Spontaneous CSF Leaks: Factors Predictive of Additional Interventions

Head and Neck Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.
The Laryngoscope (Impact Factor: 2.14). 11/2010; 120(11):2141-6. DOI: 10.1002/lary.21151
Source: PubMed


Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks represent a significant challenge due to frequent association with elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) and higher risk of surgical failure. The study objective was to review management strategy and identify factors associated with need for acetazolamide and/or ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) placement.
Retrospective data analysis.
Chart review performed from 1999 to 2009 at a tertiary-care medical center.
A total of 105 patients underwent CSF leak repair; 39 patients (37.1%) were treated for spontaneous CSF leaks. Mean age was 57.7 years and 33 were female (85%). Average body mass index (BMI) was 38.5 kg/m(2). The most common sites were cribriform plate (51%), sphenoid lateral pterygoid recess (31%), and ethmoid roof (8%). All patients underwent endoscopic repair utilizing image guidance with multilayered closure in most cases. Five patients (12.8%) developed recurrent CSF leak with mean ICP of 27.0 cm H(2)O, compared to 25.0 cm H(2)O for those without recurrence (P = .33). All had successful rerepair at mean follow-up of 2.8 years. Acetazolamide was used in nine patients, whereas six patients underwent VPS placement for elevated ICP management. Diagnosis of benign intracranial hypertension (BIH) was statistically associated with need for acetazolamide or VPS (P < .001), whereas elevated ICP reached borderline significance (P = .049).
Management of spontaneous CSF leaks requires a comprehensive strategy after endoscopic repair. Diagnosis of BIH may be associated with requirement of further ICP treatment. Close ICP monitoring, coupled with selective use of acetazolamide and VPS, may decrease risk of failure.

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    • "In 31% of these patients multiple skull base defects on computed tomography (CT) scan are seen.6 Patients with spontaneous CSF leaks are generally obese middle-aged women.7 CSF pressure monitoring using lumbar drain pressures shows in most cases an average pressure of 25–27 cmH2O that is well above the normal range of 10–15 cmH2O pressure.8,9 Although primary spontaneous CSF fistulas can have relatively small bony defects, these defects are frequently associated with the formation of large encephaloceles ranging from 50 to 100%. "
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    ABSTRACT: Transclival meningoceles and primary spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks at the clivus are extremely rare lesions and only few of them have been reported in the literature. We report here six cases of transclival primary spontaneous CSF leaks through the clivus. A retrospective case study was performed. We reviewed six cases involving sinonasal CSF leaks located at the clivus treated between 1997 and 2009. Presenting symptoms, duration of symptoms, defect size, site of defect, surgical approach and technique of defect closure, intraoperative complications, postoperative complications, and recurrences are discussed. All CSF leaks were located in the upper central part of the clivus. two of six patients showed signs of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) including arachnoid pits and/or empty sella. For three patients a purely transnasal approach was used with multilayer reconstruction using a nonvascularized graft, and three patients underwent a transnasal transseptal approach with a multilayer reconstruction, with nasoseptal flap. No recurrences of CSF leaks at clivus or other sites were observed to date with a mean follow-up of 10.3 years (range, 3-15 years). Spontaneous CSF rhinorrhea located at the clivus is an extremely rare condition. To date, only eight cases have been described. Here, we report the largest group of six consecutive cases. Irrespective of the used reconstruction technique in all cases a 100% closure rate was achieved. However, identification of increased ICP is an essential aspect and this condition should be treated either medically or surgically.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013
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    • "The observation in one of our patients with spontaneous CSF fistula the presence of idiopathic intracranial hypertension, has led us to consider the need for a previous study as the search for an empty sella syndrome [15]. The presence of obesity by body mass index [10,16], or observation intracranial hypertension by ophthalmologic study. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebrospinal fluid leaks (CSF) result from an abnormal communication between the subarachnoid space and the extracranial space. Approximately 90% of CSF leak at the anterior skull base manifests as rhinorrhea and can become life-threatening condition. Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) has become a common otolaryngologist procedure. The aim of this article is to consider our experience and to evaluate the outcomes in patients who underwent a purely endoscopic repair of CSF leaks of the anterior skull base. Retrospective chart review was performed of all patients surgically treated for CSF leaks presenting to the Section of Nasal and Sinus Disorders at the Service of ENT-Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital Complex of Santiago de Compostela (CHUS), between 2004 and 2010. A total of 30 patients who underwent repair CSF leak by ESS. The success rate was 93.4% at the first attempt; only two patients (6.6%) required a second surgical procedure, and none of it was necessary to use a craniotomy for closure. Follow-up periods ranged from 4 months to 6 years. Identifying the size, site, and etiology of the CSF leak remains the most important factor in the surgical success. It is generally accepted that the ESS have made procedures minimally invasive, and CSF leak is now one of its well-established indications with low morbidity and high success rate, with one restriction for fistulas of the posterior wall of the frontal sinus should be repaired in conjunction with open techniques.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · BMC Research Notes
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    ABSTRACT: The authors aim to identify the characteristics of primary spontaneous CSF rhinorrhea and propose a hypothesis for its pathogenesis. Between 2003 and 2009, 21 patients diagnosed with primary spontaneous CSF rhinorrhea underwent surgery in the authors' hospital. The clinical aspects were retrospectively reviewed, and their characteristics were analyzed. There were 18 women and 3 men, whose ages ranged from 37 to 74 years (mean 53 years). Body mass index (BMI) ranged from 22 to 58.8 kg/m(2) (mean 31.2 kg/m(2)). Eighteen patients (85.7%) were overweight, and 18 (85.7%) suffered from headache or tinnitus before rhinorrhea. Radiological images revealed fully or partially empty sellae in 14 patients (66.7%). The preoperative intracranial pressure (ICP) ranged from 11 to 28 cm H(2)O (mean 17.6 cm H(2)O), while the postoperative ICP ranged from 21 to 32 cm H(2)O (mean 25.5 cm H(2)O, p < 0.01). An endoscope-assisted transnasal approach was chosen for the repair. Postoperatively, in 95.2% of patients a cure was achieved. Rhinorrhea recurred in only 1 patient, and a leakage from a new defect occurred in another patient 4 years after the operation. Both patients underwent additional surgery, which was successful. The follow-up period varied from 5 to 75 months with a mean of 34 months. All patients had direct or indirect evidence of elevated ICP, most patients presented with symptoms of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), and most patients were women and obese. Primary spontaneous CSF rhinorrhea may be due to IIH, and it is a rare symptom of IIH. When treating or monitoring these patients during follow-up, ICP should be controlled, and other symptoms of IIH should be noted.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Journal of Neurosurgery
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