The Human Gutome: Nutrigenomics of the Host-Microbiome Interactions
Demonstrating the importance of the gut microbiota in human health and well-being represents a major transformational task in both medical and nutritional research. Owing to the high-throughput -omics methodologies, the complexity, evolution with age, and individual nature of the gut microflora have been more thoroughly investigated. The balance between this complex community of gut bacteria, food nutrients, and intestinal genomic and physiological milieu is increasingly recognized as a major contributor to human health and disease. This article discusses the "gutome," that is, nutritional systems biology of gut microbiome and host-microbiome interactions. We examine the novel ways in which the study of the human gutome, and nutrigenomics more generally, can have translational and transformational impacts in 21st century practice of biomedicine. We describe the clinical context in which experimental methodologies, as well as data-driven and process-driven approaches are being utilized in nutrigenomics and microbiome research. We underscore the pivotal importance of the gutome as a common platform for sharing data in the emerging field of the integrated metagenomics of gut pathophysiology. This vision needs to be articulated in a manner that recognizes both the omics biotechnology nuances and the ways in which nutrigenomics science can effectively inform population health and public policy, and vice versa.
Available from: Gustavo Torres de Souza
- "Gut microbiota gives individual-specific milieu for ingested food, and host intestine provides unique genetic background for the growth of specific bacteria. The human gastrointestinal tract is inhabited by 1 × 10 13 to 1 × 10 14 microorganisms and from 500 to 1,000 species   and more than 7,000 strains . The balance between this complex community of gut bacteria, food nutrients, intestinal genomics, and physiological site is increasingly recognized as a major contributor to human health. "
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ABSTRACT: Many immune-based intestinal disorders, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, as well as other illnesses, may have the intestines as an initial cause or aggravator in the development of diseases, even apparently not correlating directly to the intestine. Diabetes, obesity, multiple sclerosis, depression, and anxiety are examples of other illnesses discussed in the literature. In parallel, importance of the gut microbiota in intestinal homeostasis and immunologic conflict between tolerance towards commensal microorganisms and combat of pathogens is well known. Recent researches show that the immune system, when altered by the gut microbiota, influences the state in which these diseases are presented in the patient directly and indirectly. At the present moment, a considerable number of investigations about this subject have been performed and published. However, due to difficulties on correlating information, several speculations and hypotheses are generated. Thus, the present review aims at bringing together how these interactions work—gut microbiota, immune system, and their influence in the neuroimmune system.
Available from: Indu Pal Kaur
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ABSTRACT: Probiotics produce a beneficial impact on the host by improving the endogenous flora. It has been advocated that nonpathogenic bacteria like Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium may undergo antagonistic interactions with other bacterial strains and can be used to control pathogenic bacteria. Novel modes of therapeutic and prophylactic interventions are based on their consumption either alone or in combination with prebiotics. Usefulness of probiotics has been implicated in allergies, cancer, AIDS, and respiratory and urinary tract infections. In this review we have listed various findings suggesting their benefits in alleviating symptoms associated with aging, fatigue, and autism. Newer claims indicating their role in reducing the risks of osteoporosis, obesity, and possibly type 2 diabetes are also discussed. Considering the wide array of such activities, the present review comprehensively elaborates upon the proposed benefits of probiotics. The concept of synbiotics, a combination of probiotics and prebiotics beneficially affecting the survival and implantation of such live organisms, is also discussed. Available probiotic strains, their commercial preparations, and newer approaches to improve the efficacy and overcome limitations of the therapy are also discussed in relation to the future of probiotic therapy. Considering that the purported claims about disease risk reduction are tentative, the review also encompasses various aspects regarding the safety of probiotics and their possible future role in disease prevention.
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ABSTRACT: This volume of Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science is devoted to the exciting and promising field of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics. The introductory chapter defines the basic concepts necessary for the interpretation of the material covered in the remainder of the volume. Emphasis is on the concept of personalized nutrition and its likely role in public health and disease prevention, as well as in therapeutics. Nutrigenetics refers to the role of DNA sequence variation in the responses to nutrients, whereas nutrigenomics is the study of the role of nutrients in gene expression. This research is predicated on the assumption that there are individual differences in responsiveness to acute or repeated exposures to a given nutrient or combination of nutrients. Throughout human history, diet has affected the expression of genes, resulting in phenotypes that are able to successfully respond to environmental challenges and that allow better exploitation of food resources. These adaptations have been key to human growth and development. Technological advances have made it possible to investigate not only specific genes but also to explore in unbiased designs the whole genome-wide complement of DNA sequence variants or transcriptome. These advances provide an opportunity to establish the foundation for incorporating biological individuality into dietary recommendations, with significant therapeutic potential.
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