Article

Transgenic Overexpression of Anks6((p R823W)) Causes Polycystic Kidney Disease in Rats

Medical Research Center (ZMF), Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Theodor-Kutzer Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim, Germany.
American Journal Of Pathology (Impact Factor: 4.59). 12/2010; 177(6):3000-9. DOI: 10.2353/ajpath.2010.100569
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The PKD/Mhm(cy/+) rat is a widely used animal model for the study of human autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, one of the most common genetic disorders, affecting one in 1000 individuals. We identified a new gene, Anks6, which is mutated (Anks6((p.R823W))) in PKD/Mhm(cy/+) rats. The evidence for a causal link between Anks6((p.R823W)) and cystogenesis is still lacking, and the function of Anks6 is presently unknown. This study presents a novel transgenic rat model that overexpresses the mutated 2.8-kb Anks6((p.R823W)) cDNA in the renal tubular epithelium. The transgenic Anks6((p.R823W)) acts in a dominant-negative fashion and causes a predictable polycystic phenotype that largely mimics the general characteristics of the PKD/Mhm(cy/+) rats. Cyst development is accompanied by enhanced c-myc expression and continuous proliferation, apoptosis, and de-differentiation of the renal tubular epithelium as well as by a lack of translational up-regulation of p21 during aging. Using Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization studies, we identified the first 10 days of age as the period during which transgene expression precedes and initiates cystic growth. Thus, we not only provide the first in vivo evidence for a causal link between the novel Anks6((p.R823W)) gene mutation and polycystic kidney disease, but we also developed a new transgenic rat model that will serve as an important resource for further exploration of the still unknown function of Anks6.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Sigrid Hoffmann
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to elucidate the role of the AT(2) receptor (AT(2)R), which is expressed and upregulated in the adrenal zona glomerulosa (ZG) under conditions of increased aldosterone production. We developed a novel transgenic rat (TGR; TGRCXmAT(2)R) that overexpresses the AT(2)R in the adrenal gland, heart, kidney, brain, skeletal muscle, testes, lung, spleen, aorta, and vein. As a consequence the total angiotensin II (Ang II) binding sites increased 7.8-fold in the kidney, 25-fold in the heart, and twofold in the adrenals. The AT(2)R number amounted to 82-98% of total Ang II binding sites. In the ZG of TGRCXmAT(2)R, the AT(2)R density was elevated threefold relative to wild-type (WT) littermates, whereas AT(1)R density remained unchanged. TGRCXmAT(2)R rats were viable and exhibited normal reproduction, blood pressure, and kidney function. Notably, a slightly but significantly reduced body weight and a moderate increase in plasma urea were observed. With respect to adrenal function, 24-h urinary and plasma aldosterone concentrations were unaffected in TGRCXmAT(2)R at baseline. Three and 14 days of Ang II infusion (300 ng·min(-1)·kg(-1)) increased plasma aldosterone levels in WT and in TGR. These changes were completely abolished by the AT(1)R blocker losartan. Of note, glomerulosa cell proliferation, as indicated by the number of Ki-67-positive glomerulosa cells, was stimulated by Ang II in TGR and WT rats; however, this increase was significantly attenuated in TGR overexpressing the AT(2)R. In conclusion, AT(2)R in the adrenal ZG inhibits Ang II-induced cell proliferation but has no obvious lasting effect on the regulation of the aldosterone production at the investigated stages.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to elucidate the role of the AT(2) receptor (AT(2)R), which is expressed and upregulated in the adrenal zona glomerulosa (ZG) under conditions of increased aldosterone production. We developed a novel transgenic rat (TGR; TGRCXmAT(2)R) that overexpresses the AT(2)R in the adrenal gland, heart, kidney, brain, skeletal muscle, testes, lung, spleen, aorta, and vein. As a consequence the total angiotensin II (Ang II) binding sites increased 7.8-fold in the kidney, 25-fold in the heart, and twofold in the adrenals. The AT(2)R number amounted to 82-98% of total Ang II binding sites. In the ZG of TGRCXmAT(2)R, the AT(2)R density was elevated threefold relative to wild-type (WT) littermates, whereas AT(1)R density remained unchanged. TGRCXmAT(2)R rats were viable and exhibited normal reproduction, blood pressure, and kidney function. Notably, a slightly but significantly reduced body weight and a moderate increase in plasma urea were observed. With respect to adrenal function, 24-h urinary and plasma aldosterone concentrations were unaffected in TGRCXmAT(2)R at baseline. Three and 14 days of Ang II infusion (300 ng·min(-1)·kg(-1)) increased plasma aldosterone levels in WT and in TGR. These changes were completely abolished by the AT(1)R blocker losartan. Of note, glomerulosa cell proliferation, as indicated by the number of Ki-67-positive glomerulosa cells, was stimulated by Ang II in TGR and WT rats; however, this increase was significantly attenuated in TGR overexpressing the AT(2)R. In conclusion, AT(2)R in the adrenal ZG inhibits Ang II-induced cell proliferation but has no obvious lasting effect on the regulation of the aldosterone production at the investigated stages.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · The American journal of physiology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a hereditary disorder with abnormal cellular proliferation, fluid accumulation in numerous cysts, remodeling of extracellular matrix, inflammation, and fibrosis in the kidney and liver. The two major types of PKD show autosomal dominant (ADPKD) or autosomal recessive inheritance (ARPKD). ADPKD is one of the most common genetic diseases, with an incidence of 1:500-1,000. Approximately 50% of patients with ADPKD develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD) by the age of 60. On the other hand, ARPKD is relatively rare, with an incidence of approximately 1:20,000-40,000. ARPKD is diagnosed early in life, often prenatally. The gene products responsible for ADPKD and ARPKD distribute in primary cilia and are thought to control intercellular Ca(2+). Two types of animal model of PKD have been established: spontaneous hereditary models identified by the typical manifestations of PKD and gene-engineered models established by modification of human orthologous genes. Both types of animal models are used to study the mechanism of cystogenesis and efficacy of medical treatments. In PKD progression, critical roles of signaling pathways including MAPK, mTOR, and PPAR-γ have been discovered with these models. Therefore, experimental animal models are indispensable for investigating molecular mechanisms of PKD onset and progression as well as potential therapeutic treatments.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Experimental Animals
Show more