age (distractive task) of pictures from different categories (face, house, and painting). After scanning, the same pictures were presented in pairs, and subjects had to choose the one they preferred. We isolated brain regions that reflect both values (pleasantness ratings) and preferences (binary choices). Preferences were encoded whatever the stimulus (face, house, or painting) and task (explicit or distractive). These regions may therefore constitute a brain system that automatically engages in valuating the various components of our environment so as to influence our future choices.
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There have been many functional imaging studies of the brain basis of theory of mind (ToM) skills, but the findings are heterogeneous and implicate anatomical regions as far apart as orbitofrontal cortex and the inferior parietal lobe. The functional imaging studies are reviewed to determine whether the diverse findings are due to methodological factors. The studies are considered according to the paradigm employed (e.g., stories vs. cartoons and explicit vs. implicit ToM instructions), the mental state(s) investigated, and the language demands of the tasks. Methodological variability does not seem to account for the variation in findings, although this conclusion may partly reflect the relatively small number of studies. Alternatively, several distinct brain regions may be activated during ToM reasoning, forming an integrated functional "network." The imaging findings suggest that there are several "core" regions in the network-including parts of the prefrontal cortex and superior temporal sulcus-while several more "peripheral" regions may contribute to ToM reasoning in a manner contingent on relatively minor aspects of the ToM task.
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Female Ss were asked to rate each of eight articles on desirability, choose between two of them and rate each of the articles again. In addition, some Ss were exposed to a mixture of good and bad information about the choice alternatives after the choice was made. The results support a prediction that choosing between alternatives would create dissonance and attempts to reduce it by making the chosen alternative more desirable and the unchosen alternative less desirable. A second prediction, that dissonance and consequent attempts to reduce it would be greater, the more closely the alternatives approached equality, also received support.
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Four experiments provided support for the hypothesis that upon making a choice, individuals justify their choice in order to eliminate doubts about culturally sanctioned aspects of the self, namely, competence and efficacy in North America and positive appraisal by other people in Japan. Japanese participants justified their choice (by increasing liking for chosen items and decreasing liking for rejected items) in the standard free-choice dissonance paradigm only when self-relevant others were primed, either by questionnaires (Studies 1-3) or by incidental exposure to schematic faces (Study 4). In the absence of these social cues, Japanese participants showed no dissonance effect. In contrast, European Americans justified their choices regardless of the social-cue manipulations. Implications for cognitive dissonance theory are discussed.
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Coca-Cola (Coke) and Pepsi are nearly identical in chemical composition, yet humans routinely display strong subjective preferences for one or the other. This simple observation raises the important question of how cultural messages combine with content to shape our perceptions; even to the point of modifying behavioral preferences for a primary reward like a sugared drink. We delivered Coke and Pepsi to human subjects in behavioral taste tests and also in passive experiments carried out during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Two conditions were examined: (1) anonymous delivery of Coke and Pepsi and (2) brand-cued delivery of Coke and Pepsi. For the anonymous task, we report a consistent neural response in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex that correlated with subjects' behavioral preferences for these beverages. In the brand-cued experiment, brand knowledge for one of the drinks had a dramatic influence on expressed behavioral preferences and on the measured brain responses.
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We showed how cognitive, semantic information modulates olfactory representations in the brain by providing a visual word descriptor, "cheddar cheese" or "body odor," during the delivery of a test odor (isovaleric acid with cheddar cheese flavor) and also during the delivery of clean air. Clean air labeled "air" was used as a control. Subjects rated the affective value of the test odor as significantly more unpleasant when labeled "body odor" than when labeled "cheddar cheese." In an event-related fMRI design, we showed that the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)/medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) was significantly more activated by the test stimulus and by clean air when labeled "cheddar cheese" than when labeled "body odor," and the activations were correlated with the pleasantness ratings. This cognitive modulation was also found for the test odor (but not for the clean air) in the amygdala bilaterally.
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Axonal and dendritic integrity is affected early in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Studies using region of interest or voxel-based analysis of diffusion tensor imaging data found significant decline of fractional anisotropy, a marker of fiber tract integrity, in selected white matter areas. We applied a multivariate network analysis based on principal component analysis to fractional anisotropy maps derived from diffusion-weighted scans from 15 AD patients, and 14 elderly healthy controls. Fractional anisotropy maps were obtained from an EPI diffusion sequence using parallel imaging to reduce distortion artifacts. We used high-dimensional image warping to control for partial volume effects due to white matter atrophy in AD. We found a significant regional pattern of fiber changes (p < 0.01) indicating that the integrity of intracortical projecting fiber tracts (including corpus callosum, cingulum and fornix, and frontal, temporal and occipital lobe white matter areas) was reduced, whereas extracortical projecting fiber tracts, including the pyramidal and extrapyramidal systems and somatosensory projections, were relatively preserved in AD. Effects of a univariate analysis were almost entirely contained within the multivariate effect. Our findings illustrate the use of a multivariate approach to fractional anisotropy data that takes advantage of the highly organized structure of anisotropy maps, and is independent of multiple comparison correction and partial volume effects. In agreement with post-mortem evidence, our study demonstrates dissociation between intracortical and extracortical projecting fiber systems in AD in the living human brain.
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Neuroimaging studies of decision-making have generally related neural activity to objective measures (such as reward magnitude, probability or delay), despite choice preferences being subjective. However, economic theories posit that decision-makers behave as though different options have different subjective values. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to show that neural activity in several brain regions--particularly the ventral striatum, medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex--tracks the revealed subjective value of delayed monetary rewards. This similarity provides unambiguous evidence that the subjective value of potential rewards is explicitly represented in the human brain.
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Humans powerfully and flexibly interpret the behaviour of other people based on an understanding of their minds: that is, we use a "theory of mind." In this study we distinguish theory of mind, which represents another person's mental states, from a representation of the simple presence of another person per se. The studies reported here establish for the first time that a region in the human temporo-parietal junction (here called the TPJ-M) is involved specifically in reasoning about the contents of another person's mind. First, the TPJ-M was doubly dissociated from the nearby extrastriate body area (EBA; Downing et al., 2001). Second, the TPJ-M does not respond to false representations in non-social control stories. Third, the BOLD response in the TPJ-M bilaterally was higher when subjects read stories about a character's mental states, compared with stories that described people in physical detail, which did not differ from stories about nonhuman objects. Thus, the role of the TPJ-M in understanding other people appears to be specific to reasoning about the content of mental states.
Cognitive emotion regulation insights from social 568
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  • J J Gross
Ochsner, K.N., Gross, J.J., 2008. Cognitive emotion regulation insights from social 568
Social eyes and choice justification
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Imada, T., Kitayama, S., 2010. Social eyes and choice justification: culture and 544
People thinking about thinking people: the role of the 578
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Saxe, R., Kanwisher, N., 2003. People thinking about thinking people: the role of the 578
The neural correlates of subjective value during 548
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Kable, J.W., Glimcher, P.W., 2007. The neural correlates of subjective value during 548