Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the petroleum ether fraction from the ethanol extract of Desmodium podocarpum
Desmodium podocarpum is a plant that has been used in the folk medicine to treat febrile diseases, cough and bleeding wounds. However, there is no scientific basis or reports in the modern literature regarding its effectiveness as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic agent. The objective of this study is to evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the petroleum ether fraction (PEF) from the ethanol extract of Desmodium podocarpum. PEF (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) was estimated for its pharmacological properties by using the acetic acid-induced writhing test, the hot plate test, the Carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model, the dimethylbenzene-induced mouse inflammation model, and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced rat fever model. In addition, the acute toxicity of PEF was also studied. PEF significantly and dose-dependently inhibited the writhing responses in mice, increased reaction time of mice in the hot plate test, reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and the dimethylbenzene-induced ear edema in mice, and attenuated LPS-induced fever in rats. No death of mice was observed when orally administered PEF up to 4.2 g/kg. These findings suggest that PEF possesses evident analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities, and has a favorable safety, which supports the use of Desmodium podocarpum as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic drug in the folk medicine.
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Journal of Ethnopharmacology 133 (2011) 1126–1131
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Journal of Ethnopharmacology
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jethpharm
Analgesic, anti-inﬂammatory and antipyretic activities of the petroleum ether
fraction from the ethanol extract of Desmodium podocarpum
, Ke-Jia Ma
, Xia Ran
, Hong Zhang
, Cheng-Jian Zheng
, Ting Han
, Lu-Ping Qin
Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, No. 325, Guohe Road, Shanghai 200433, PR China
College of Pharmacy, Jiamusi University, Jiamusi 154007, PR China
School of Life Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, PR China
Received 10 August 2010
Received in revised form 25 October 2010
Accepted 18 November 2010
Available online 30 November 2010
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Desmodium podocarpum is a plant that has been used in the folk medicine
to treat febrile diseases, cough and bleeding wounds. However, there is no scientiﬁc basis or reports in the
modern literature regarding its effectiveness as an analgesic, anti-inﬂammatory and antipyretic agent.
Aims of the study: The objective of this study is to evaluate the analgesic, anti-inﬂammatory and antipyretic
activities of the petroleum ether fraction (PEF) from the ethanol extract of Desmodium podocarpum.
Materials and methods: PEF (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) was estimated for its pharmacological properties by using
the acetic acid-induced writhing test, the hot plate test, the Carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model,
the dimethylbenzene-induced mouse inﬂammation model, and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced rat
fever model. In addition, the acute toxicity of PEF was also studied.
Results: PEF signiﬁcantly and dose-dependently inhibited the writhing responses in mice, increased
reaction time of mice in the hot plate test, reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and the
dimethylbenzene-induced ear edema in mice, and attenuated LPS-induced fever in rats. No death of
mice was observed when orally administered PEF up to 4.2 g/kg.
Conclusions: These ﬁndings suggest that PEF possesses evident analgesic, anti-inﬂammatory and
antipyretic activities, and has a favorable safety, which supports the use of Desmodium podocarpum as an
analgesic, anti-inﬂammatory and antipyretic drug in the folk medicine.
© 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Desmodium podocarpum DC., a type of shrub belonging to the
family Leguminosae, is widely found in Yunnan, Gansu, Guizhou
and other Southwest Provinces in China. In Chinese folk medicine,
the whole plant of Desmodium podocarpum is used in the treatment
of febrile diseases, cough and bleeding wounds for its functions of
clearing away heat and toxic materials and cooling blood (Editorial
committee of Chinese Materia Medica, 1999).
There are many extracts from plants of this genus Desmodium
that have been proven to possess anti-inﬂammatory, analgesic and
antipyretic activities in many animal models. For example, the
ethanol extract of the leaves of Desmodium adscendens (Sw.) DC. var.
adscendens, a medicinal plant in the African traditional medicine,
could induce hypothermia and had an analgesic effect in mice
Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 21 81871300.
Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 21 81871305.
E-mail addresses: firstname.lastname@example.org (L.-P. Qin)
email@example.com (H. Zhang).
(N’gouemo et al., 1996). The aqueous extract of Desmodium adscen-
dens also had anti-anaphylactic properties in guinea pigs, which
could reduce the lung histamine content in a dose-dependent
manner, elicited a dose-dependent reduction in the amount of
spasmogens released, and inhibited histamine-induced contraction
of ileal muscle (Addy and Dzandu, 1986). The methanol extract
from Desmodium triﬂorum DC. decreased the acetic acid-induced
writhing responses in mice and the licking time on the late phase in
the formalin test, and inhibited -carrageenan-induced paw edema
in mice. The anti-inﬂammatory mechanism of Desmodium triﬂorum
might be related to the decrease in the level of malondialdehyde
(MDA) in the edema paw via increasing the activities of superox-
ide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GRd) in the liver,
and the reduction in the nitric oxide (NO) level via regulating the
interleukin-1␤ (IL-1␤) production and the level of tumor necrosis
factor-␣ (TNF-␣) in the inﬂamed tissues (Lai et al., 2009). The aque-
ous extract of root and aerial parts of Desmodium gangeticum DC.
was also found to have signiﬁcant anti-inﬂammatory and analgesic
activities in experimental animals (Rathi et al., 2004).
Although a number of plants belonging to the genus Desmod-
ium have been investigated on their chemical components and
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Z.-Z. Zhu et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 133 (2011) 1126–1131 1127
pharmacological effects, there seems to be no report on the anal-
gesic, antipyretic and anti-inﬂammatory activities of the plant
Desmodium podocarpum. In this study, the above activities of the
petroleum ether fraction (PEF) from the ethanol extract of Desmod-
ium podocarpum were evaluated in mice and rats to substantiate
and expand its clinical applications. In addition, we determined
acute oral toxicity of PEF which exhibited a good security.
2. Materials and methods
2.1. Plant material and extraction
The whole plant of Desmodium podocarpum was collected in
Jiande of Zhejiang Province in July 2009 and identiﬁed by Professor
Lu-Ping Qin, a pharmacognosist from the Department of Pharma-
cognosy, School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University
(Shanghai, China). A voucher specimen of Desmodium podocarpum
was deposited with the number SY3245 in the Herbarium of the
Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Second Mili-
tary Medical University (Shanghai, China). The dried plant (500 g)
was pulverized with a motor-driven grinder to prepare the extract.
After reﬂuxing extraction with 8 L 85% (v/v) aqueous ethanol at
C four times for 0.5 h each time, the extract was ﬁltered and
then the solvent was evaporated to get the ethanol extract of
Desmodium podocarpum (DPE, 59.54 g) under reduced pressure in a
rotary evaporator. Further, the crude ethanol extract of the whole
plant was sequentially fractionated into ﬁve sub-extracts explicitly,
namely, petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc),
n-butanol, and remaining water extracts. The petroleum ether frac-
tion (PEF) was concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain a
residue (16.24 g) for bioactivity determination.
2.2. GC–MS analysis
GC–MS analysis was performed for determination of PEF com-
position with a Finnigan Voyager gas chromatograph ﬁtted with
a fused silica VF-5 ms capillary column (3 m × 0.25 mm; coating
thickness 0.25 m, VARIAN, USA) using the following tempera-
ture program. The initial temperature was 50
C, raised to 180
C/min, and then it was raised to 300
C/min and held
for 15 min. The injector temperature was 240
C and the MS source
Helium was used as the carrier gas at a ﬂow rate of 1.0 ml/min with
a split ratio of 50:1 (v/v). The gas chromatograph was coupled to
a Finnigan Voyager mass selective detector. The ionization source
temperature was 250
ICR mice (20–25 g), male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (200–220 g)
and male Wistar rats (200–220 g), obtained from the Experimental
Animal Center of the Second Military Medical University (Shang-
hai, China), were housed in a regulated environment (20 ± 2
with a 12 h light/dark cycle (08:00––20:00, light). The animals
were deprived of food for 15 h before the experiment, with free
access to drinking water. Each animal was used only once in the
experiment. All animal treatments were strictly in accordance with
international ethical guidelines concerning the care and use of lab-
oratory animals, and all the experiments were carried out under
the approval of the Committee of Experimental Animal Adminis-
tration of the University. Each experimental group consisted of 10
2.4. Drugs and reagents
The following reagents and drugs were used: ethanol (AR),
dimethylbenzene (AR) and acetic acid (AR) (Sinopharm chem-
ical reagent Co. Ltd., China), aspirin, ibuprofen, indomethacin,
dexamethasone, paracetamol (Chengdu Pharmaceutical Factory,
Chengdu, China), lipopolysaccharide, and carrageenan (Sigma, St.
Louis, MO, USA).
PEF, aspirin, ibuprofen, indomethacin, dexamethasone and
paracetamol were respectively dissolved in distilled water prior to
administration. Four groups of animals (n = 10) were orally admin-
istered 50, 100, 200 mg/kg PEF and 350 mg/kg DPE, respectively, by
intubation. The positive group of animals (n = 10) were respectively
given aspirin (100 mg/kg), ibuprofen (200 mg/kg), indomethacin
(5 mg/kg), dexamethasone (5 mg/kg) and paracetamol (100 mg/kg)
in different experiments. Another group of animals (negative con-
trol group, n = 10) were given distilled water, and it was run
concurrently with the drug-treated groups, all of which were given
in a volume of 10 ml/kg body weight irrespective of dose.
2.6. Analgesic test
The peripheral analgesic activity of PEF was evaluated in male
mice using the acetic acid-induced writhing test (Garcia et al.,
2004), while central analgesic activity of PEF against thermal stim-
uli was studied in female mice using the hot plate test (Franzotti
et al., 2000).
In the writhing test, male mice (n = 10) were orally adminis-
tered DPE, PEF or aspirin (100 mg/kg), respectively, before 1 h of
intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid (1%, 10 ml/kg). The number
of writhing reﬂexes was counted during the following 15 min and
the experiment was repeated twice.
In the hot plate test, a transparent glass cylinder with 23 cm high
and 23 cm diameter was used to keep the mouse on the heated
surface of the plate. The temperature of the hot plate was main-
tained at 55 ± 0.5
C by using a thermo-adjustable water-circulating
pump. The reaction time was noted by observing either the lick-
ing of the hind paws or the jumping movements to avoid thermal
pain. After pre-treatment latencies were determined before one
day of the experiment, only mice that showed initial nociceptive
responses between 5 and 30 s were selected for the experiment.
The post-treatment reaction time of each animal was recorded after
30, 60, 90 and 120 min of administration of DPE, PEF or ibuprofen
(200 mg/kg), respectively.
2.7. Anti-inﬂammatory test
The anti-inﬂammatory activity of PEF was evaluated with both
carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model (Winter et al., 1962)
and dimethylbenzene-induced mouse inﬂammation model (Zheng
et al., 2009).
In the rat paw edema test, male Wistar rats were used and acute
inﬂammation was produced by subplantar injection of 0.1 ml of
freshly prepared 1% (w/v) carrageenan in normal saline into the
right hind paws of rats. Paw volume was measured plethysmomet-
rically using a paw edema calcimeter (YLS-7A Shandong Academy
of Medical Science device station, Shandong) at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and
6 h after carrageenin injection. Animals were orally premedicated
with DPE, PEF or indomethacin (5 mg/kg) before 0.5 h of injection.
The mean increase in paw volume was measured and inhibitory
percentage was calculated. The edema rate of rats was calculated
Edema rate (%) =
is the volume before carrageenan injection (ml); V
volume at t h after carrageenan injection (ml).
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1128 Z.-Z. Zhu et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 133 (2011) 1126–1131
Fig. 1. Fingerprint of PEF analyzed by GC–MS. (A) 2,6,10,14,18,22-tetracosahexaene-2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl, (B) ␤-sitostero and (C) ␣-tocopherol-␣-d-mannoside.
In the dimethylbenzene-induced ear edema test, DPE, PEF or
dexamethasone (5 mg/kg) was orally administered before 1 h of
topical application of dimethylbenene (40 l/ear) to the right ears
of mice. The ear swelling was measured by subtracting the weight
of the left ear from that of the right after 1 h of dimethylbenzene
treatment as reported in the literature (Zheng et al., 2009).
2.8. Antipyretic test
The antipyretic activity of DPE and PEF was evaluated accord-
ing to the method reported (Santos and Rao, 1998a). SD rats were
trained previously to be kept quiet under minimal restraint in a
special rat stock for half an hour at a time. The animals were free
to move their limbs and necks and remained in an alert condi-
tion. The temperature in external auditory meatus was measured
in a temperature-controlled room (ambient temperature 20 ± 2
using an electronic temperature recorder (DT-IDB, Shanghai Med-
ical Instruments Factory, Shanghai). The animals were randomly
divided into six groups based on their basal temperature measured
before experiment. Rat fever can be induced by intraperitoneal
injection of LPS (1 mg/kg). SD rats were pretreated with LPS
after 0.5 h of the oral administration of DPE, PEF or paracetamol
(100 mg/kg). The temperature was measured every 30 min from 9
a.m to 17 p.m.
2.9. Acute toxicity
The acute toxicity test for PEF was carried out to evaluate any
possible toxicity. ICR mice of either sex were tested by orally admin-
istering different doses of the extract by increasing or decreasing
the dose according to the responses of animals (Bruce, 1985). The
given maximum dose was 4.2 g/kg, while the control group only
received distilled water. All animals were observed for any gross
effect or mortality within 7 days.
2.10. Statistical analysis
The data were analyzed using a SPSS 13.0 statistical package.
Data for multiple comparisons were performed by one-way ANOVA
followed by LSD t-test. A value of P < 0.05 was considered statisti-
cally signiﬁcant and all results are presented as mean ± SD.
3.1. Chemical compounds in PEF
GC–MS analysis showed that dozens of compounds
were detected from the petroleum ether fraction (PEF)
and the major components were 2,6,10,14,18,22-tetracosa
hexaene-2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl, ␤-sitostero, ␣-tocopherol-
Bis(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate, phytol, 2,4-bis(1, 1-dimethylethyl)-
phenol with relative contents of 10.48%, 7.89%, 7.88%, 5.64%, 4.98%,
2.49% and 1.23%, respectively (Fig. 1).
3.2. Effects of PEF on writhing reﬂex of mice
In the writhing test, intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid evi-
dently resulted in writhing reﬂexes of mice. The ethanol extract
of Desmodium podocarpum (DPE) reduced the number of writhing
responses, while PEF much more signiﬁcantly inhibited the number
of writhing responses in a dose-dependent manner within 15 min
of injection of acetic acid. The writhing number of the mice given
high dose of PEF (200 mg/kg) was even lower than that of the mice
received aspirin (Fig. 2).
Fig. 2. Effects of PEF on writhing reﬂex of mice in the writhing test. When mice were
intraperitoneally injected with 1% acetic acid (10 ml/kg), the writhing times were
counted immediately for 15 min. The experiment was repeated two times. Data are
presented as mean ± SD, n = 10. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, signiﬁcance versus control.
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Z.-Z. Zhu et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 133 (2011) 1126–1131 1129
Fig. 3. Effects of PEF on hot-stimulated mice in the hot plate test. The latency period was recorded when female mice were putted on the hot plate maintained at 55 ± 0.5
Data are presented as mean ± SD, n = 10. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, signiﬁcance versus control.
3.3. Effects of PEF in hot-stimulated mice
In the hot plate test, the antinociceptive activity of PEF was also
signiﬁcantly revealed, of which the duration of action was more
than 120 min. PEF markedly prolonged the latency period of mice,
when compared with negative group of animals given distilled
water (Fig. 3).
3.4. Effects of PEF on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats
As shown in Fig. 4, subplantar injection of carrageenan notice-
ably induced paw edema in rats, which persisted for over 6 h.
However, PEF was found to be effective as an anti-inﬂammatory
agent at a higher dose (200 mg/kg). The percentage of paw edema
in rats was signiﬁcantly reduced by administration of 200 mg/kg
PEF, which lasted for 6 h, when compared with the model group of
rats given distilled water.
3.5. Effects of PEF on dimethylbenzene-induced ear edema in mice
Effects of pre-treatment with PEF on mouse ear edema induced
by dimethylbenzene are shown in Fig. 5. Dimethylbenzene evi-
dently increased ear edema in mice, but PEF signiﬁcantly inhibited
ear edema, when compared with the control group. These results
revealed that PEF possesses a good activity against acute inﬂam-
mation induced by dimethylbenzene.
Fig. 4. Effects of PEF on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. When 0.1 ml of
freshly prepared 1% (w/v) carrageenan was injected subplantarly into the right
hind paws of male rats, acute inﬂammation was induced. Data are presented as
mean ± SD, n = 10. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, signiﬁcance versus control.
Fig. 5. Inﬂuence of PEF on dimethylbenzene-induced ear edema in mice. Mice were
orally given PEF or dexamethasone before 1 h of topical application of dimethyl-
benene (40 l/ear) to the right ears of mice. Data are presented as mean ± SD, n = 10.
*P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, signiﬁcance versus control.
3.6. Effects of PEF on fever in rats
As shown in Fig. 6, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) evidently elevated
the temperature in rats from 9 a.m. to 17 p.m. In contrast to the
control group of animals given distilled water, the temperature in
the rats received PEF signiﬁcantly decreased in a time- and dose-
Fig. 6. Time course of the effects of PEF on the change of the temperature in exter-
nal auditory meatus of rats. The rats were injected with LPS after 0.5 h of the oral
administration of PEF or paracetamol. The temperature was measured every 30 min
from 9 a.m. to 17 p.m. Data are presented as mean ± SD, n = 10. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01,
signiﬁcance versus control.
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1130 Z.-Z. Zhu et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 133 (2011) 1126–1131
dependent manner from 9 a.m to 17 p.m. These results exhibited
that oral administration of PEF inhibited pyrexia induced by LPS.
3.7. Acute toxicity
Although the mice were given 4.2 g/kg of PEF, no mortality was
observed during the assessment period (7 days). So we can draw
a conclusion that the minimum lethal dose of PEF is more than
4.2 g/kg, which is equivalent to approximately 500 times of clinical
The present study investigated the scientiﬁc reasons for
the folkloric use of Desmodium podocarpum in the manage-
ment of febrile diseases and painful conditions. GC–MS analysis
revealed the presence of ﬁve major families of compounds in this
plant, viz. 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-phenol (phenols), ␤-sitostero
(phytosterols); bis(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (arylpropionic acids),
␣-tocopherol-␣-d-mannoside (saponins), 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-
2-hexadecen-1-ol (enols) and phytol (enols), which may play a key
role in the anti-inﬂammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of
PEF (Cocco et al., 2003; Kang et al., 2008; Chen et al., 2009; Nsonde
Ntandou et al., 2010).
The carrageenan rat paw edema test is suitable for evaluation of
anti-inﬂammatory drugs and is used frequently to assess the anti-
edematous effect of natural products (Basu and Nag Chaudhuri,
1991). As we know, prostaglandins play an important role in
pain progress in chemical nociception models (Santos and Vedana,
1998b; Zheng et al., 2009) and are the target of action of commonly
used anti-inﬂammatory drugs. Several inﬂammatory mediators,
such as sympathomimetic amines, tumor necrosis factor-␣ (TNF-
␣), interleukin-1␤ (IL-1␤) and interleukin-8 (IL-8), are also involved
in the nociceptive response to chemical stimulus in mice (Santos
and Vedana, 1998b; Ribeiro et al., 2000). There are two phases of
carrageenan-induced inﬂammatory reaction: early phase (0–2.5 h
after injection of carrageenan) results from serotonin, brady-kinin
and histamine liberation, while late phase is associated with the
release of prostaglandins (Antonisamy and Ignacimuthu, 2010). As
shown in Fig. 4, the petroleum ether fraction (PEF) signiﬁcantly
inhibited each phase of edema in rats, suggesting that the extract
had a non-selective inhibitory effect on the release or actions of
these mediators. In order to further evaluate the anti-inﬂammatory
activity of the extract, the dimethyl benzene-induced ear edema
test was employed. In the process of inﬂammation, activated neu-
trophils release mediators such as platelet-activating factor and
lysozyme, which can lead to vasodilatation and increase vascu-
lar permeability (Saeed et al., 2010). In the present study, it was
also shown that PEF signiﬁcantly inhibited ear edema of mice.
These ﬁndings indicated that the extract possesses a signiﬁcant
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can stimulate myeloid cells, which
further synthesize many cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1),
interleukin-6 (IL-6) and TNF-␣, inducing a general homeostatic
reaction, serving as the organism’s ﬁrst line of defense against
infection and causing fever ﬁnally (Hart, 1988). In the present
study, the rat hyperthermia induced by LPS was employed to inves-
tigate the antipyretic activity of PEF. The results exhibited that
PEF attenuated pyrexia, supporting the view that PEF has some
inﬂuence on prostaglandin-biosynthesis, because the synthesis of
prostaglandins plays a crucial role in the febrile response to endoge-
nous pyrogens (such as the cytokines) or to exogenous pyrogens
(such as LPS).
The acetic acid writhing test is known as a non-selective anti-
nociceptive model. When animals are intraperitoneally injected
with acetic acid, a painful reaction and acute inﬂammation emerge
in the peritoneal area. The stimulation of peritoneal nociceptors
is indirect and occurs with the release of endogenous substances,
which stimulate nervous endings (Gyires and Torna, 1984). After
acetic acid injection, a great increase occurs in prostaglandins E
levels in peritoneal ﬂuid (Daud and Habib, 2006) and the
analgesic effect of PEF may be due to inhibition of the local level of
prostaglandins. However, the result of this writhing test alone does
not substantiate whether the anti-nociceptive effect is associated
with central analgesia substances.
The hot plate test is a classical approach widely applied in the
analgesic investigations for several decades. When male mature
animals touch the heated plate, they will lick their scrotums against
thermal injury. In this case, we often record a false reaction time
of licking the hind paws. Therefore, only female animals are used
in the hot plate test. The hot plate test, when associated with
the writhing test, can usually distinguish central from periph-
eral effects (Srinivasan et al., 2003). Some analgesic drugs such as
aspirin usually have few effects in the hot plated test, indicating
their peripheral analgesic activities. But some other analgesic drugs
such as ibuprofen and morphine can decrease prostaglandin syn-
thesis via central inhibition of cyclooxygenase (Biorkman, 1995;
Dolezal and Krsiak, 2002) or bind to speciﬁc opioid receptors in the
central nervous system, exhibiting their both peripheral and cen-
tral analgesic activities. Our results showed that PEF signiﬁcantly
prolonged latency period of mice in the hot plate test, suggesting
that this antinociceptive effect is carried out mainly via the partici-
pation of central nerve. In addition, we also evaluated the acute oral
toxicity of PEF, which did not cause any death of mice at the dose
of 4.2 g/kg, which is equal to approximately 500 times of clinical
dose, showing a favorable safety.
In conclusion, our ﬁndings demonstrate that the petroleum
ether fraction (PEF) from the ethanol extract of Desmodium
podocarpum has the favorable antinociceptive, anti-inﬂammatory
and antipyretic activities, which are involved in possible inhibition
of the central synthesis of prostaglandins, and afﬁrm the claim by
traditional medicine practitioners that Desmodium podocarpum can
be used to treat febrile diseases, cough and bleeding wounds. How-
ever, further studies are necessary to fully elucidate the mechanism
of action of the plant.
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