Article

Five-a-day, a price to pay: An evaluation of the UK program impact accounting for market forces

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Abstract

We provide an ex-post assessment of the UK 5-a-day information campaign, where the positive effects of information are disentangled from potentially conflicting price dynamics. Using 4 years of data from the Expenditure and Food Survey between 2002 and 2006, we estimate that the 5-a-day program has lifted fruit and vegetable consumption by 0.3 portions, on average. We also provide quantitative evidence of a differentiated impact by income group, ranging from 0.2 to 0.7 portions. All impacts are larger than those observed by simply comparing pre-policy and post-policy intakes.

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... There are some relevant dynamics behind these trends. Empirical evidence shows that UK policies aimed at promoting F&V intakes have been effective, at least in the short-term, but their positive impact has been mitigated by market forces, income dynamics and rising prices (Capacci and Mazzocchi, 2011;Bremner et al., 2006;Jones et al., 2014). ...
... This policy targets the population at large, although the programme had specific initiatives for children and elderly people. Capacci and Mazzocchi (2011) estimated that after three years the campaign had generated 0.3 extra portions of fruit and vegetables on average, and evaluations in other countries report similar effect sizes. This estimate reflects the additional consumption generated by the campaign after controlling for changes in prices and incomes. ...
... Results without the application of the equivalence scale are available in the on-line Appendix, see Tables C and D. C. Castiglione, M. Mazzocchi Ecological Economics 157 (2019) 185-194 conditioning on the socio-economic variables, this difference only reflects the change in consumer preferences induced by the policy, i.e. it represents the shift in consumption that can be ascribed to the policy when prices, incomes and household characteristics are held constant. As in Capacci and Mazzocchi (2011), the counterfactual (baseline) model is the following Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS, Deaton and Muellbauer, 1980): ...
Article
This paper estimates the impact of policy measures aimed at increasing fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption in the UK over more than a decade, evaluating changes in purchased quantities and estimating the corresponding greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs). We use a counterfactual scenario analysis to isolate the effects of the policy from the influences of evolving prices, incomes and socio-demographic factors. Our estimates suggest that the positive effects of the promotion campaigns on F&V purchases (about half a portion per adult equivalent per day) still persist 10 years after the start of the policy implementation, and we find no evidence of a wearout effect. We also provide suggestive evidence that the dietary adjustment which accompanies the increase in F&V intakes translates into a relevant reduction in GHGEs, by an average amount of 3.3kg of CO2e per adult equivalent per month.
... Typically, regional, seasonal and, where appropriate, yearly dummies are included, or the unit value equation are expressed in terms of deviation from regional/seasonal/annual means; and 2-Variables thought to influence quality choices, such as household size, or income. More recent developments of the approach also include the physical amount of the category aggregate to accommodate the possibility that the same goods purchased in larger quantities entail lower unit values (Capacci & Mazzocchi 2011). In a second stage, adjusted prices are calculated by removing from unit values the estimated effect of all the variables in the second group (i.e., influencing quality choices) or, equivalently, by adding the household-specific residual to the estimated effect of the first group of variables. ...
... The seasonal dummies correspond roughly to annual quarters and their mean values indicate that the survey data was collected reasonably evenly throughout year 2012. Finally, for each product category, the unit value equations also integrate the physical quantities of the aggregate to adjust for the possibility that larger quantities may be purchased at a lower cost per unit, as in Capacci & Mazzocchi (2011). ...
... Table 4 then presents the estimation results for the unit value equations of the 19 categories of food products. To address the potential endogeneity of the physical quantity variables q i , the estimation used a two-stage least-squares (2SLS) procedure, using total physical quantity as instrument, in line with the approach followed by Capacci & Mazzocchi (2011). The results in Table 4 give evidence of quality and quantity effects in consumer choices. ...
Technical Report
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Demand for food in Finland has changed dramatically in recent decades and is continuously evolving as the result of multiple influences, including the relative prices of food items, economic growth, short-term variations in purchasing power, demographic changes, food scares, and other changes in preferences linked to nutrition, animal welfare, and environmental issues. Yet, little is known about the relative importance of those factors in shaping food demand, which appears problematic for both public policy makers and the private stakeholders of the food chain. For instance, it is becoming clear that transition to a low-carbon economy will require adjusments in consumption patterns, given the limited possibilities of mitigation through modification of production patterns and technology, but much debate remains about how to make that change happen. Similarly, the aging population and the growing number of single-person households have implications for the evolution of Finnish food consumption that remain, as yet, poorly understood by the stakeholders of the food chain. Thus, we present a fresh analysis of Finnish food consumption based on the econometric estimation of a complete system of demand for food. The data originates from the 2012 Finnish Household Budget Survey, which contains over 3550 observations and gives a detailed account of household food consumption over a two-week period for more than 200 food categories. Those are aggregated into 19 product categories, hence ensuring the empirical tractability of the behavioural model, which is then linked to technical coefficients describing the nutritional properties and climate impact of each food aggregate. The demand system uses the recently developed Exact Affine Stone Index (EASI) functional form, which offers great flexibility in relating consumption to income and can therefore accommodate the highly non-linear Engel curves typically found in micro-level data. Estimation tackles two issues caused by the nature of the data, namely censored demand due to the high number of zero-consumption observations attributable to the short period of data collection, and the adjustment of unit values to measure prices. The results are presented in terms of elasticities summarizing the responses of food and nutrient demands as well as greenhouse gas emissions to changes in economic and socio-demographic variables. In future work, those elasticities will support the analysis of policies aimed at increasing the sustainability of food consumption patterns in Finland. In particular, the estimated models can be utilised to simulate the effects of fiscal measures (e.g., a carbon tax) as well as dietary recommendations on diet quality, health, the climate, and economic welfare.
... Our paper is also related to recent empirical studies on the effect of information on dietary choices (see for example Bollinger et al., 2010;Capacci and Mazzochi, 2011) and "nudge effects" created by the labelling of benefits (see for example Kooreman, 2000;Abeler and Marklein, 2010;Beatty et al., 2014;Benhassine et al., 2015) which may operate via the kind of mental accounting suggested by Thaler (1985Thaler ( , 1999. Some features of the programme might have been expected to affect behaviour, beyond the direct economic incentive effects. ...
... Finally, we show that the vouchers increased spending among distorted households in line with standard economic incentive effects, not behavioural mechanisms. This is in line with other studies on the effects of information or promotional campaigns in relation to healthy eating (Bollinger et al., 2010;Capacci andMazzochi, 2011 andStables et al., 2002). Although small-scale experiments have suggested that 'nudging' might be effective in improving individuals' dietary choices (Downs et al., 2009;Wisdom et al., 2010;Wansink et al., 2011;Wansink and Just, 2011), our study suggests that more work is needed to understand if and why behavioural mechanisms affect dietary choices and how they can be exploited for the purposes of policy-making. ...
... Finally, we show that the vouchers increased spending among distorted households in line with standard economic incentive effects, not behavioural mechanisms. This is in line with other studies on the effects of information or promotional campaigns in relation to healthy eating (Bollinger et al., 2010;Capacci andMazzochi, 2011 andStables et al., 2002). Although small-scale experiments have suggested that 'nudging' might be effective in improving individuals' dietary choices (Downs et al., 2009;Wisdom et al., 2010;Wansink et al., 2011;Wansink and Just, 2011), our study suggests that more work is needed to understand if and why behavioural mechanisms affect dietary choices and how they can be exploited for the purposes of policy-making. ...
Article
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There is growing policy interest in encouraging better dietary choices. We study a nationally-implemented policy - the UK Healthy Start scheme - that introduced vouchers for fruit, vegetables and milk. We show that the policy has increased spending on fruit and vegetables and has been more effective than an equivalent-value cash benefit. We also show that the policy improved the nutrient composition of households' shopping baskets, with no offsetting changes in spending on other foodstuffs.
... See Okrent and Alston (2011) for an overview of this literature. second stage, we examine the composition of the food bundle consumed by Indian households using the quadratic almost ideal demand system (QUAIDS) with demographic scaling (Banks et al., 1997;Capacci and Mazzocchi, 2011). We estimate our demand equations using a two-step procedure advocated by Shonkwiler and Yen (1999) to account for the sample selection bias from zero expenditure data. ...
... As in Moro et al. (2000) and Capacci and Mazzocchi (2011), we incorporate demographic scaling into the QUAIDS by allowing the constant term and income coefficients to depend on the set of household characteristics z d ð Þ. For conformity, these demographic variables are same as the ones used in the first budgeting stage. ...
... There are many papers within the demand literature that address this data limitation, e.g. Capacci and Mazzocchi (2011). Importantly, they note the steps involved in generating prices given unit values means that the resulting prices used in estimation 'can be safely treated as exogenous variables for aggregate food groups' (p. ...
Article
We present empirical evidence on how changes in food preferences have contributed to nutrition transition, where the dietary pattern of households shifts away from traditional staples. Using household‐level time series cross‐section survey data for India, we estimate time varying demand elasticities, revealing evidence of the declining importance of cereals in Indian household diets. The estimates show that Indian demand for cereals has become more income inelastic and price elastic. We also find that cereals are a substitute rather than a complement to animal products in household diets. Since changes in elasticities can only be attributed to variation in utility parameters, this indicates that cereals are losing favour with Indian households. These findings have implications for Indian food policy design and implementation.
... When aggregated prices are used as regressors in demand equations, they generate an endogeneity problem producing biased parameters. To solve the issue, this paper follows the approach by Capacci and Mazzocchi (21). They started from the following equation for each price category: ...
... However, there is a large literature on the positive effect of price promotions on the purchases of discretionary foods, and there is consistent evidence that promotions are effective in increasing sales (i.e., the effect of applying promotions, not eliminating them). For example, Nakamura et al. (21) found that after controlling for reference price, price discount rate, and brand-specific effects, the increase in sales associated with price promotions was larger in less-healthy than healthier food categories. They argued that since less-healthy products (e.g., confectionary products) were often less perishable than healthier products (e.g., fruits and vegetables), they were more stockpiled as a result of price promotions. ...
Article
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The purpose of the paper is to provide an ex-ante evaluation of banning price promotions for discretionary foods (e. g., such as confectionary, crisps, biscuits, sweet and savory snacks, cakes) in Scotland. The methodology consisted of the estimation of demand systems by socioeconomic groups (i.e., lifestage and income groups) for 19 food groups using a highly product disaggregated dataset. These results were used to simulate scenarios consisting of eliminating price promotions on the discretionary food products for the entire sample and by group and analyzing nutritional results. The results indicated a net impact of reducing energy by 651 kcal per capita per week (C.I. −695, −608)1. Similar results were found for macro nutrients. There were some significant differences across different income and lifestage groups, with kcal energy reductions being significantly greater amongst household with lower income, and in households where respondents were aged 45 years or over. The analysis concluded that restrictions on the promotion of foods considered to be high in saturated fat, sugar, or salt (HFSS) are seen as one measure to improve the overall nutritional quality of foods consumed. Results indicate that restricting promotions has the potential to reduce the number of calories, sugar, saturated fats and sodium for most food groups.
... In the UK, policies such as mandatory food labelling are aimed at improving knowledge of the nutritional content of products, and policies such as the five-a-day campaign are aimed at improving consumers' knowledge of what constitutes a healthy diet. Capacci and Mazzocchi (2011) look at the effects of the five-a-day information campaign, which aimed to encourage more fruit and vegetable consumption in the UK. They find that, on average, the campaign led to the consumption of an additional 0.3 portions of fruit and vegetables per person per day relative to an average initial consumption of just under four portions. ...
... It is also important to consider the general equilibrium effects of such policies. Capacci and Mazzocchi (2011) find that the impact of the five-a-day campaign was partially offset by an increase in the price of fruit and vegetables. These price rises may have been driven by factors unrelated to the policy, but they could also, in part, reflect sellers raising prices in response to the demand increase stimulated by the policy. ...
Article
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Young people in the UK consume far above the maximum recommended levels of added sugar. It is likely that neither they nor their parents fully take account of the future health, social and economic costs of this high sugar consumption. This provides a rationale for policy intervention. The majority of young people's added sugar consumption occurs in the home, where purchases are typically made by parents. This means that understanding the purchase decisions of adults is important for policy design, even if the policies aim to reduce the consumption of young people. We discuss the merits of popular policies, including taxes, advertising restrictions and restrictions on the availability of specific foods, and we identify promising avenues for future research.
... The Eatwell Guide is a UK Government's guide that outlines a diet that meets population nutrient needs. Similarly, higher fruit and vegetable prices have been found to partially offset the positive outcomes of the 5-a-day campaign in the UK (Capacci and Mazzocchi, 2011). ...
... A study by Lan and Dobson (2017) suggests that there are differences in the degree of competition across vegetable and fruit products, the evidence is indicative of keen competition for bigger selling products but weaker competition for slower selling products. Finally, the vegetable and food consumption in the UK is largely reliant on imported fruit and vegetables (Capacci and Mazzocchi, 2011), hence are subject to exchange rate fluctuations and higher transportation costs. ...
... Food and beverage taxation, particularly tax schemes based on the amount of critical nutrients of concern (such as sugar, sodium or saturated fats) per unit of volume or weight, can create incentives for product reformulation, improving the average nutritional quality of the food supply [33]. Finally, additional fiscal revenues from taxes can be used to fund public health initiatives [34] and to compensate for undesired distributional effects from such policies [19]. ...
... Nonetheless, while we found that the changes are greater for higher income households in Chile, among the low income households (quintile 1), monthly fruit and vegetable consumption is still estimated to increase 3.1 kilograms, which translates to an increase of 0.4 portion of fruits and vegetables a day per person. As a Combined fiscal policies to promote healthier diets comparison, Capacci and Mazzocchi [34] found that a public information campaign to promote fruits and vegetables consumption in the UK (5-a-day campaign) led to an increase of between 0.2 and 0.7 portions of fruits and vegetables a day. Furthermore, the combined policy reduces the consumption of unhealthy food by 1.4 kilograms and consumption of beverages by 0.9 liters, consistent with previous evidence [44]. ...
Article
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Taxes on unhealthy foods and sweetened beverages, as well as subsidies to healthy foods, have become increasingly popular strategies to curb obesity and related non-communicable diseases. The existing evidence on the welfare effects of such fiscal policies is mixed and almost uniquely focused on tax schemes. Using the 2016-2017 Chilean Household Budget Survey, we estimate a censored Exact Affine Stone Index (EASI) incomplete demand system and simulate changes in purchases, tax incidence, and consumer welfare of three different policy scenarios: (1) a 5 percentage point additional tax on sweetened beverages (currently taxed at 18%) and a new 18% tax on sweets and snacks, (2) a healthy subsidy by zero-rating fruits and vegetables from the current 19% value-added tax, and (3) a combined (tax plus subsidy) policy. Under full pass-through of these policies, the combined scheme captures the incentives to switch purchases from both single-policy alternatives, resulting in a net welfare gain and subsidy transfer for the average Chilean household. In terms of welfare, low-income households strictly benefit from a combined policy, while high-income households experience a small consumer welfare loss, resulting in re-distributional effects.
... Those sums typically exceed the cost of public information campaigns aimed at inducing consumers to change their diets. For instance, Capacci and Mazzocchi (2011) report that the ambitious "5-aday" UK campaign to encourage consumption of F&V, which was partially successful since it raised consumption by 8%, had a total budget 3 The climate effect of the CO2e constraint is an uninformative 5% reduction by construction and we therefore ignore it in this discussion. 4 We note that the Finnish model produces a small but negative taste cost in the case of the red meat constraint, which is anomalous and inconsistent with the theory. ...
Article
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We investigate ex-ante the effects of promoting simple climate-friendly diet recommendations in Denmark, Finland and France, with the objective of identifying cost-beneficial recommendations that lower greenhouse gas emissions and improve public health. The simulation approach combines a behavioural model of consumption adjustment to dietary constraints, a model of climate impact based on the life-cycle analysis of foods, and an epidemiological model calculating health outcomes. The five recommendations considered in the analysis focus on consumption of fruits and vegetables, red meat, all meat and all animal products, as well as the greenhouse gas emissions arising from the diet. The results show that trade-offs between climate and health objectives occur for some recommendations in all countries, and that substitutions may result in unintended effects. However, in all countries, we identify some recommendations that would raise sustainability in both its climate and health dimensions, while delivering value for money and increasing social welfare. In particular, promoting consumption of fruits and vegetables through campaigns of the “five-a-day” type is found to be cost-beneficial in all three countries. By contrast, targeting consumption of meat, consumption of all animal products, or the climate footprint of diets directly through social marketing campaigns is only found to be desirable in some country-specific contexts.
... While recognizing that more educated households tend to have a higher income and are likelier to benefit from information campaigns, these should not be completely discarded as a means to reduce food disparities. Capacci and Mazzocchi (2011) found that the 5-a-day campaign in the UK has led to a reduction in FV purchase disparities. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore fruit and vegetable (FV) procurement disparity across income groups. Design/methodology/approach This study uses mean comparison and quintile regression to explain FVs variations. Findings Households from the highest income quantile spend more than two times on FVs than households from the lowest quantile; however, this expenditure disparity is largely mitigated in terms of purchase quantity. This paper presents evidence that, rather than quantity discounts or income neighborhood, the type of store (traditional markets vs supermarkets) plays a relevant role in explaining the smaller gap in terms of purchase quantity. Research limitations/implications Traditional markets help low-income households access low-cost FVs. Social implications The authors generate evidence to show that traditional markets play a relevant role to supply affordable FV to low-income households. Originality/value The paper used a high-quality and uncommon data set. It is a topic of high social impact.
... Finally, one study evaluating a 2003-6 national mass media campaign to improve diets reported behavioural outcomes annually throughout the radio, television and online campaign. 137 The campaign to encourage consumption of five portions of fruit and vegetables per day used 'mini campaign relaunches' every 6 months; although the overall aim was the same, each relaunch targeted a different subpopulation (by income, age or sex) and used slightly different methods and channels. Significant campaign effects for increased fruit and vegetable intake did not happen until the third year of the campaign and the effect was stronger for those in lower income groups. ...
Article
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Background Mass media campaigns can be used to communicate public health messages at the population level. Although previous research has shown that they can influence health behaviours in some contexts, there have been few attempts to synthesise evidence across multiple health behaviours. Objectives To (1) review evidence on the effective use of mass media in six health topic areas (alcohol, diet, illicit drugs, physical activity, sexual and reproductive health and tobacco), (2) examine whether or not effectiveness varies with different target populations, (3) identify characteristics of mass media campaigns associated with effectiveness and (4) identify key research gaps. Design The study comprised (1) a systematic review of reviews, (2) a review of primary studies examining alcohol mass media campaigns, (3) a review of cost-effectiveness evidence and (4) a review of recent primary studies of mass media campaigns conducted in the UK. A logic model was developed to inform the reviews. Public engagement activities were conducted with policy, practitioner and academic stakeholders and with young people. Results The amount and strength of evidence varies across the six topics, and there was little evidence regarding diet campaigns. There was moderate evidence that mass media campaigns can reduce sedentary behaviour and influence sexual health-related behaviours and treatment-seeking behaviours (e.g. use of smoking quitlines and sexual health services). The impact on tobacco use and physical activity was mixed, there was limited evidence of impact on alcohol use and there was no impact on illicit drug behaviours. Mass media campaigns were found to increase knowledge and awareness across several topics, and to influence intentions regarding physical activity and smoking. Tobacco and illicit drug campaigns appeared to be more effective for young people and children but there was no or inconsistent evidence regarding effectiveness by sex, ethnicity or socioeconomic status. There was moderate evidence that tobacco mass media campaigns are cost-effective, but there was weak or limited evidence in other topic areas. Although there was limited evidence on characteristics associated with effectiveness, longer or greater intensity campaigns were found to be more effective, and messages were important, with positive and negative messages and social norms messages affecting smoking behaviour. The evidence suggested that targeting messages to target audiences can be effective. There was little evidence regarding the role that theory or media channels may play in campaign effectiveness, and also limited evidence on new media. Limitations Statistical synthesis was not possible owing to considerable heterogeneity across reviews and studies. The focus on review-level evidence limited our ability to examine intervention characteristics in detail. Conclusions Overall, the evidence is mixed but suggests that (1) campaigns can reduce sedentary behaviour, improve sexual health and contribute to smoking cessation, (2) tobacco control campaigns can be cost-effective, (3) longer and more intensive campaigns are likely to be more effective and (4) message design and targeting campaigns to particular population groups can be effective. Future work Future work could fill evidence gaps regarding diet mass media campaigns and new-media campaigns, examine cost-effectiveness in areas other than tobacco and explore the specific contribution of mass media campaigns to multicomponent interventions and how local, regional and national campaigns can work together. Study registration This study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42015029205 and PROSPERO CRD42017054999. Funding The National Institute for Health Research Public Health Research programme.
... The majority of face-to-face nutritional consultation in public services is available only to people with a diagnosed condition such as diabetes or obesity. For people without a diagnosed condition, preventive initiatives are focused on generalised public guidelines only, such as the five-a-day campaign in the UK, which aims to encourage a minimum consumption of five portions of fruit or vegetables daily (2) . Internet technologies offer considerable potential for delivering online personalised nutrition advice at-scale, however, they need to fulfil a number of requisites in order to foster wide uptake: reproducibility, scalability, security and usability. ...
Article
The internet has considerable potential to improve health-related food choice at low-cost. Online solutions in this field can be deployed quickly and at very low cost, especially if they are not dependent on bespoke devices or offline processes such as the provision and analysis of biological samples. One key challenge is the automated delivery of personalised dietary advice in a replicable, scalable and inexpensive way, using valid nutrition assessment methods and effective recommendations. We have developed a web-based personalised nutrition system (eNutri) which assesses dietary intake using a validated graphical FFQ and provides personalised food-based dietary advice automatically. Its effectiveness was evaluated during an online randomised controlled trial dietary intervention (EatWellUK study) in which personalised dietary advice was compared with general population recommendations (control) delivered online. The present paper presents a review of literature relevant to this work, and describes the strategies used during the development of the eNutri app. Its design and source code have been made publicly available under a permissive open source license, so that other researchers and organisations can benefit from this work. In a context where personalised diet advice has great potential for health promotion and disease prevention at-scale and yet is not currently being offered in the most popular mobile apps, the strategies and approaches described in the present paper can help to inform and advance the design and development of technologies for personalised nutrition.
... Although it is difficult to anticipate the effectiveness of information provision in modifying dietary behaviors, some academic studies have been published on the subject, albeit not specifically about fish. For instance, Capacci and Mazzocchi (2011) reported that the ambitious "5-a-day" UK campaign to encourage consumption of fruits and vegetables, which was partially successful since it raised consumption by 8%, had a total budget of less than £3 million (roughly €4 million). On that basis, our results support the idea that the promotion of fish consumption in France and Finland through provision of information to consumers is likely to represent money well spent (i.e., to raise social welfare). ...
Article
While the adverse climate and health impacts of the Western diet have been demonstrated, the place of fish/ seafood in climate-friendly and healthy diets is unclear.We tackle that question with a model simulating how a rational consumer urged to consume more fish would modify his diet. Those adjustments are translated into health outcomes by an epidemiological model and climate outcomes using life-cycle analysis coefficients. The application to France and Finland compares the impacts of promoting fish consumption to those of urging consumers to decrease their consumption of meat. For the same relative change, raising fish consumption generates more health benefits than decreasing meat consumption, and produces climate benefits as well. Promoting fish consumption is also highly cost-effective and should be prioritized over measures targeting meat consumption. Rather than stigmatizing meat consumers, climate-friendly and healthy diet recommendations may more effectively send a positive message urging citizens to consume more fish.
... In contrast, a lack of such coordinated effort for other components of diet may explain persisting inequalities. An evaluation of the UK's 5-a-day public information campaign, which aims to increase fruit and vegetable consumption, found small improvements in overall intake and inequality reduction two years following its introduction [47]. This suggests that public awareness alone is not enough to improve population diet quality substantially. ...
Article
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Background/objectives Little is known about time trends in diet quality and associated inequalities in the United Kingdom (UK). This study aimed to examine trends in adherence to four UK dietary recommendations, overall, and among sociodemographic subgroups, from 1986 to 2012. Subjects/methods We conducted a repeated cross-sectional analysis using data from three UK diet surveys: Dietary and Nutritional Survey of British Adults 1986-87 (n=2018), National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) 2000-01 (n=1683), and NDNS Rolling Programme 2008-12 (n=1632). We measured adherence to dietary recommendations for fruit and vegetables, salt, oily fish, and red and processed meat, estimated using food diary record data. We compared adherence across surveys and by four sociodemographic characteristics: sex, age, socioeconomic position, and ethnicity. Results Overall, population adherence to dietary recommendations was low to moderate, but improved over time. There were inequalities in adherence to all recommendations at all timepoints according to one or more sociodemographic characteristic. When inequalities were present, women, older adults, those with non-manual occupations, and non-whites were more likely to adhere to dietary recommendations. Whilst some dietary inequalities declined, most persisted across the three surveys. Conclusions The persistence of most inequalities highlights the need for further interventions to reduce dietary inequalities, as well as improve overall population diet. The greatest simultaneous improvement in population adherence and reduction of inequalities was observed for salt, which may reflect the success of the UK Salt Reduction Programme. Similarly comprehensive programmes should be encouraged for other dietary components.
... The adoption of healthier diets is not easy for consumers [1,2], as health is only one of many dimensions taken into account by consumers in the process of choosing foods [3]. ...
Article
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Background/objectives: The goal of this article is to present and demonstrate the applicability of an original method to assess the economic and health impacts of compliance with food-based recommendations. The method takes account of consumers' preferences and the associated adoption cost in the assessment of various recommendations. Subjects/methods: We combine an economic model of diet choice with an epidemiological model to compute the health impacts of dietary changes. To demonstrate the use of the method, we analyse the impacts of a 5% variation in the consumption of seven food groups taken separately: a 5% increase in consumption of fruits and vegetables (F&V) and milk products; and a 5% decrease in consumption of red meat, all meats, salty/sweet products, ready meals and butter/cream/cheese. Results: A recommendation, when adopted by consumers, generates important changes in the whole diet due to substitutions and complementarities among foods. All simulated recommendations have a positive impact on health. The F&V recommendation has the largest impact on the number of DALYs averted, but the highest adoption cost for consumers, especially for low-income consumers. Alone, the change in energy intake explains from 71% to 98% of the DALYs averted induced by a recommendation. Conclusions: Small increases in recommended foods have the potential of generating relatively significant health gains. Preference-driven substitutions among foods have a major effect on simulated health outcomes and should be included in the assessment of dietary recommendations, together with the adoption cost borne by consumers.
... The "5 a day" campaign of the UK's Department of health is a good example. 31 Empower women, and use the Nudge theory to encourage healthy choices ...
Article
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Objectives: This study aims to assess fruit and vegetable consumption among Saudi women to identify perceived benefits and barriers associated with a healthy diet in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prevention and to correlate Framingham risk scores (FRSs) with the perceived barriers. Methods: A questionnaire adapted from the Health Beliefs Related to Cardiovascular Disease Scale was administered to women attending a primary care centre in KSA. In addition to descriptive statistics, a chi-square test and multiple linear regression analysis were used to determine the association between perceptions of benefit and barriers with FRS categories and between mean FRS and perceived barriers. Results: A total of 503 women were included in this study, and 75% of the women were older than 45 years. More than 60% of women were obese, and 97% consumed 1-3 fruit and vegetable servings per day, whereas only 1.4% consumed fruits and vegetables 5 or more times per day. The majority of women were aware of the benefits of a healthy diet in CVD prevention. No significant difference between FRS and perceived benefits or barriers was observed. Barriers across the low- to high-risk groups included a lack of knowledge about a 'healthy diet', insufficient time to cook, food affordability, and having more important problems. Women who disagreed on barriers had negative beta coefficients for the mean FRS (p < 0.03). Conclusions: In this study cohort, fruit and vegetable intake was lower than the recommended guidelines. Despite awareness of the benefits of a healthy diet in CVD prevention, very few women understood the true meaning of 'healthy diet'. A direct association between FRS and perceptions/barriers could not be validated. Perceived barriers could be addressed by integrating innovative educational campaigns to existing models of the Healthy Food Plan.
... Nutritional knowledge of the general population may be enhanced through healthy food and antiobesity advertising campaigns. Governmentsponsored campaigns to motivate consumers to change eating behaviors have been found to have increased fruit and vegetable consumption (Capacci and Mazzocchi 2011;Hendrie et al. 2008;Stables et al. 2002) and decreased salt consumption (Shankar et al. 2013). However, Emery et al. (2007) and Wakefield et al. (2010) concluded that research has generally shown that campaigns with health-related messages have small-tomoderate effects on attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors related to the primary message, and the effects are usually short term. ...
... In the UK, for example, adolescents, adults and older adults are reported to consume an average 180 g, 285, and 310 g FV / day respectively [9], and while averages for Europe are higher, wide differences between European countries are also reported [10]. Current strategies for increasing intakes [12][13][14][15], furthermore, are largely of limited impact [12][13][14][15][16][17]. ...
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Background: An effect of increased fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption on facial attractiveness has been proposed and recommended as a strategy to promote FV intakes, but no studies to date demonstrate a causal link between FV consumption and perceived attractiveness. This study investigated perceptions of attractiveness before and after the supervised consumption of 2, 5 or 8 FV portions/day for 4 weeks in 30 low FV consumers. Potential mechanisms for change via skin colour and perceived skin healthiness were also investigated. Methods: Faces were photographed at the start and end of the 4 week intervention in controlled conditions. Seventy-three independent individuals subsequently rated all 60 photographs in a randomized order, for facial attractiveness, facial skin yellowness, redness, healthiness, clarity, and symmetry. Results: Using clustered multiple regression, FV consumption over the previous 4 weeks had no direct effect on attractiveness, but, for female faces, some evidence was found for an indirect impact, via linear and non-linear changes in skin yellowness. Effect sizes, however, were small. No association between FV consumption and skin healthiness was found, but skin healthiness was associated with facial attractiveness. Conclusions: Controlled and objectively measured increases in FV consumption for 4 weeks resulted indirectly in increased attractiveness in females via increases in skin yellowness, but effects are small and gradually taper as FV consumption increases. Based on the effect sizes from this study, we are hesitant to recommend the use of facial attractiveness to encourage increased FV consumption. Trial registration: Clinical trial Registration Number NCT01591057 ( www.clinicaltrials.gov ). Registered: 27th April, 2012.
... To account for potential price endogeneity, we follow the approach described in [45], assuming that households in the same geographic area (municipalities in this case) face the same prices. In particular we can write the equation for unit values (v ihc ) as follows: ...
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The global shift towards diets high in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is linked to higher prevalence of obesity, diabetes and most other non-communicable diseases. In Colombia, one out of every two people was overweight or obese by 2010. This study estimates price-elasticities from a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System model, using the 2006–2007 Colombian Income and Expenditure survey. The food groups that were jointly considered were: unsweetened unflavored milks; coffee and tea; sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs); sweets and candies (including sugar); dairy products; meats and animal-based products; grains based staples; fruits and vegetables; and condiments and snacks. We take into account the high proportion of households not purchasing specific food and beverage groups (censored data) and endogeneity on both prices (as unit values) and total expenditure. Unhealthy beverages are price-elastic (-1.61 for SSBs) meaning that the change in consumption is proportionally larger with respect to a change in price. Also, there is a high complementarity among SSBs and major food groups (grains, meats and fruits and vegetables). In Colombia, the design of a meaningful tax to influence healthier diets is a next critical step. This study also shows that a tax of 20% on SSBs should prove to be effective, and can yield revenues of about 1% of the Colombian government’s total annual fiscal revenue, which can potentially be directed towards public health promotion and investments.
... By communicating the benefits of arts and health based therapy not just for policy makers but the broader public, advocates could take learnings from other public health campaigns. The success of the UK Government's "Five a day" (Capacci & Mazzochi, 2011) campaign to encourage an increase in consumption of fruit and vegetables might be a good example. While there has been slow progress in changing behavior, public awareness has increased. ...
Article
In an era of global environmental deterioration and income inequity, public health faces many challenges, including the growing number of individuals, especially older people, with chronic diseases. Dementia is increasingly being seen not just as a biomedical problem to solve but as a public and community challenge to address more broadly. Concepts like prevention, brain health, and quality of life/well-being are receiving more attention. The engagement of community in addressing these challenges is being seen as critical to successful social adaptation. Arts programs are reinvigorating cultural responses to the growing number of older people with cognitive challenges. The humanities offer ways of understanding the power of words and stories in public discourse and a critical lens though which to view political and economic influences. In this paper, we report on a panel held in London on the occasion of the conference at the Royal Society for Public Health in March, 2017, in which the authors presented. Key issues discussed included problem framing, the nature of evidence, the politics of power and influence, and the development of effective interventions. In this paper, we review the rejection of two policies, one on dementia and one on the arts and humanities in public health, by the American Public Health Association; the emergence of policies in the UK; and some of the state of the art practices, particularly in training, again focusing on the UK.
... Nutritional knowledge of the general population may be enhanced through healthy food and antiobesity advertising campaigns. Governmentsponsored campaigns to motivate consumers to change eating behaviors have been found to have increased fruit and vegetable consumption (Capacci and Mazzocchi 2011;Hendrie et al. 2008;Stables et al. 2002) and decreased salt consumption (Shankar et al. 2013). However, Emery et al. (2007) and Wakefield et al. (2010) concluded that research has generally shown that campaigns with health-related messages have small-tomoderate effects on attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors related to the primary message, and the effects are usually short term. ...
Chapter
Obesity was first identified as an issue of significant public policy concern in the late 1990s, after which US obesity rates continued to grow. Now, more than one-third of adult Americans are obese or extremely obese while a further one-third or more are overweight; in addition, one-third of American children are at least overweight, and about one-sixth are obese. In this chapter we document the obesity status of the nation and its genesis over the past 50 years. We review various concepts and measures of obesity, including the conventional BMI and alternatives. Then, using the BMI, we review the patterns of US obesity for adults and children over time, disaggregated spatially and among various sociodemographic groups.
... Mandal and Powell (2014) noted that fruits and vegetables are key "low-energy dense" foods that are negatively and importantly associated with obesity rates among children. Capacci and Mazzocchi (2011) showed that the 5-a-day program increased fruit and vegetable consumption in the United Kingdom by 0.3 portions. ...
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We use household scanner data, paired with rich demographics and merged with self-reported measures of obesity and body mass index (BMI), to investigate the potential effects of fruit and vegetable purchasing behavior on adult obesity and body weight. We find that increasing household fruit and vegetable expenditure shares by one percentage point decreases the multiyear incidence of adult obesity by approximately 9 percent and average adult BMI by 1.4 percent, controlling for a host of potential confounding factors and measures of lifestyle choices. The results are robust to specification choice, although estimated impacts differ by gender. Our findings help quantify the potential impacts of government efforts aimed at increasing fruit and vegetable intake.
... 56 For diet, the econometric analysis of the UK 5 a day marketing campaign, aimed at increasing F&V consumption in the population, concluded that the campaign increased average F&V consumption by 0.3 portions per day. 57 A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials in retirement age adults increased F&V intake by approximately one portion per day both the short term (less than a year) and long term (more than a year). 58 Translating this kind of evidence for impact assessment is challenging, but required, to estimate the likely effectiveness of different interventions. ...
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Objective To quantify changes in mortality, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and consumer costs for physical activity and diet scenarios. Design For the physical activity scenarios, all car trips from <1 to <8 miles long were progressively replaced with cycling. For the diet scenarios, the study population was assumed to increase fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption by 1–5 portions of F&V per day, or to eat at least 5 portions per day. Health effects were modelled with the comparative risk assessment method. Consumer costs were based on fuel cost savings and average costs of F&V, and GHG emissions to fuel usage and F&V production. Setting Working age population for England. Participants Data from the Health Survey for England, National Travel Survey and National Diet and Nutrition Survey. Primary outcomes measured Changes in premature deaths, consumer costs and GHG emissions stratified by age, gender and socioeconomic status (SES). Results Premature deaths were reduced by between 75 and 7648 cases per year for the physical activity scenarios, and 3255 and 6187 cases per year for the diet scenarios. Mortality reductions were greater among people of medium and high SES in the physical activity scenarios, whereas people with lower SES benefited more in the diet scenarios. Similarly, transport fuel costs fell more for people of high SES, whereas diet costs increased most for the lowest SES group. Net GHG emissions decreased by between 0.2 and 10.6 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (MtCO2e) per year for the physical activity scenarios and increased by between 1.3 and 6.3 MtCO2e/year for the diet scenarios. Conclusions Increasing F&V consumption offers the potential for large health benefits and reduces health inequalities. Replacing short car trips with cycling offers the potential for net benefits for health, GHG emissions and consumer costs.
... Yet in many populations intake is either declining [2] or remaining stable at insufficient amounts [3]. Despite large investments in initiatives like the 5-A-Day program [4,5], increasing VF intake still confounds clinicians and public health nutrition professionals. Accurately measuring VF intake is crucial for population surveillance and for evaluating the efficacy of interventions, but a key dilemma in this pursuit has been inherent bias and error in selfreported measurement tools such as food frequency questionnaires, food records, and 24-h recalls [6]. ...
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Background: Biological markers of vegetable and fruit (VF) intake are needed both for nutrition surveillance and for the evaluation of nutrition interventions. Optically assessed skin carotenoid status (SCS) has been proposed as a marker of intake but there are few published validity studies to date. Therefore, the objective of the study was to examine the concurrent validity of multiple methods of assessing VF intake cross-sectionally and seasonally over one year and to discuss the relative merits and limitations of each method. Methods: Fifty-two 40-60 y old women completed a 1-year longitudinal study that included 1) SCS assessment using resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) and using pressure-mediated reflection spectroscopy (RS) at 12 timepoints, 2) thirty-six 24-h recalls using the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Assessment Tool (ASA24; total 1866 recalls), and 3) plasma carotenoid concentrations measured every 3 months. Pearson correlation coefficients and mixed linear models were used to estimate pairwise correlations between RRS, RS, ASA24, and plasma carotenoids. Results: RS and RRS were strongly correlated at baseline and over the year (r = 0.86 and 0.76; respectively, P < 0.001). RS was strongly correlated with plasma carotenoids at baseline (r = 0.70) and moderately across the year (r = 0.65), as was RRS (r = 0.77 and 0.69, respectively, all P < 0.001). At baseline, self-reported VF was weakly correlated with RRS (r = 0.33; P = 0.016), but not with RS or plasma carotenoids. Across the year, self-reported VF intake was weakly correlated with both RS (r = 0.37; P = 0.008), RRS (r = 0.37; P = 0.007), and with plasma carotenoids (r = 0.36; P < 0.008). Conclusions: SCS as measured by RS and RRS is moderately to strongly correlated with plasma carotenoid concentrations both cross-sectionally and longitudinally, indicating that it can be a powerful tool to assess carotenoid-rich VF intake in populations. Clinical trial registry: This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT01674296.
... 13,[26][27][28] This is somewhat surprising as public guidance on a wide range of health-related behaviours, including smoking, physical activity, drinkdriving and nutrition, has produced small to moderate effects on knowledge, attitudes and behaviour. [28][29][30][31][32] A number of factors may explain the lack of evidence on the effectiveness of drinking guidelines. Opportunities to evaluate the impact of guidelines are rare as revisions take place at intervals of ≥ 10 years and, when they do happen, the new guidelines are often not promoted via large-scale campaigns after the initial announcement. ...
Article
Background The UK’s Chief Medical Officers revised the UK alcohol drinking guidelines in 2016 to ≤ 14 units per week (1 unit = 10 ml/8 g ethanol) for men and women. Previously, the guideline stated that men should not regularly consume more than 3–4 units per day and women should not regularly consume more than 2–3 units per day. Objective To evaluate the impact of promoting revised UK drinking guidelines on alcohol consumption. Design Interrupted time series analysis of observational data. Setting England, March 2014 to October 2017. Participants A total of 74,388 adults aged ≥ 16 years living in private households in England. Interventions Promotion of revised UK low-risk drinking guidelines. Main outcome measures Primary outcome – alcohol consumption measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test – Consumption score. Secondary outcomes – average weekly consumption measured using graduated frequency, monthly alcohol consumption per capita adult (aged ≥ 16 years) derived from taxation data, monthly number of hospitalisations for alcohol poisoning ( International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems , Tenth Revision: T51.0, T51.1 and T51.9) and assault ( International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems , Tenth Revision: X85–Y09), and further measures of influences on behaviour change. Data sources The Alcohol Toolkit Study, a monthly cross-sectional survey and NHS Digital’s Hospital Episode Statistics. Results The revised drinking guidelines were not subject to large-scale promotion after the initial January 2016 announcement. An analysis of news reports found that mentions of the guidelines were mostly factual, and spiked during January 2016. In December 2015, the modelled average Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test – Consumption score was 2.719 out of 12.000 and was decreasing by 0.003 each month. After the January 2016 announcement, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test – Consumption scores did not decrease significantly (β = 0.001, 95% confidence interval –0.079 to 0.099). However, the trend did change significantly such that scores subsequently increased by 0.005 each month (β = 0.008, 95% confidence interval 0.001 to 0.015). This change is equivalent to 0.5% of the population moving each month from drinking two or three times per week to drinking four or more times per week. Secondary analyses indicated that the change in trend began 6 months before the guideline announcement. The secondary outcome measures showed conflicting results, with no significant changes in consumption measures and no substantial changes in influences on behaviour change, but immediate reductions in hospitalisations of 7.3% for assaults and 15.4% for alcohol poisonings. Limitations The pre-intervention data collection period was only 2 months for influences on behaviour change and the graduated frequency measure. Our conclusions may be generalisable only to scenarios in which guidelines are announced but not promoted. Conclusions The announcement of revised UK low-risk drinking guidelines was not associated with clearly detectable changes in drinking behaviour. Observed reductions in alcohol-related hospitalisations are unlikely to be attributable to the revised guidelines. Promotion of the guidelines may have been prevented by opposition to the revised guidelines from the government's alcohol industry partners or because reduction in alcohol consumption was not a government priority or because practical obstacles prevented independent public health organisations from promoting the guidelines. Additional barriers to the effectiveness of guidelines may include low public understanding and a need for guidelines to engage more with how drinkers respond to and use them in practice. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN15189062. Funding This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Public Health Research programme and will be published in full in Public Health Research ; Vol. 8, No. 14. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.
... L'exemple le plus connu est celle qui recommande de « Manger cinq fruits et légumes par jour ». Les campagnes visant à augmenter la consommation de fruits et légumes ont un impact positif, mais modeste, sur les niveaux de consommation (Capacci et Mazzocchi, 2011). De plus, une étude (Castiglione et Mazzocchi, 2019) menée au Royaume-Uni montre que l'augmentation de la consommation de fruits et légumes s'est accompagnée d'une baisse de la consommation de viande. ...
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Dans le monde entier, les productions animales sont aujourd’hui confrontées à des défis majeurs en matière de durabilité. Ces derniers sont exacerbés dans l'Union européenne (UE) où les questions relatives au réchauffement climatique, à l’environnement, à la santé humaine et au bien-être animal suscitent de nombreux débats. À côté des impacts négatifs, les productions animales peuvent également présenter des avantages sur les plans économique, territorial et nutritionnel. Certains systèmes d'élevage, notamment les systèmes herbagers, peuvent également avoir des effets positifs sur le climat et l'environnement. Les productions animales sont fortement régulées dans l'UE, alors que la consommation de produits animaux ne l'est pas ou très peu. Bon nombre des effets négatifs et positifs sont des biens publics, mal pris en compte par les acteurs privés et les marchés. Il existe donc une légitimité et une marge de manœuvre pour les politiques publiques visant à réduire les dommages et à augmenter les avantages de la production et de la consommation de produits animaux. La dernière partie de l'article explique comment cet objectif pourrait être atteint dans l'UE par le biais d'une Politique Agricole Commune (PAC) profondément révisée et basée sur les principes de l'économie publique.
... The most widely-known example of such an information campaign is the ''Eat five fruit and vegeta-bles a day" recommendation. Campaigns aimed at increasing the consumption of fruit and vegetables have a positive impact on consumption levels of these products that is, however, only modest (Capacci and Mazzocchi, 2011). Interestingly, Castiglione and Mazzocchi (2019) show that in the United Kingdom, the increased consumption of fruit and vegetables was accompanied by a decreased consumption of meat. ...
Article
Throughout the world, animal production faces huge sustainability challenges. The latter are exacerbated in the European Union (EU) by consumption issues linked, in particular, to the health and environmental impacts of meat consumption, and by the increasing societal concerns linked to animal welfare. Simultaneously, animal production may also provide benefits, notably from an economic and nutritional point of view. Some livestock systems, notably grass-based systems, may also offer positive climatic and environmental effects. Animal production is highly regulated in the EU, whereas the consumption of animal products is not (or very lightly) regulated. Many of the negative and positive effects are public goods that are not well taken into account by private actors and markets. Thus, there is legitimacy and scope for public policies aimed at reducing the damage and increasing the benefits of animal production and consumption. The last part of the paper explains how this could be achieved in the EU through a significantly revised and extended Common Agricultural Policy that more closely follows the principles of public economics. Public regulation principles that are proposed have a more general scope and can be adapted to other livestock contexts.
... One of the main causes of this are poor dietary choices ( WHO, 2002Marmot, 2005. Governments across the world are trying to encourage individuals to make healthier choices, through channels such as information provision (e.g. the five-a-day campaign (Capacci and Mazzochi, 2011), food labelling (Fichera and von Hinke, 2020)) and fiscal measures (e.g. taxes (Fletcher, 2010), targeted benefits (Griffith, von Hinke and Smith, 2018)). ...
Article
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This paper examines the relationship between education and health behaviours, focusing on potential offsetting responses between calories in (i.e. dietary intakes) and calories out (i.e. physical activity). It exploits the 1972 British compulsory schooling law that raised the minimum school leaving age from 15 to 16 to estimate the effects of education on diet and exercise around middle age. Using a regression discontinuity design, the findings suggest that the reform led to a worsening of the quality of the diet, with increases in total calories, fats and animal proteins. However, I find that these changes are partially offset by a discontinuous increase in physical activity. Back-of-the-envelope calculations suggest little effect on the balance of calories. As such, the findings show that focusing on the two components of energy balance provides additional information that is concealed in analyses that only use a measure of obesity.
... In most EU countries, the majority of information campaigns are part of nutritional policies. Information campaigns such as the wellknown 'Eat 5 a day' (to increase fruit and vegetable consumption) have a modest but positive impact (Capacci and Mazzochi, 2011). In France, the Plan National Nutrition Santé (PNNS) includes a recommendation on meat consumption (no more than 70 g/day for red meat and 25 g/ day for processed meat). ...
Article
Meat consumption has increased significantly in the last 50 years. This trend raises various health and environmental issues, as well as moral concerns regarding farm animal welfare. In this paper, we discuss the regulation of meat consumption in developed countries. Specifically, we discuss possible justifications for this regulation in terms of environmental, health and animal welfare considerations, as well as the effect of fiscal, informational and behavioral regulatory instruments. Finally, we present a list of challenges that policy makers and food scholars may need to confront in the future.
... where the dependent variable (unit value) is explained by household characteristics and the physical quantity the chosen category. Physical quantity is defined according to Capacci and Mazzocchi (2011), where the larger the quantity purchased is, the lower the unit value will be. Due to zero consumption, the average prices for non-consuming households must also be taken into account. ...
... A great amount of literature suggests that this type of budget share equations fits well empirically (cf. Capacci and Mazzocchi 2011;Attanasio et al. 2013;Harding and Lovenheim 2017). ...
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Comparing income levels across families with different household compositions and sizes is not easy and has been a long‐term focus in welfare and policy analysis. This paper evaluates the extent childless two‐person households in the U.S. reduce their costs by living together relative to living alone. Using a structural collective household model and household scanner data, we find women, on average, consume 48% of total household expenditures, and a woman (man) living alone would need approximately 65% (63%) of the two‐person household's income to reach the same living standard as attained as a member of a two‐person household. Our results suggest the poverty line for two‐person childless households may need to be increased, whereas other federal benefit calculations are overly generous.
... The objectives are, on one side, to highlight the benefits of fruits and vegetables consumption and its contribution to balanced and healthy diets and lifestyles and, on the other side, to increase the sustainability of its production and trade and to reduce the loss and waste of fruits and vegetables. Additionally important are the actions carried out by other organizations, such as five a day, an international organization that brings together organizations in more than 40 countries on five continents, which carry out activities to promote the consumption of five portions of fresh fruit and vegetables per day [7][8][9]. ...
Article
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Although the consumption of fruits and vegetables is being promoted by different institutions as a key question of public health, their consumption is decreasing and their waste is increasing. To address this situation, we propose to include the consumer’s perception of the quality (from a sensory point of view) of a fruit, in particular Valencian oranges, in the supplier’s selection process by retailers. To do so, we use a combination of consumer and trained sensory panels and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). This approach is completely novel in the literature. According to the expert panel, the most important criteria when evaluating the quality of an orange are fruity smell, juiciness, sweetness and acidity. These criteria are related to the freshness and taste of the oranges. Consumers found the methodology proposed useful and easy to develop. The application of the AHP methodology has helped to facilitate a participatory discussion among consumers on the concept of the quality of the oranges. The methodology proposed can help the agrifood sector in different ways up and down the supply chain. Specially, it can contribute to better meet consumer’s demands, increasing the consumption of fruits and vegetables and reducing its waste.
... Several methodologies have been proposed to correct for unit value endogeneity. These typically assume that geographically and time-clustered households face similar prices [32,[34][35][36]. We opt to use the two-step approach by [36], which simplifies the procedure for functional forms such as QUAIDS and is appropriate for our dataset since it is based on the median rather than on the mean unit value. ...
Article
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To analyze the effects of taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in Ecuador, this study estimates a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System model using data from the 2011–2012 National Survey of Income and Expenditure for Urban and Rural Households. We derive own- and cross-price elasticities by income quintiles and consumption deciles for five beverages, including two types of sugary drink: (i) milk, (ii) soft drinks, (iii) water, (iv) other sugary drinks, and (v) coffee and tea. Overall, results show that a 20% increase in the price of SSBs will decrease the consumption of soft drinks and other sugary drinks by 27% and 22%, respectively. Heterogeneous consumer behavior is revealed across income and consumption groups, as well as policy-relevant complementarity and substitution patterns. Policy impacts are simulated by considering an 18 cents per liter tax, implemented in Ecuador, and an ad-valorem 20% tax on the price. Estimated tax revenues and weight loss are larger for the latter. From a health perspective, high-income and heavy consumer households would benefit the most from this policy. Our study supports an evidence-based debate on how to correctly design and monitor food policy.
... The most well-known example is the "five-a-day" recommendation aiming at encouraging the consumption of fruits and vegetables. Ex-post evaluations of these information campaigns tend to show that they have positive but small impacts on fruit and vegetable consumption [49]. ...
Article
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No one would dispute that agricultural systems and food diets are not sustainable from an environmental and health point of view, and that increasing their sustainability must be a major objective of farm and food policies. Simultaneously, climatic, environmental, and health shocks are likely to increase in the coming years. This note defends the idea of an additional double benefit of public policies, aiming at favoring environmentally friendly food systems and healthy diets through two channels: by reducing the risks of developing shocks and by limiting their negative impacts on populations when they occur. As a result, public policies should address, simultaneously and consistently, supply and demand issues. This is illustrated in the case of the European Union. Supply measures should favor the agro-ecological transition of agricultural systems through a more rigorous application of the polluter pays principle, implying notably the taxation of the main determinants of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions (cattle heads and nitrogen fertilizers) and biodiversity loss (mineral fertilizers, synthetic pesticides, and antibiotic treatments). This would send the right signals to farmers and would legitimize an extended use of the provider gets principle, allowing the remuneration of positive externalities. Demand measures should favor the adoption of healthier and environmentally friendly food diets by changing consumer behaviors through dietary recommendations, information campaigns, nutritional labeling, and fiscal instruments.
... Such dietary changes are likely to be feasible and realistic. For example, Australian nutrition promotion campaigns have achieved a net increase of 0.8 mean number of servings of fruit and vegetables per day [50], while international initiatives have observed impacts on fruit and vegetables ranging from 0.2 to 0.7 portions for fruit and vegetable consumption across different income groups in the UK [51], and 0.2 to 1.1 portions per day among the general or low income populations in the US [52]. These findings also demonstrate potential benefits of targeted campaigns for lower socioeconomic groups specifically, like the present sample. ...
Article
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Background: Depression is the single largest contributor to global disability. There is growing evidence that a healthy diet is associated with reduced depression risk. However, beyond the Mediterranean diet, few longitudinal studies have explored the relationship between adherence to national dietary guidelines and depression. Hence, this study investigates the relationship between adherence to Australian Dietary Guidelines and depressive symptoms. Methods: Data was drawn from the READI longitudinal study, a prospective cohort study of socioeconomically disadvantaged Australian women. This analysis includes a sub-sample of 837 women. A generalized linear model was used to explore whether baseline diet (assessed using the Dietary Guideline Index (DGI-2013; score range 0 to 85)) was associated with risk of developing depressive symptoms (measured by the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D)) at 5 years follow-up, whilst adjusting for potential confounders. A fixed-effects model was used to assess associations between concurrent changes in diet quality and depressive symptoms from baseline to 5 years follow-up. Results: An association between baseline diet quality and risk of developing depressive symptoms at follow-up was observed, where a 10 unit increase in DGI-2013 score was associated with an estimated 12% lower risk of developing heightened depressive symptoms (RR = 0.875, 95%CI 0.784 to 0.978, p = 0.018). The fixed-effects model indicated that an increase in DGI score over 5 years follow-up was associated with a lower (improved) CES-D score (B = -0.044, 95% CI - 0.08 to - 0.01, p = 0.024). Conclusions: Our results provide evidence that better adherence to the Australian Dietary Guidelines may result in improved depressive symptoms. The growing high-quality evidence regarding the diet-depression relationship provides us with a rationale for developing strategies for supporting dietary behaviour change programs to lower depression rates.
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Despite the interest in increasing the consumption of fruit and vegetables in the UK, the total average consumption is still below the recommended intakes. Evidence indicates that the UK government’s “five-a-day” policy has not been effective in reaching its goal. The results of fiscal policies (e.g., subsidies) to increase fruit and vegetable consumption are uncertain due to complex substitutions done by consumers amongst overall food choice. The goal of the present study was to estimate the prices (i.e., shadow prices) at which consumers can increase their intake of fruits and vegetables by 10% (higher than that achieved by the “five-a-day” policy) without changing the overall taste of the diet (utility). We estimated the ex-ante effect of increasing the UK’s fruit and vegetable consumption by 10% on household nutrient purchases and greenhouse gas emissions. The required changes in prices were estimated by extending the model of consumer behaviour under rationing. The model combines consumption data, demand elasticities estimated from home scan data, and nutrient coefficients for 20 foods consumed in the UK. Our results suggest that to increase vegetable and fruit consumption by 10% (under the current preferences), their prices should decline by 21% and 13%, respectively. However, there is a trade-off between nutrition and environmental goals; total average household caloric purchase declined by 11 kcal, but greenhouse gas emissions increased by 0.7 CO2-eq kg/kg of food.
Article
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Food systems in developed countries face one major challenge, namely the promotion of diets that are both healthy and generate less greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE). In this article, we review papers evaluating the impact of a change in diets on both health and GHGE. We address the following questions: How big are the health and environmental impacts that could be induced by a switch to healthier diets? In monetary value, what is the relative importance of the health impact and the environmental impact? Is it possible to design an economic policy to increase global welfare that also takes into account the externalities on both health and the environment? Since the way the change in diet is modeled is a key issue, we classify papers according to the methodology used for simulating diet changes: ad hoc scenarios, optimized diets, and economic modeling. We find that it is possible to design economic policies that have positive impacts on both dimension. Because the substitutions/complementarities between food products are complex, it is not granted that a policy targeting one dimension will generate positive effects on the other dimensions. However, given the diversity of substitution and the complementarity possibilities between products, it is possible to design a policy that does improve both dimensions. A carbon-based tax policy that targets the products with a high greenhouse gas content (e.g., meat products) and reinvests the revenues collected with the tax to subsidize the consumption of fruit and vegetables, is likely to have positive effects on both dimensions.
Article
We present an analysis of household level food demand for Somalia, which is emerging from a destructive twenty-year civil war. Using novel World Bank household survey data collected in 2018, we estimate demand elasticities for Somalia taking account of differences in household type, regional conflict, and income remittances from overseas. Our results reveal the extent to which household food consumption, as represented by expenditure, own and cross price elasticities, is highly sensitive to income shocks, especially for animal products such as meat and milk which are the main sources of protein for the population. Furthermore, the impact of an exogenous income shock, affecting food prices and household budgets, will likely result in a less diversified diet because of more emphasis on cereal consumption, especially for nomadic households. The resulting negative macronutrient implications have obvious consequences for levels of malnutrition. As such, improved food security is critical for Somalia’s economic recovery and resilience in the future.
Article
Reducing drink drive limits is generally regarded an effective strategy to save lives on the road. Using several new administrative data sources, we evaluate the effect of a stricter limit introduced in Scotland in 2014. This reduction had no effect on drink driving and road collisions. Estimates from a supply-of-offenses function suggests that the reform did not have much ex-ante scope for sizeable effects. The unavailability of cheaper alternative means of transportation and weak law enforcement seem to have been the main channels behind the lack of an impact. We find no externality on a wide range of domains, from alcohol consumption to criminal activities other than drink driving.
Article
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This paper evaluates a UK policy that aimed to improve dietary information provision by introducing nutrition labelling on retailers’ store-brand products. Exploiting the differential timing of the introduction of Front-of-Pack nutrition labels as a quasi-experiment, our findings suggest that labelling led to a reduction in the quantity purchased of labelled store-brand foods, and an improvement in their nutritional composition. More specifically, we find that households reduced the total monthly calories from labelled store-brand foods by 588 kcal, saturated fats by 14 g, sugars by 7 g, and sodium by 0.8 mg.
Technical Report
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This note provides a structured review of adoption trends of national policies aimed at promoting healthier diets and collates evidence on their effectiveness. We limit our focus to evidence exploiting data collected after the policy implementation, and using appropriate counterfactual methods to identify the policy effect.
Article
Promotion programs that subsidize advertising for exported agricultural products continue to be used despite much criticism that they are an inefficient use of taxpayer money. At the same time, others have advocated for an increase in funds to support domestic advertising for fruits and vegetables. We investigate the economic and nutritional effects from changes in both export and domestic promotion expenditures for horticultural and nonhorticultural commodities. Simulation results show that even modest decreases in trade promotion expenditures coupled with a corresponding increase in domestic promotion efforts have the capacity to influence domestic market conditions, caloric intake, and nutrient consumption.
Article
Background Evidence suggests that eating behaviors and adherence to dietary guidelines can be improved using nutrition-related apps. Apps delivering personalized nutrition (PN) advice to users can provide individual support at scale with relatively low cost. Objective This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of a mobile web app (eNutri) that delivers automated PN advice for improving diet quality, relative to general population food-based dietary guidelines. Methods Nondiseased UK adults (aged >18 years) were randomized to PN advice or control advice (population-based healthy eating guidelines) in a 12-week controlled, parallel, single-blinded dietary intervention, which was delivered on the web. Dietary intake was assessed using the eNutri Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). An 11-item US modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index (m-AHEI), which aligned with UK dietary and nutritional recommendations, was used to derive the automated PN advice. The primary outcome was a change in diet quality (m-AHEI) at 12 weeks. Participant surveys evaluated the PN report (week 12) and longer-term impact of the PN advice (mean 5.9, SD 0.65 months, after completion of the study). Results Following the baseline FFQ, 210 participants completed at least 1 additional FFQ, and 23 outliers were excluded for unfeasible dietary intakes. The mean interval between FFQs was 10.8 weeks. A total of 96 participants were included in the PN group (mean age 43.5, SD 15.9 years; mean BMI 24.8, SD 4.4 kg/m2) and 91 in the control group (mean age 42.8, SD 14.0 years; mean BMI 24.2, SD 4.4 kg/m2). Compared with that in the control group, the overall m-AHEI score increased by 3.5 out of 100 (95% CI 1.19-5.78) in the PN group, which was equivalent to an increase of 6.1% (P=.003). Specifically, the m-AHEI components nuts and legumes and red and processed meat showed significant improvements in the PN group (P=.04). At follow-up, 64% (27/42) of PN participants agreed that, compared with baseline, they were still following some (any) of the advice received and 31% (13/42) were still motivated to improve their diet. Conclusions These findings suggest that the eNutri app is an effective web-based tool for the automated delivery of PN advice. Furthermore, eNutri was demonstrated to improve short-term diet quality and increase engagement in healthy eating behaviors in UK adults, as compared with population-based healthy eating guidelines. This work represents an important landmark in the field of automatically delivered web-based personalized dietary interventions. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03250858; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03250858
Article
Fiscal policies to influence consumption of food and beverages are increasing globally. Most food demand studies focus on understanding consumer response in the context of food and beverages consumed at home. Yet food and beverages consumed outside of the home play an increasing part in our diets, and demand elasticities for these settings are crucial for assessing the potential impact of such fiscal measures on promoting healthier diets. Utilising a large out-of-home food purchase dataset from Great Britain in 2016–17, this paper analyses the demand for seven food groups across four outlet types, including restaurants, fast-food outlets, food retails and other outlets. We use a demand system approach to estimate price and expenditure elasticites of demand, along with procedures to account for censoring, expenditure and price endogeneity. Our results indicate substantial variations in consumer responses across outlet types. Demand for main meals is expenditure and price elastic in restaurants but inelastic in fast-food outlets. For sugary drinks, the demand is generally price elastic except in fast food outlets. These differences across outlet types highlight the complexity in studying out-of-home food and beverage consumption and the importance of accounting for where consumers buy from when designing, implementing and evaluating consumer responses to fiscal measures.
Article
In 2014, México imposed a 20% price hike on sugar‐sweetened beverages (SSB) to curb its obesity epidemic, paving the road for other Latin‐American countries to adopt similar measures. This paper estimates a beverage demand system with a censored Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand system. Our study finds that a 20% tax on SSB can reduce SSB consumption between 16.6% and 19.0%. Additionally, the price increase is associated with increased water consumption if an equivalent income compensation accompanies the fiscal approach. Finally, while the effect is small, our results indicate that education is the primary demographic factor in decreasing SSB consumption.
Chapter
Other food policies have also been implicated in the obesity epidemic. Our findings are generally negative regarding both the contributions of USDA’s food and nutrition programs (FANPs) to obesity and the potential for modifying them effectively and economically to reduce obesity. Some say strengthening the role of the US government in regulation of food labeling (the nutrition facts panel, other requirements for specific types of labels on the front or back of packages, and calorie postings at restaurants) and marketing to children will help fight obesity. Changes to current food labeling practices that are underway in the United States have potential to help some consumers to make more healthful food choices, but it is left to the food industry to self-regulate food marketing to children, and changes here have been largely ineffective. “Nudges” have been shown to complement the effectiveness of some existing policies.
Article
Dramatic increases in human lifespan and declining population growth are monumental achievements but these same achievements have also led tomany societies today ageing at a faster rate than ever before. Extending healthy lifespan (healthspan) is a key translational challenge in this context. Disease-centric approaches to manage population ageing risk are adding years to life without adding health to these years. The growing consensus that ageing is driven by a limited number of interconnected processes suggests an alternative approach. Instead of viewing each age-dependent disease as the result of an independent chain of events, this approach recognizes that most age-dependent diseases depend on and are driven by a limited set of ageing processes. While the relative importance of each of these processes and the best intervention strategies targeting them are subjects of debate, there is increasing interest in providing preventative intervention options to healthy individuals even before overt age-dependent diseases manifest. Elevated oxidative damage is involved in the pathophysiology of most age-dependent diseases and markers of oxidative damage often increase with age in many organisms. However, correlation is not causation and, sadly, many intervention trials of supposed antioxidants have failed to extend healthspan and to prevent diseases. This does not, however, mean that reactive species (RS) and redox signalling are unimportant. Ultimately, the most effective antioxidants may not turn out to be the best geroprotective drugs, but effective geroprotective interventions might well turn out to also have excellent, if probably indirect, antioxidant efficacy.
Article
Italy has one of the largest per-capita consumption rates of fruits and vegetables (FV) among European Union countries. However, the number of adult Italians consuming the recommended daily amounts of FV is declining, especially in regions where the food retail industry’s expansion is lagging. In this article we investigate the effect of the food environment on the likelihood of adult Italians consuming five or more daily portions of FV, and on the probability of consuming more portions of FV. We combine individual-level data on adult Italians’ lifestyle with regional food retail structure measures. To correct for the endogeneity of the food environment, we use an identification strategy based on aggregate drivers of food stores’ location, and on the regional political climate affecting retail liberalization reforms. The results show that increased access affects positively the probability of consuming the daily-recommended amounts of FV, as well as the probability of consuming more portions of FV. However, the role of the food environment is less marked for individuals declaring it to experience a hardship to access supermarkets.
Article
Background: This project aimed to understand the details of the 5-a-day fruit and vegetable (FV) message (which foods are included, portion sizes, the need for variety, reasons for consumption) least known by UK consumers, and most associated with low FV consumption. Methods: Study 1 assessed FV consumption, knowledge of the details of the message, and relationships between these, using a short questionnaire administered face-to-face to an opportunity sample of one large UK city. Study 2 assessed the same variables using a comprehensive postal questionnaire administered across the UK to a representative population sample. Results: Five hundred and seven respondents completed Study 1 and 247 respondents completed Study 2. The majority of individuals in both studies were aware of the 5-a-day message and could recount this correctly. In both studies, however, knowledge of the details of the message was low, and lower knowledge was associated with lower FV consumption. Respondents had lowest knowledge of the details of the message related to portion sizes and the need for variety. However, FV consumption was not independently associated with knowledge of any one aspect of the message. Conclusions: These findings suggest that, although most of the UK population sampled were aware of the 5-a-day FV message and could recount this correctly, details of the 5-a-day FV message were not well known, and that FV consumption was related to this knowledge. These findings suggest that strategies to increase FV consumption will benefit from increasing UK consumers' knowledge of the details of the 5-a-day FV message.
Article
Analysis of dietary patterns has largely focused on their association with diseases or risk factors, but limited research has been conducted on the heterogeneity of population dietary patterns and their adherence to international or national nutritional guidelines. As a result, the aim of this study is to identify latent dietary patterns of UK residents and to assess how well different segments comply with WHO dietary norms. To achieve this objective, the UK's National Diet and Nutrition Surveys for 2011–12 dataset was analysed performing a latent class analysis on energy (kcals)derived from selected food groups. To assess adherence to different dietary patterns of the British population to nutritional guidelines, a traffic light system and a composite conformity index were developed to establish how well the identified segments comply with current dietary WHO norms regarding salt, free sugars, total fat, saturated fat, fruit and vegetables and dietary fibre. Results show four different segments which on the basis of heterogeneity of dietary patterns were named ‘high sugar/high fat consumers’, ‘prudent eaters’, ‘high fat consumers’ and ‘junk food eaters’. These segments show significant differences within and between groups in terms of dietary calories intakes and their adherence to WHO norms. Although ‘prudent eaters’ are closer to WHO dietary guidelines than other segments, none of the identified segments fully comply with dietary WHO norms. Policy implications of these findings are fully discussed in the conclusions arguing how current, future and potential dietary demand and supply measures affect consumers’ compliance with WHO norms.
Article
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A conceptual clarification of the sources and meaning of cross-sectional price variability is used to motivate a theoretical and econometric framework for the estimation of cross-sectional demand functions. Quality effects are distinguished from supply-related price variability to identify cross-sectional demand for disaggregated food commodities. An empirical application using data from the 1977-78 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey indicates that parameter differences resulting from a failure to adjust cross-sectional prices for quality effects are likely to be small for relatively homogenous, disaggregated food commodities. In demand analysis with cross-sectional, household budget data, it is usually assumed that prices are constant (Allen and Bowley, Prais and Houthakker, George and King). Given this assumption, Engel functions are es- timated where expenditure (or quantity) is re- gressed on income (or total expenditures), family size, and other demographic character- istics. The assumption that cross-sectional price effects are absent or are captured ade- quately by spatial and temporal dummy vari- ables has not been evaluated empirically. Whether cross-sectional price effects can be treated in this manner has implications for the specification of cross-sectional demand func- tions as well as the estimation of Engel func- tions. There is a considerable literature on es- timating price elasticities with cross-sectional data. Most of the applications utilize time- series/cross-sectional data. Annual (or quar- terly) household consumption surveys and
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This paper investigates the impact of the five-a-day campaign on the purchase of fruit, vegetables and potatoes and tubers in the United Kingdom from 2001 and 2006 using pseudo-panel data. The objective of this research is to estimate dynamic Engel curves and analyse them in the context of the recent food campaign aiming at increasing the consumption of fruit and vegetables: the five-a-day campaign. Our results reveal that the purchase of fruit, vegetables and potatoes and tubers is partly determined by the household composition and can be affected by habits, and that the five-a-day campaign had an impact on food choices, albeit fairly limited. Further campaigning will be needed to sustain and amplify the consumers' response.
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Income, education, occupation, age, sex, marital status, and ethnicity are all correlated with health in one context or another. This paper reflects on the difficulties encountered in deriving robust scientific conclusions from these correlations or drawing reliable policy applications. Interactions among the variables, nonlinearities, casual inference, and possible mechanisms of action are discussed. Strategies for future work are suggested, and researchers are urged to pay special attention to possible interactions among health, genes, and socio-economic variables.
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Full-text available
The Western Australian Health Department's Go for 2&5 campaign aimed to increase adults' awareness of the need to eat more fruit and vegetables and encourage increased consumption of one serving over five years. The multi-strategy fruit and vegetable social marketing campaign, conducted from 2002 to 2005, included mass media advertising (television, radio, press and point-of-sale), public relations events, publications, a website (www.gofor2and5.com), and school and community activities. Campaign development and the evaluation framework were designed using health promotion theory, and assessed values, beliefs, knowledge and behaviour. Two independent telephone surveys evaluated the campaign: the Campaign Tracking Survey interviewed 5032 adults monitoring fruit and vegetable attitudes, beliefs and consumption prior to, during and 12 months after the campaign; and the Health & Wellbeing Surveillance System surveyed 17,993 adults between 2001 and 2006, continuously monitoring consumption. Population public health intervention-social marketing campaign in Western Australia, population of 2,010,113 in 2005. Adults in the Perth metropolitan area. The campaign reached the target audience, increasing awareness of the recommended servings of fruit and vegetables. There was a population net increase of 0.8 in the mean number of servings of fruit and vegetables per day over three years (0.2 for fruit (1.6 in 2002 to 1.8 in 2005) and 0.6 for vegetables (2.6 in 2002 to 3.2 in 2005), significant at P < 0.05). Sustained, well-executed social marketing is effective in improving nutrition knowledge, attitudes and consumption behaviour. The Go for 2&5 campaign provides guidance to future nutrition promotion through social marketing.
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Full-text available
In this article, we study the heterogeneity of fruit and vegetable consumption patterns in France. A finite mixture of AIDS models is used to describe food demand patterns revealing different preferences over distinct classes. We obtained six different clusters, which reflect specific socio-demographic characteristics and different income and price elasticities. This approach is appropriate for targeting specific public nutritional policies. Our main results show that unlike the other clusters in which the usual price and income policy tools may be used, the lowest income cluster with the lowest consumption, remains insensitive to economic variables. Copyright Copyright 2008 American Agricultural Economics Association.
Article
Profits from generic advertising by a producer group often come partly at the expense of producers of closely related commodities. The resulting tendency toward excessive advertising is exacerbated by check-off funding. To analyze this beggar-thy-neighbor behavior we compare a scenario where different producer groups cooperate and choose their advertising expenditures jointly to maximize the sum of profits across the groups. and a scenario where they optimize independently. In an illustrative example using 1998 data for U.S. beef and pork, the noncooperatively chosen expenditure on beef and pork advertising is more than three times the cooperative optimum.
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A theory of consumer demand with variable preferences. The assumption that the individual consumer has a unique ordinal utility index function is replaced by the assumption that he has a family of ordinal utility functions; advertising expenditures by the sellers of commodities are assumed to determine which one of these ordinal utility functions is to be maximized. From these assumptions are derived a number of theoretical relations which measurements defining advertising elasticities of demand must satisfy. The relations involving shifts in demand and advertising elasticities of demand are shown to be analogues of the theorems of consumer demand under fixed preferences.
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This book is about the analysis of household survey data from developing countries and about how such data can be used to cast light on a range of policy issues. Much of the analysis works with household budget data, collected from income and expenditure surveys, though I shall occasionally address topics that require wider information. I shall use data from several different economies to illustrate the analysis, drawing examples of policy issues from economies as diverse as Cote d'Ivoire, India, Pakistan, South Africa, Taiwan (China), and Thailand. I shall be concerned with methodology as well as substance, and one of the aims of the book is to bring together the relevant statistical and econometric methods that are useful for building the bridge between data and policy.
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Changes in the socio-demographic structure of population are considered a determinant of trends in consumption. We estimated a complete demand system for Italy, with emphasis on food demand, using a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System (QUAIDS) with demographic effects. Our results allow comparison of expenditure elasticities and shares across households, thereby providing insights into the structure of food demand in Italy and confirming that demographic characteristics play a significant role. The QUAIDS specification is superior to the Almost Ideal Demand System specification: this is important, especially if the model is used for simulation and/or forecasting.
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Offers a conceptual basis for measuring environmental pollution damage avoidance costs in a situation with imperfect information. Expected consumer and producer surpluses are used as measures of welfare gains from information. The empirical example used concerns the period following the closure of the James River, Virginia due to kepone pollution. The changes in exptected consumer and producer surpluses from oysters in the Baltimore Wholesale market is quantified.-K.Turner
Book
The obesity epidemic and the growing debate about what, if any, public health policy should be adopted is the subject of endless debates within the media and in governments around the world. Whilst much has been written on the subject, this book takes a unique approach by looking at the obesity epidemic from an economic perspective. Written in a language accessible to non-specialists, the authors provide a timely discussion of evolving nutrition policies in both the developing and developed world, discuss the factors influencing supply and demand of food supply, and review the evidence for various factors which may explain recent trends in diets, weight, and health. The traditional economic model assumes people choose to be overweight as part of a utility maximisation process that involves choices about what to eat and drink, how much time to spend on leisure, food preparation, and exercise, and choices about appearance and health. Market and behavioural failures, however, such as time available to a person, education, costs imposed on the health system and economic productivity provide the economic rationale for government intervention. The authors explore various policy measures designed to deal with the epidemic and examine their effectiveness within a cost-benefit analysis framework. While providing a sound economic basis for analysing policy decisions, the book also aims to show the underlying limits of the economic framework in quantifying changes in public well-being.
Article
Profits from generic advertising by a producer group often come partly at the expense of producers of closely related commodities. The resulting tendency toward excessive advertising is exacerbated by check-off funding. To analyze this beggar-thy-neighbor behavior we compare a scenario where different producer groups cooperate and choose their advertising expenditures jointly to maximize the sum of profits across the groups, and a scenario where they optimize independently. In an illustrative example using 1998 data for U.S. beef and pork, the noncooperatively chosen expenditure on beef and pork advertising is more than three times the cooperative optimum. Copyright 2001, Oxford University Press.
Article
Applications of random utility models to scanner data have been widely presented in marketing for the last 20 years. One particular problem with these applications is that they have ignored possible correlations between the independent variables in the deterministic component of utility (price, promotion, etc.) and the stochastic component or error term. In fact, marketing-mix variables, such as price, not only affect brand purchasing probabilities but are themselves endogenously set by marketing managers. This work tests whether these endogeneity problems are important enough to warrant consideration when estimating random utility models with scanner panel data. Our results show that not accounting for endogeneity may result in a substantial bias in the parameter estimates.
Article
We develop a method for estimation of price reactions using unit valuedata which exploits the implicit links between quantity and unit valuechoices. This allows us to combine appealing Engel curve specificationswith a model of unit value determination in a way which is consistentwith demand theory, unlike methods hitherto prominent in the literature.The method is applied to Czech data. We develop a method for estimation of price reactions using unit valuedata which exploits the implicit links between quantity and unit valuechoices. This allows us to combine appealing Engel curve specificationswith a model of unit value determination in a way which is consistentwith demand theory, unlike methods hitherto prominent in the literature.The method is applied to Czech data.
Article
This paper extends and improves the author's earlier work on measuring own- and cross-price elasticities from spatial variation in prices using household survey data. Double-logarithmic demand functions are replaced by functions that relate budget shares to the logarithms of prices and incomes, and zero expenditures are treated appropriately. Formulae are developed for estimation and for the calculation of standard errors. Limited Monte Carlo evidence suggests that the asymptotic approximations work well in practice. An eleven–commodity system of food demands is estimated using Indonesian data from 1981.
Article
The analysis of consumer demand is used as an example to illustrate the interplay between theoretical and empirical research in economics. A few simple assumptions and axioms lead to testable implications such as homogeneity of degree zero in prices and incomes of Marshallian demand functions. What are the implications of the resulting tests? We argue that the tests should not be interpreted as intentional efforts to falsify the micro-economic theory of consumer behaviour. The case study is a history of rejections without falsification. Instead, we interpret this episode as a sequence of sophisticated specification searches.
Article
This paper presents a model of consumer demand that is consistent with the observed expenditure patterns of individual consumers in a long time series of expenditure surveys and is also able to provide a detailed welfare analysis of shifts in relative prices. A nonparametric analysis of consumer expenditure patterns suggests that Engel curves require quadratic terms in the logarithm of expenditure. While popular models of demand such as the Translog or the Almost Ideal Demand Systems do allow flexible price responses within a theoretically coherent structure, they have expenditure share Engel curves that are linear in the logarithm of total expenditure. We derive the complete class of integrable quadratic logarithmic expenditure share systems. A specification from this class is estimated on a large pooled data set of U.K. households. Models that fail to account for Engel curvature are found to generate important distortions in the patterns of welfare losses associated with a tax increase. © 2000 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College and the Massachusetts Institute of Technolog
Article
The importance of health/nutrition related factors and demographics on food consumption is assessed based on consumer demand using a variable preferences approach. Results of the models show that diet-disease, individual's race, region of residence, urbanization, education, and perceived importance of taste influence the consumption of various food groups. Economic and policy implications of the results are discussed in the paper.
Article
Summary The need to evaluate the performance of active labour market policies is not questioned any longer. Even though OECD countries spend significant shares of national resources on these measures, unemployment rates remain high or even increase. We focus on microeconometric evaluation which has to solve the fundamental evaluation problem and overcome the possible occurrence of selection bias. When using non-experimental data, different evaluation approaches can be thought of. The aim of this paper is to review the most relevant estimators, discuss their identifying assumptions and their (dis-)advantages. Thereby we will present estimators based on some form of exogeneity (selection on observables) as well as estimators where selection might also occur on unobservable characteristics. Since the possible occurrence of effect heterogeneity has become a major topic in evaluation research in recent years, we will also assess the ability of each estimator to deal with it. Additionally, we will also discuss some recent extensions of the static evaluation framework to allow for dynamic treatment evaluation.
Article
Many commentators have claimed that farm subsidies have contributed significantly to the "obesity epidemic" by making fattening foods relatively cheap and abundant. But U.S. farm policies have generally small and mixed effects on farm commodity prices, which in turn have even smaller and still mixed effects on the relative prices of more- and less-fattening foods. Other factors have had much more influence on reducing the farm prices of food commodities and the consumer prices of food such that any effects of U.S. farm policies on U.S. obesity patterns must have been negligible. Moreover, while many arguments can be made for changing U.S. farm subsidies, even entirely eliminating the current programs could not be expected to have a significant influence on obesity rates. International evidence reinforces this finding. The countries that support their farmers most strongly tend to have relatively low obesity rates. In these countries the main support for farmers comes through trade barriers and higher consumer prices, which--like U.S. policies for sugar, dairy, orange juice, and beef--discourage consumption and reduce obesity. In contrast with agricultural subsidies, agricultural R&D has had a significant effect in the past on the relative price of food commodities and food, and has the potential to influence obesity patterns in the future, but R&D policy is a very blunt instrument for pursuing public health policy objectives.
Article
The purpose of this study is to assess population-based changes in vegetable and fruit consumption and psychosocial correlates. Two nationally representative random digit dial surveys conducted in 1991 and 1997; respondents were queried regarding consumption of and attitudes and knowledge about vegetables and fruit. Respondents were 2,755 and 2,544 adults (in 1991 and 1997, respectively) older than 18 years. Vegetable and fruit consumption and message awareness were measured using weighted-only and regression model-adjusted analyses to assess changes. Mean vegetable and fruit consumption was significantly (P=.007) higher in 1997 than in 1991 using weighted-only analyses, but remained significant only for Hispanic (P=.03) and nonsmoker (P=.004) subgroups when adjusted for demographic shifts. Significantly higher percentages were found in the model-adjusted analyses for those consuming 5 or more (daily servings (23.4% to 25.8%), message awareness (7.7% to 19.2%), and knowledge of the 5 A Day Program (2.0% to 17.8%). A significantly positive change in vegetable and fruit consumption occurred between 1991 and 1997 according to traditional methods of survey data analysis, but null findings resulted when the data were adjusted for demographic shifts. Nutrition professionals should continue targeting specific demographic subgroups with tailored interventions to move all Americans toward achievement of dietary guidelines for vegetable and fruit consumption.
Article
International recommendations advise increasing intakes of fruit and vegetables to help reduce the burden of chronic diseases worldwide. This project systematically reviewed evidence on the effectiveness of interventions and programs promoting fruit and/or vegetable intake in adults. In April 2004, we contacted experts in the field and searched 14 publication databases. We considered all papers published in English, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish, and reporting on interventions and promotion programs encouraging higher intakes of fruit and/or vegetables in free-living not acutely ill adults, with follow-up periods > or = 3 mo, that measured change in intake and had a control group. Forty-four studies (mainly from developed countries) were included in the review and stratified by study setting. Larger effects were generally observed in individuals with preexisting health disorders. In primary prevention interventions in healthy adults, fruit and vegetable intake was increased by approximately 0.1-1.4 serving/d. Consistent positive effects were seen in studies involving face-to-face education or counseling, but interventions using telephone contacts or computer-tailored information appeared to be a reasonable alternative. Community-based multicomponent interventions also had positive findings. This literature review suggests that small increases in fruit and vegetable intake are possible in population subgroups, and that these can be achieved by a variety of approaches. More research is required to examine the effectiveness of specific components of interventions in different populations, particularly less developed countries. There is also a need for a better assessment of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of large community-based interventions.
Article
To review the effectiveness of social marketing interventions designed to improve diet, increase physical activity, and tackle substance misuse. This article describes three reviews of systematic reviews and primary studies that evaluate social marketing effectiveness. All three reviews used pre-defined search and inclusion criteria and defined social marketing interventions as those which adopted six key social marketing principles. The reviews provide evidence that social marketing interventions can be effective in improving diet, increasing exercise, and tackling the misuse of substances like alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs. There is evidence that social marketing interventions can work with a range of target groups, in different settings, and can work upstream as well as with individuals. Social marketing provides a very promising framework for improving health both at the individual level and at wider environmental and policy-levels. Problems with research design, lack of conceptual understanding or implementation are valid research concerns.
Article
We develop a theoretical model to identify conditions under which price and income changes are most likely to change weight. Although it is intuitive that raising the price of high-calorie food will decrease consumption of such goods; it is not clear that such an outcome will actually reduce weight. Our empirical analysis demonstrates a case where a tax on food away from home, a food intake category blamed for much of the rise in obesity, could lead to an increase in body weight; a finding which emphasizes the need to employ economic modeling when developing public policy to reduce obesity.
Article
The Stone index typically used in estimating linear almost ideal demand systems is not invariant to changes in units of measurement, which may seriously affect the approximation properties of the model. A modification to the Stone index, or use of a regular price index instead, are both desirable practices in estimating linear AI models.
Article
In this paper, we simulate the effects of taxes on products and/or nutrients aimed at encouraging a healthier grain consumption. To carry out the analysis, we use a rich data set on household consumption of grain products, combined with information about the nutritional content of the products. We estimate behavioural parameters that are used to simulate the impact on the average household of different types of tax reforms; entailing either a subsidy on commodities particularly rich in fibre or a subsidy of the fibre density in grain products. Our results suggest that to direct the fibre intake of the average household towards nutritional recommendations, reforms with a substantial impact on consumer prices are required. Our results also imply that subsidizing the fibre density is more cost-efficient than reducing the VAT on commodities rich in fibre. Regardless of the type of subsidy imposed, the increase in the fibre intake is accompanied by unwanted increases in nutrients that are often over consumed; fat, saturated fat, salt and sugar and added sugar. Funding the subsidies by taxing these nutrients, or less healthy commodities, prevents such developments.
Article
This article explores the issue of price and expenditure endogeneity in empirical demand analysis. The analysis focuses on the U.S. carbonated soft drink market. We test the null hypothesis that price and expenditures are exogenous in the demand for carbonated soft drinks. Using an almost ideal demand system (AIDS) specification, we strongly reject exogeneity for both prices and expenditures. We find that accounting for price/expenditures endogeneity significantly impacts demand elasticity estimates. We also evaluate the implications of endogeneity issues for testing weak separability.
Article
This paper develops and implements a method for estimating price elasticities of demand using cross-sectional household survey data. Geographically clustered households report unit values, which when corrected for quality effects and for measurement error, indicate the underlying spatial variation in prices, and can be matched to variation in demand patterns. A simple model of quality choice is proposed, while the correction for measurement error exploits the clustered design of such surveys. Data from a 1979 household survey from the Ivory Coast are used to estimate price elasticities for beef, meat, fish, cereals, and starches. Copyright 1988 by American Economic Association.
Article
This paper discusses the bias that results from using nonrandomly selected samples to estimate behavioral relationships as an ordinary specification error or "omitted variables" bias. A simple consistent two stage estimator is considered that enables analysts to utilize simple regression methods to estimate behavioral functions by least squares methods. The asymptotic distribution of the estimator is derived.
Article
Ever since Richard Stone (1954) first estimated a system of demand equations derived explicitly from consumer theory, there has been a continuing search for alternative specifications and functional forms. Many models have been proposed, but perhaps the most important in current use, apart from the original linear expendi- ture system, are the Rotterdam model (see Henri Theil, 1965, 1976; Anton Barten) and the translog model (see Laurits Christensen, Dale Jorgenson, and Lawrence Lau; Jorgen- son and Lau). Both of these models have been extensively estimated and have, in addition, been used to test the homogeneity and symmetry restrictions of demand the- ory. In this paper, we propose and estimate a new model which is of comparable gener- ality to the Rotterdam and translog models but which has considerable advantages over both. Our model, which we call the Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS), gives an ar- bitrary first-order approximation to any de- mand system; it satisfies the axioms of choice exactly; it aggregates perfectly over consumers without invoking parallel linear Engel curves; it has a functional form which is consistent with known household-budget data; it is simple to estimate, largely avoid- ing the need for non-linear estimation; and it can be used to test the restrictions of homogeneity and symmetry through linear restrictions on fixed parameters. Although many of these desirable properties are possessed by one or other of the Rotterdam or translog models, neither possesses all of them simultaneously. In Section I of the paper, we discuss the theoretical specification of the AIDS and justify the claims in the previous paragraph. In Section II, the model is estimated on postwar British data and we use our results to test the homogeneity and symmetry re- strictions. Our results are consistent with earlier findings in that both sets of restric- tions are decisively rejected. We also find that imposition of homogeneity generates positive serial correlation in the errors of those equations which reject the restrictions most strongly; this suggests that the now standard rejection of homogeneity in de- mand analysis may be due to insufficient attention to the dynamic aspects of con- sumer behavior. Finally, in Section III, we offer a summary and conclusions. We be- lieve that the results of this paper suggest that the AIDS is to be recommended as a vehicle for testing, extending, and improving conventional demand analysis. This does not imply that the system, particularly in its simple static form, is to be regarded as a fully satisfactory explanation of consumers' behavior. Indeed, by proposing a demand system which is superior to its predecessors, we hope to be able to reveal more clearly the problems and potential solutions asso- ciated with the usual approach. I. Specification of the AIDS
Article
A theoretical model of consumer response to publicized food safety information on meat demand is developed with an empirical application to U.S. meat consumption. Evidence is found for the existence of pre-committed levels of consumption, seasonal factors, time trends, and contemporaneous own- and cross-commodity food safety concerns. The average demand response to food safety concerns is small, especially in comparison to price effects, and to previous estimates of health related issues. This small average effect masks periods of significantly larger responses corresponding with prominent food safety events, but these larger impacts are short-lived with no apparent food safety lagged effects on demand.
Fat Economics: Nutrition, Health, and Economic Policy Heterogeneous preferences in household food consump-tion in Italy
  • M Mazzocchi
  • B Traill
  • J F Shogren
Mazzocchi, M., Traill, B., Shogren, J.F., 2009. Fat Economics: Nutrition, Health, and Economic Policy. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Moro, D., Sckokai, P., 2000. Heterogeneous preferences in household food consump-tion in Italy. European Review of Agricultural Economics 27, 305–323.
Relative regional consumer price levels in 2004
  • D Wingfield
  • D Fenwick
  • K Smith
Wingfield, D., Fenwick, D., Smith, K., 2005. Relative regional consumer price levels in 2004. Economic Trends 615, 36-46.
A Report on the 2008 Family Food Module of the Living Costs and Food Survey. The Stationery Office An empirical assessment of endogene-ity issues in demand analysis for differentiated products
  • Food Defra
  • T Dhar
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