Ross AC, Manson JE, Abrams SA, Aloia JF, Brannon PM, Clinton SK et al.. The 2011 report on dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D from the Institute of Medicine: what clinicians need to know. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96, 53-58

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA.
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (Impact Factor: 6.21). 06/2011; 96(1):53-8. DOI: 10.1210/jc.2010-2704
Source: PubMed


This article summarizes the new 2011 report on dietary requirements for calcium and vitamin D from the Institute of Medicine (IOM). An IOM Committee charged with determining the population needs for these nutrients in North America conducted a comprehensive review of the evidence for both skeletal and extraskeletal outcomes. The Committee concluded that available scientific evidence supports a key role of calcium and vitamin D in skeletal health, consistent with a cause-and-effect relationship and providing a sound basis for determination of intake requirements. For extraskeletal outcomes, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and autoimmune disorders, the evidence was inconsistent, inconclusive as to causality, and insufficient to inform nutritional requirements. Randomized clinical trial evidence for extraskeletal outcomes was limited and generally uninformative. Based on bone health, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs; covering requirements of ≥97.5% of the population) for calcium range from 700 to 1300 mg/d for life-stage groups at least 1 yr of age. For vitamin D, RDAs of 600 IU/d for ages 1-70 yr and 800 IU/d for ages 71 yr and older, corresponding to a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of at least 20 ng/ml (50 nmol/liter), meet the requirements of at least 97.5% of the population. RDAs for vitamin D were derived based on conditions of minimal sun exposure due to wide variability in vitamin D synthesis from ultraviolet light and the risks of skin cancer. Higher values were not consistently associated with greater benefit, and for some outcomes U-shaped associations were observed, with risks at both low and high levels. The Committee concluded that the prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in North America has been overestimated. Urgent research and clinical priorities were identified, including reassessment of laboratory ranges for 25-hydroxyvitamin D, to avoid problems of both undertreatment and overtreatment.

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    • "Serum 25OHD3 levels 20 ng/ mL were considered as vitamin D deficiency, while levels between 20 and 30 ng/mL as vitamin D insufficiency, 30 and 80 ng/mL as optimal vitamin D level and !80 ng/mL as potential vitamin D toxicity [21] "
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between vitamin D and allergic diseases such as asthma and atopic dermatitis is shown in several studies. But there is a lack of knowledge about vitamin D status in children with allergic rhinitis (AR). We aimed to investigate serum vitamin D levels of children with AR or nonallergic rhinitis (NAR), to compare with normal subjects and to evaluate the relationship between vitamin D and the severity of AR.
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    • "Indeed, at least two 25OHD cut-offs, 20 and 30 ng/mL, are debated. The 20 ng/mL cut-off is supported by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) report which is targeted towards the general (healthy) population in order to define optimal vitamin D intake (which intake is necessary so that most individuals in the general population have a 25OHD concentration at or above 20 ng/mL?) [14]. The 30 ng/mL cut-off is supported by the Endocrine Society and is intended for the care Table 1 Reference ranges (ng/L) proposed by kit manufacturers of 10 PTH kits compared with the reference ranges established in our laboratory with the same kits in the same group of 240 healthy subjects (120 women, 120 men) with a 25OHD concentration > 30 ng/mL and an eGFR (MDRD formula) > 60 mL/mn/1.73 "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this article is to discuss the diagnostic approach of an increased serum PTH concentration in a normocalcemic, normophosphatemic patient. Detection of this biological presentation is frequent in routine practice all the more that PTH reference values established in vitamin D replete subjects with a normal renal function are used by the clinical laboratories. The first step in this diagnostic approach will be to rule out a cause of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). Among these, the most frequent are vitamin D deficiency, very low calcium intake, impaired renal function, malabsorptions, drugs interfering with calcium/bone metabolism, such as lithium salts and antiresorptive osteoporosis therapies, hypercalciuria due to a renal calcium leak. If no cause of SHPT are evidenced, the diagnosis of normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) should be considered. A calcium load test is a very useful tool for this diagnosis if it shows that serum PTH is not sufficiently decreased when calcemia rises frankly above the upper normal limit. In a normocalcemic patient with hypercalciuria and a high serum PTH concentration, a thiazide challenge test may help to differentiate SHPT due to a renal calcium leak from normocalcemic PHPT. Beyond the discussion of this diagnostic flowchart, we also discuss some points about the merits and the difficulties of measuring and interpreting ionized calcemia and 24-h calciuria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
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    • "It is responsible for maintaining the structural integrity of bones and teeth; plays role in various metabolic processes as an enzyme cofactor and a signaling molecule . A Ca deficient diet leads to reduced bone density, increased risk of bone fracture and osteoporosis in humans (Ross et al., 2011; Singh et al., 2013). Dairy products have been one of the main sources of Ca in human diets. "
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    ABSTRACT: Calcium (Ca) is an essential mineral for proper growth and development of plants as well as animals. In plants including cereals, calcium is deposited in seed during its development which is mediated by specialized Ca transporters. Common cereal seeds contain very low amounts of Ca while the finger millet (Eleusine coracana) contains exceptionally high amounts of Ca in seed. In order to understand the role of Ca transporters in grain Ca accumulation, developing seed transcriptome of two finger millet genotypes (GP-1, low Ca and GP-45 high Ca) differing in seed Ca content was sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and members of Ca transporter gene family were identified. Out of 109,218 and 120,130 contigs, 86 and 81 contigs encoding Ca transporters were identified in GP-1 and GP-45, respectively. After removal of redundant sequences, a total of 19 sequences were confirmed as Ca transporter genes, which includes 11 Ca(2+) ATPases, 07 Ca(2+)/cation exchangers and 01 Ca(2+) channel. The differential expressions of all genes were analyzed from transcriptome data and it was observed that 9 and 3 genes were highly expressed in GP-45 and GP-1 genotypes respectively. Validation of transcriptome expression data of selected Ca transporter genes was performed on different stages of developing spikes of both genotypes grown under different concentrations of exogenous Ca. In both genotypes, significant correlation was observed between the expression of these genes, especially EcCaX3, and on the amount of Ca accumulated in seed. The positive correlation of seed mass with the amount of Ca concentration was also observed. The efficient Ca transport property and responsiveness of EcCAX3 towards exogenous Ca could be utilized in future biofortification program. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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