Intercountry prevalences and practices of betel-quid use in south, southeast and eastern Asia regions and associated oral preneoplastic disorders: an international collaborative study by Asian betel-quid consortium of south andeast Asia

Center of Excellence for Environmental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
International Journal of Cancer (Impact Factor: 5.09). 10/2011; 129(7):1741-51. DOI: 10.1002/ijc.25809
Source: PubMed


Health risks stemming from betel-quid (BQ) chewing are frequently overlooked by people. Updated epidemiological data on the increased BQ use among Asian populations using comparable data collection methods have not been widely available. To investigate the prevalence, patterns of practice and associated types of oral preneoplastic disorders, an intercountry Asian Betel-quid Consortium study (the ABC study) was conducted for Taiwan, Mainland China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Nepal and Sri Lanka. A random sample of 8,922 subjects was recruited, and the data were analyzed using survey-data modules adjusted for the complex survey design. Chewing rates among men (10.7-43.6%) were significantly higher than women (1.8-34.9%) in Taiwan, Mainland China, Nepal and Sri Lanka, while women's rates (29.5-46.8%) were higher than that for men (9.8-12.0%) in Malaysia and Indonesia. An emerging, higher proportion of new-users were identified for Hunan in Mainland China (11.1-24.7%), where Hunan chewers have the unique practice of using the dried husk of areca fruit rather than the solid nut universally used by others. Men in the Eastern and South Asian study communities were deemed likely to combine chewing with smoking and drinking (5.6-13.6%). Indonesian women who chewed BQ exhibited the highest prevalence of oral lichen planus, oral submucous fibrosis and oral leukoplakia (9.1-17.3%). Lower schooling, alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking were identified as being associated with BQ chewing. In conclusion, the ABC study reveals the significant cultural and demographic differences contributing to practice patterns of BQ usage and the great health risks that such practices pose in the Asian region.

Download full-text


Available from: Saman Warnakulasuriya
  • Source
    • "Areca nut chewing is the fourth most popular substance abuse habit in the world [4]. Previous studies have found that chewing areca nut is associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, hypertension (HTN), and all-cause mortality [5-9]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Areca nut chewing has been reported to be associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and cardiovascular mortality in previous studies. The aim of this study was to examine whether chewing areca nut increases the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in Taiwanese men. This study is a hospital-based case-control study. The case patients were male patients diagnosed in Taiwan between 1996 and 2009 as having a positive Treadmill exercise test or a positive finding on the Thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging. The case patients were further evaluated by coronary angiography to confirm their CAD. Obstructive CAD was defined as a ≥ 50% decrease in the luminal diameter of one major coronary artery. The patients who did not fulfill the above criteria of obstructive CAD were excluded.The potential controls were males who visited the same hospital for health check-ups and had a normal electrocardiogram but no history of ischemic heart disease or CAD during the time period that the case patients were diagnosed. The eligible controls were randomly selected and frequency-matched with the case patients based on age. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the odds ratio of areca nut chewing and the risk of obstructive CAD. A total of 293 obstructive CAD patients and 720 healthy controls, all men, were analyzed. Subjects who chewed areca nut had a 3.5-fold increased risk (95% CI = 2.0-6.2) of having obstructive CAD than those without, after adjusting for other significant covariates. The dose-response relationship of chewing areca nut and the risk of obstructive CAD was also noted. After adjusting for other covariates, the 2-way additive interactions for obstructive CAD risk were also significant between areca nut use and cigarette smoking, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Long-term areca nut chewing was an independent risk factor of obstructive CAD in Taiwanese men. Interactive effects between chewing areca nut and cigarette smoking, hypertension, and dyslipidemia were also observed for CAD risk. Further exploration of their underlying mechanisms is necessary.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · BMC Public Health
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the age-standardized incidence, demography, recent trends and patterns of incidence of oral cancer in Sri Lanka between 1985 and 2005. Data on oral and oropharyngeal cancers were obtained from the published hospital-based cancer registry reports in the years 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005. The data were analyzed by gender, age (<40 or >40 years), and by site. A linear regression analysis was performed on the age-standardized oral and oropharyngeal cancer incidence rates to examine the trends over a 20-year period. There was a steady decline in the age-standardized incidence of lip and oral cavity cancers over the past 20 years in both men and women. A significant reduction of 1.9% per year is noted over this period. Contrary to this, cancers of the oropharynx (C09, C10, and C14) showed a slight increase over the same period. Reversal of betel quid use and smoking must be considered in accounting for declining trends for oral cancer. Increasing rates of oropharyngeal cancer raises the issue whether risk factors for the oropharynx are different to those of the oral cavity, and this may need further investigation.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Oral Diseases
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nearly four-fifths of estimated 1.1 million smokers live in low or middle-income countries. We aimed to provide national estimates for Nepal on tobacco use prevalence, its distribution across demographic, socio-economic and spatial variables and correlates of tobacco use. A secondary data analysis of 2006 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) was done. A representative sample of 9,036 households was selected by two-stage stratified, probability proportional to size (PPS) technique. We constructed three outcome variables 'tobacco smoke', 'tobacco chewer' and 'any tobacco use' based on four questions about tobacco use that were asked in DHS questionnaires. Socio-economic, demographic and spatial predictor variables were used. We computed overall prevalence for 'tobacco smoking', 'tobacco chewing' and 'any tobacco use' i.e. point estimates of prevalence rates, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjustment for strata and clustering at primary sampling unit (PSU) level. For correlates of tobacco use, we used multivariate analysis to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and their 95% CIs. A p-value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Total number of households, eligible women and men interviewed was 8707, 10793 and 4397 respectively. The overall prevalence for 'any tobacco use', 'tobacco smoking' and 'tobacco chewing' were 30.3% (95% CI 28.9, 31.7), 20.7% (95% CI 19.5, 22.0) and 14.6% (95% CI 13.5, 15.7) respectively. Prevalence among men was significantly higher than women for 'any tobacco use' (56.5% versus 19.6%), 'tobacco smoking' (32.8% versus 15.8%) and 'tobacco chewing' (38.0% versus 5.0%). By multivariate analysis, older adults, men, lesser educated and those with lower wealth quintiles were more likely to be using all forms of tobacco. Divorced, separated, and widowed were more likely to smoke (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.14, 1.94) and chew tobacco (OR 1.36, 95% CI 0.97, 1.93) as compared to those who were currently married. Prevalence of 'tobacco chewing' was higher in eastern region (19.7%) and terai/plains (16.2%). 'Tobacco smoking' and 'any tobacco use' were higher in rural areas, mid-western and far western and mountainous areas. Prevalence of tobacco use is considerably high among Nepalese people. Demographic and socioeconomic determinants and spatial distribution should be considered while planning tobacco control interventions.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Substance Abuse Treatment Prevention and Policy
Show more