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Anti-inflammatory Effects of Caper (Capparis spinosa L.) Fruit Aqueous Extract and the Isolation of Main Phytochemicals

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Abstract

Caper (Capparis spinosa L.) fruits have been used as food as well as folk medicine in the treatment of inflammatory disorders, such as rheumatism. The present study was carried out to study the anti-inflammatory activities of C. spinosa L. fruit (CSF) aqueous extract and to isolate main phytochemicals from its bioactive fractions. The CSF aqueous extract were separated into three fractions (CSF1-CSF3) by macroporous adsorption resins. The fractions CSF2 and CSF3 effectively inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. Systematic fractionation and isolation from CSF2+3 led to the identification of 13 compounds (1-13). Their chemical structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) and literature comparisons. Major compounds found in the bioactive fraction CSF2+3 are flavonoids, indoles, and phenolic acids. To our knowledge, 8 of these 13 compounds (1-4, 6-7, 10, and 13) were identified from caper fruits for the first time. The anti-inflammatory effects of these purified compounds are currently under investigation.

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... 3). Apigenin and kaempferol have previously been reported in C. spinosa fruits collected from Xinjiang province of China (Yu et al., 2006;Zhou et al., 2010;Zhou et al., 2011) but these compounds were identified for the first time in capparis fruit samples collected from Pakistan. Beside this, a few other derivatives of kaempferol were reported in C. spinosa shoots which were confirmed in the present investigation (SiracuSa et al., 2011). ...
... Such functions of capparis tissues might be attributed to the phenolic acids (Sharma and Kumar, 2008). The researchers extracted kaempferol, apigenin and cinnamic acids from fruit extracts of C. spinosa and identified these as anti-inflammatory agents against induced rat paw edema (Zhou et al., 2010). So, the findings of the present investigation support that capparis tissues, especially roots can be used in pharmaceutical industries. ...
... Interestingly, a few flavonoids like apigenin-7-rutinoside and quercetin-3-sophoroside were not detected in dry months but these were found in the samples (flowers and stem bark) harvested/plucked during rainy month. Previously, various compounds like apigenin, kaempferol, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside have been isolated from C. spinosa fruits (Yu et al., 2006;Zhou et al., 2010;Zhou et al., 2011). Beside these, Capparis leaves and shoots have also been reported as a good source of kaempferol and quercetin. ...
Article
HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS n analysis of different parts such as stem bark, shoot, flower, fruit and root of Capparis spinosa (C. spinosa) and Capparis decidua (C. decidua), collected in rainy and dry seasons from the Cholistan desert of Pakistan, depicted the occurrence of a wide array of phenolics with quercetin, apigenin and kaempferol derivatives along with dicaffeoylquinic acid, caffeoylquinic acid and feruloylquinic acid as the main compounds. Kaempferol-3-glucoside (28.02-167.21 µg g-1 dw) was found to be the principal component in all tested parts of both species while dicaffeoylquinic acid was detected only in the flowers and roots. The roots exhibited maximum contents of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. The harvesting period significantly (p<0.05) affected the concentration of phenolics wherein the samples collected in rainy season offered greater levels of phenolics than their counterpart. The roots and fruits of both species were found to be rich sources of phenolics. The findings of this research suggest the harvesting of the selected wild Capparis species in rainy season to maximize their antioxidant and nutraceutical benefits.
... Since C. spinosa has several beneficial health effects on human diseases, the chemical and bioactive components of C. spinosa have been extensively investigated and reported by numerous analytical studies [11,[23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36]. Table 2 demonstrates the important constituents isolated from C. spinosa. ...
... Table 2 demonstrates the important constituents isolated from C. spinosa. These studies have focused on the bioactive compounds of different parts of C. spinosa such as leaves [27,37], buds [11], fruits [23][24][25][26], roots [31][32][33] and seeds [34][35][36]. In general, C. spinosa has a wide range of bioactive compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, streroids, terpenoids and tocopherols [38]. ...
... Another study by Çaliş et al. [25] reported that two glucose-containing 1H-indole-3-acetonitrile compounds, 1H-indole-3-acetonitrile 4-O-β-(6 -O-β-glucopyranosyl)-glucopyranoside and 1H-indole-3-acetonitrile 4-O-β-glucopyranoside were identified from mature fruits of C. spinosa using spectroscopic methods. In addition, capparine A, capparine B, flazin, guanosine, 1H-indole-3-carboxaldehyde, 4-hydroxy-1H-indole-3-carboxaldehyde apigenin, kaempferol and thevetiaflavone were identified in the fruits of C. spinosa [26]. There are also other new identified alkaloids including capparisine A, capparisine B, capparisine C that were also isolated from the fruits of C. spinosa [45]. ...
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Over the past decades, there has been increasing attention on polyphenol-rich foods including fruits and vegetables on human health. Polyphenols have been shown to possess some potential beneficial effects on human health and they are widely found in foods consumed by populations worldwide. Capparis spinosa (C. spinosa) is an important source of different secondary metabolites of interest to humankind. The traditional therapeutic applications of C. spinosa have been reported in Ancient Romans. Numerous bioactive phytochemical constituents have been isolated and identified from different parts (aerial parts, roots and seeds) of C. spinosa which are responsible alone or in combination for its various pharmacological activities. Therefore, this paper is a review of publications on the phytochemical and pharmacological properties of C. spinosa. There is insufficient evidence to suggest that C. spinosa or its extracts are able to improve the biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. However, these studies used different parts of C. spinosa plant, methods of preparation and types of solvents, which cause the evaluation of activity of C. spinosa difficult and involve quite heterogeneous data. There is also evidence, although limited, to suggest benefits of C. spinosa in improving human health. Therefore, the relationship between C. spinosa and improved human health outcomes requires further study.
... Long-term treatment or high levels of corticosteroids may result in indigestion, muscle weakness, fluid retention, stomach bleeding, osteoporosis, obesity, heart failure, respiratory problems, anemia, liver damage, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (5)(6)(7). Therefore, researchers have suggested use of traditional medicine as a tried and useful method of pain and inflammation management (8). ...
... In traditional medicine, the leaves, roots, and flower buds are used in the treatment of diabetes, rheumatism, abdominal pain, and cancer due to their effects in enhancement of the function of the immune system and anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-viral, antioxidant, and anti-obesity effects. The plant is also effective in differentiating chondrocytes and bone repair (8,9). ...
... Most previous studies have investigated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of caper (8)(9)(10). Orofacial formalin test is a practical, repeatable, and easy method that can be used to quantitatively measure the antinociceptive effect of a drug in the trigeminal region in mice (11). ...
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Background: Orofacial pain is a form of inflammatory pain usually treated with corticosteroids, which have many side effects. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and histological profile of antinociceptive effects of hydroalcoholic extract of caper (Capparis spinosa) for the first time in the orofacial region. Methods: This experimental study was carried out at Babol University of Medical Sciences in 2018. Thirty-six male Wistar mice were divided into 6 groups: The first group received saline, the second group received dexamethazone, and four groups received different doses (10, 20, 50, 100 mg/kg) of caper extract. In the formalin test, 1% formalin solution was injected into the right submucosal layer of the lip and lateral area of the nose. Pain intensities were recorded at 5-min blocks for 60 min after injection. Dose effect of caper on pain was recorded. The mice were euthanized and the oral area was biopsied and stained with Hematoxylin-eosin, Toluidine blue, and Congo red. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and t-test by IBM-SPSS version 20. Results: Caper produced antinociceptive effects in comparison with saline groups (p
... Crushed seeds were used for ulcers, scrofula, and ganglions. The crushed leaves were applied as a poultice on the front against headache and to relieve toothache as well as an antiinflammatory agent [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]. ...
... As there is insignificant scientific evidence regarding acute, subacute, and chronic toxicity owing to the usage of C. spinosa, it is considered a very imperative and safe herbal medicine used as antihyperlipidemic, antihypertensive, antihepatotoxic, and as a potential of source of inhibitory bioactive compounds used in the traditional medicine such as antifungal, antiinflammatory, antidiabetic, nuclear factor-κB, and anticarcinogenic [6,[14][15][16][17][18][19][20]. In ancient times, people used roots, leaves, buds, fruits, bark, and seeds of C. spinosa for several medicinal purposes and to treat diseases such as rheumatism, stomach problems, headache, and toothache. ...
... Capparis spinosa is a multi-purpose plant that contains a variety of chemically active compounds. We used it in our study because it was regarded as one of the herbals that used commonly in the traditional medicine and because of its composition of the flavonoids which was the major compound as so many studies have revealed antiinflammatory, cell proliferative, immune modulating, collagen stimulating activity of C. spinosa [14], [15], [16]. Diabetic rats are regularly used in the evaluation of latest pharmacological products with a prospective role in the treatment of people with diabetes [17]. ...
... 15). ...
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Background: In diabetes, there are big concerns regarding impaired wound healing and other tissue disorders. The time and quality of wound healing are affected by many factors. One of the medical sciences ' aims is short-term wound healing with decreased side effects Herbal products are more valuable in both prophylaxis and curative in slowed diabetic wound healing as compared to synthetic drugs A considerable number of researches have shown that capers plant has distinct biological effects, including antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial activity. Phytochemical analysis reveals C. Spinosa has large amounts of bioactive compounds, including polyphenolic compounds, which are essential for its healthpromoting effects. Objective: Histological evaluation of the effect of topical application of flavonoid extract of Capparis spinosa on the healing of incisional cutaneous wounds in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Patients and Methods: A total of 30 healthy male Wistar rats weighing approximately 250- 300 g were used in this study. A surgical incisional wound with full skin thickness of 1.5 cm length were done in cheek skin of each rat. All rats were randomly divided into following groups: Group A: (10 healthy rats) received daily local application of the plant extract. Group B: (10 alloxan-induced diabetic rats) received daily local application of extract of the plant material. Group C: (10 alloxan –induced diabetic rats) where normal saline was applied locally instead of plant extract. Assessment of wound contraction was done as well as epithelial thickness inflammatory cell count and blood vessels count. Scarification of all animals was done for the healing periods (3 and 7 days), and specimens were prepared for histological analysis. Results: The results revealed that the recorded mean values of wound contraction increased with time in each group and that the highest mean values recorded in group A and B. Mean values of inflammatory cell count decreased with time lowest values recorded in group A after 7 days. Regarding epithelial thickness values increased with time. Blood vessels count showed highest mean value in group A at day 7. Conclusion: Results from this study showed that flavonoid rich extract of Capparis spinosa enhances wound healing process in diabetic rats. Keywords: Capparis spinosa, Wound Healing, Diabetic rats.
... Its antifungal activity was reported decades ago ( Ali-Shtayeh & Abu Ghdeib, 1999). However, recent works have focused on its anti-inflammatory effect ( Zhou et al., 2010), anticancer ( Bakr & El Bishbishy, 2016), anti-diabetic ( Mollica et al., 2017;Vahid, Rakhshandeh, & Ghorbani, 2017), and anti-hyperlipidemic properties ( Mollica et al., 2017), among others. Some interesting recent reviews can be consulted for additional information ( Anwar et al., 2016;Gull et al., 2015;Rahnavard & Razavi, 2016). ...
... The study of the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of flower buds ( Tagnaout et al., 2016) has been already carried out, as well as the characterization of the phytochemical profile of aerial parts of C. spinosa by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection ( Bakr & El Bishbishy, 2016). The https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.01.010characterization of the main phytochemicals in fresh fruits has also been reported ( Zhou et al., 2010). In addition, Francesca et al. (Francesca et al., 2016) studied the effect of the fermentation process in caper berries by sensory evaluation, and by analyzing a few number of selected polyphenols. ...
Article
In this work, we report the phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity of caper berries (Capparis spinosa L.) before and after a fermentation process. The phytochemical profiles were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry detection (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSⁿ). Twenty-one compounds were characterized, and seven of them quantified. The main component of non-fermented berries was glucocapparin, which was degraded upon the fermentation process. Most of the compounds were quercetin and kaempferol glycosides, epicatechin, and proanthocyanidins. The main differences observed upon the fermentation process were a decrease in epicatechin concentration, the hydrolysis of quercetin glycosides, and the degradation of glucosinolates. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents, as well as the antioxidant activities by the in vitro antioxidant assays DPPH and ABTS⁺, were determined, observing that the values were slightly higher after the fermentation process.
... Caper has been used in traditional phytomedicine as a tonic, aperitif, diuretic, and anti-inflammatory (Al-Said et al. 1988;Lieutaghi 2004;Panico et al. 2005;Zhou et al. 2010). It is also widely used as a condiment by the Greeks and Romans (Boga et al. 2011). ...
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Benachour H, Ramdani M, Lograda T, Chalard P, Figueredo J. 2020. Chemical composition and antibacterial activities of Capparis spinosa essential oils from Algeria. Biodiversitas 21: 161-169. The essential oils of Capparis spinosa L. collected from six locations in Algeria were obtained by hydro-distillation. The chemical composition of oils was performed by GC-MS. The disc diffusion method is applied for the antibacterial activity. The extraction produced low yield (0.03%). The result of chromatographic analysis (GC/MS) leads to the identification of 33 components; palmitic acid (38.19%), nonanal-n (12.61%), cymene-2,5-dimethoxy-para (8.94%) and octacosane (5.49%) were the major components of these oils. The result of cluster analysis based on essential oils constituents showed the presence of three chemotypes,i.e., the chemotype of Nonanal-n-Cymen 2,5 dimethoxy para-Dodecanal, the chemotype of Nonanal-n-Hexadecanoic acid-tetracosane and the chemotype Tetracosane-n-pentyl furane-2-octacosane. In-vitro antimicrobial activity of caper oils against nine bacterial species showed that the oils have no activity against E. coli and have modest activities against eight other bacterial species tested; however, the desirability test shows that the oils used were not effective on the bacteria tested.
... This is due to its pharmacological and therapeutic effects in gout, diuretics, constipation, astringent, and tonic treatments (2)(3)(4)(5). Caper can be effective in the treatment of paralysis, toothache (6), and edema (7). Additionally, it has potent anti-hyperglycemic (8), anti-hepatotoxic (9,10), and anti-inflammatory activities (11). ...
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Capparis spinosa L. (caper) is an aromatic plant, commonly used in the Mediterranean diet, possessing numerous antioxidant compounds, such as phenols, rutin, tocopherols, carotenoids, and vitamin C in its leaves. Thus, the present study investigated the effects of Iranian caper leaves extract on oxidative stress caused by CCl4 in the mice’s liver. This study was conducted on 42 male mice in seven groups. The control group, the sham group, the CCl4 group, the Iranian caper leaves extract 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg + CCl4 groups. Then, Biochemicals, oxidative stress, and hepatic histopathology parameters were evaluated. The co-administration of Iranian caper leaves extract, and CCl4 significantly decreased the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde (P<0.001) and significantly increased the levels of glutathione and catalase in comparison with the group treated with CCl4 alone (P<0.01).Furthermore, Iranian caper leaves extract improved histopathological changes such as the the inflammation and necrosis of hepatocytes. Iranian caper leaves extract has protective effects on hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4, mainly through suppressing oxidative stress.
... By analysis of spectroscopic data (UV-vis, IR, 1D/2D NMR, and HRESIMS) and comparison with literature values, the structures of 6 known compounds (3-7) were elucidated as (2''S)-2'',3''-dihydrorobustaflavone 4'-methyl ether, 15 (2''S)-2'',3''-dihydrorobustaflavone, 15 1H-indole-3-carboxaldehyde, 18 phenazine-1-caroxamide, 19 honokid, 20 and magnolol, 20 respectively. ...
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A new optical biflavonoid, (2” R)-2″,3″-dihydrorobustaflavone 7,4′-dimethyl ether (1), and 6 known compounds (2-7) were isolated for the first time from the 70% ethanol extract of Selaginella trichoclada Alsto. The structures of the compounds were confirmed by extensive spectroscopic data analyses. Racemic compound 1 was separated by chiral-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and the absolute configurations of (±)-1 were defined by circular dichroism spectroscopic data. Compound 1 exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against MCF-7, A549, and HepG2 human cancer cell lines.
... Other two small organic acids were present: quinic acid (2) and vanillic acid (6) as MS 2 fragments. Therefore, it was identified as vanillic acid, a phytochemical previously identified in caper fruit aqueous extract possessing anti-inflammatory effects (Zhou et al., 2010). The occurrence of this acid has also been reported in caper berries by Francesca et al. (2016). ...
Article
Unopened flower buds of Capparis spinosa L. (capers), generally used in the Mediterranean area as food flavoring, are known to be a good source of bioactive compounds. The aim of this work was to evaluate the nutraceutical value of salt‐fermented capers collected from different areas of Pantelleria Island (Italy), testing their methylglyoxal and glyoxal trapping capacity and antioxidant activity by 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), [2,2‐azinobis(3‐ethylben‐ zothiazoline‐6‐sulfonic acid)] diammonium salt (ABTS), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. Hydrophilic extracts were also characterized by high‐performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry. Among 24 detected compounds, several flavonol derivatives and glucosinolates were identified. The levels of kaempferol and quercetin derivatives varied considerably among the five accessions considered (6.46 to 267.93 and 22.39 to 367.14 mg kaempferol and quercetin equivalent /g fresh weight, respectively), with kaempferol derivatives more representative than quercetin ones. Person's coefficient indicated a high correlation between total phenolic content and anti‐DPPH radical capacity (R ² = 0.665), as well as between total flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity (by ORAC assay; R ² = 0.888) and between total flavonoid content and glyoxal and methylglyoxal trapping capacity (R ² = 0.918). Results indicate that capers from Pantelleria Island represent a rich source of bioactive compounds with potential nutraceutical relevance. Practical Application The findings of this study highlight the health benefits of Pantelleria capers consumption due to their composition in antioxidants and their biological properties (antiradical and alpha‐dicarbonyls trapping) correlated with the development of a high number of chronic–degenerative diseases. These results are also important for the agricultural and commercial sectors involved in the production of capers from Pantelleria, which received the Protected Geographical Indications recognition.
... Glucocapparin is one of the main representatives of glucosinolates in Caper (29) (Meiliwan et al., 2008;Jiménez-López et al., 2018), and methyl-isothiocyanate and benzylisothiocyanate are the main compounds in the series of isothiocyanate derivatives from the fruits (Romeo et al., 2007). They have not been isolated from any plant organ yet, rather the indole derivative (28) has been isolated with an integrated isocyanate moiety to the core indole (Zhou et al., 2010). ...
Article
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Caper (Capparis spinosa L.) is a perennial shrub of the family Capparaceae, endemic to circum-Mediterranean countries. Caper carries a renowned nutritional value, especially in terms of vitamins and antioxidants related to the occurrence of flavonoids, alkaloids, and glucosinolates as main secondary metabolites. Caper extracts have also shown to display antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, antitumor, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects which correlate the uses of the plant in folk medicine against both metabolic and infectious diseases. The present review aims to provide exhaustive phytochemistry and pharmacological properties survey on Caper constituents. Attention has also been given to the nutritional values and traditional uses of main organs to pinpoint research gaps for future investigations on the plant.
... It is well known that, roots, the flower buds, and fruits, of the C. spinosa have been used in folk medicine and considered as precious sources of glucosinolates (glucocapparin (N.), glucobrassicin, glucoiberin andsinigrin), alkaloids including spermidine alkaloid (A.), isocodonocarpine (B.), capparisinine (C.), capparidisine (D.), capparine, and capparinine as well as codonocarpine (E.), capparisine (F.), cadabacine-26-O-ß-D-glucoside (G.), capparipine-26-O-ß-D-glucoside, N-acetylated spermidine alkaloids, 15-N-acetylcapparisine (H.), 14-N-acetyl isocodonocarpine (I.), unsaponifiable matter sterols (ß-sitosterol (J.)), aliphatic, triterpenic alcohols, carotenoids (ß-carotene (O.)), tocopherols, andguanosine (K.), capparine A (L.),capparine B (M),Flazin (P.) and 5-hydroxymethylfuraldehyde (Q.) ( Fig. 9.5.) (Zhou et al., 2010;Rathee et al., 2011;Gull et al., 2015). Butylisothiocyanate and isopropylisothiocyanate (R.) are the major components of the root oils and fruit of C. spinosa (Nabavi et al., 2016). ...
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Medicinal plants, the oldest source of pharmacologically active compounds continue to cater the therapeutic need of majority of population in the developing world and played a dominant role in the introduction of new therapeutic agents. Based on the knowledge of plants gathered from various ancient medical writings, and civilizations, field observation and consultation with folk medicine men, research on medicinal plants have been undertaken all over the world for development of new herbal drugs. In addition, environmental factors like alterations in climatic variables and abiotic stress are known sources for oxidative stress. The ability of plant cells to fight against these factors is important for maintenance of their health growth .Capparis spinosa L. (Caper) is a perennial spiny bush that bears rounded, fleshy leaves and big white to pinkish-white flowers. It is native to the Mediterranean region and growing wild on walls or in rocky coastal areas throughout India. It contains a number of bioactive compounds, mostly polyphenols. Even though it has been used in traditional Indian system of medicines for various human diseases, the summation of its medicinal properties is lacking. Hence, the present review focused to provide collective information regarding the medicinal value of C. spinosa.
... The favorable medical effects of CS are attributed to diverse bioactive compounds such as alkaloids and polyphenols that are present in different parts of this plant [15]. It is believed that consuming CS fruit has beneficial effects on diabetes, obesity, and cholesterol level [17][18][19]. It has been shown that the fruit extract of CS improved fasting blood glucose and dyslipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats [19]. ...
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Objectives: This study focused on the beneficial effects of Capparis spinosa (CS) treatment on the steatohepatitis induced by the administration of a high-fat emulsion in rats. Changes of hepatic expression and secretion of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) were also evaluated as a probable mechanism of the CS effects on fatty liver. Male Wistar rats were allocated in different groups to receive a normal diet (NC group), a high-fat diet (HF group), or the high-fat emulsion plus CS extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg (HF+CS group). Body and liver weight, liver index, serum biochemical factors, histopathological examination, and serum level and hepatic gene expression of FGF21 were determined. Results: CS administration markedly reduced liver weight and index, serum levels of glucose, lipids, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and improved histological features of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) which were induced by HF feeding in this model. CS supplementation also restored the decreased hepatic and serum FGF21 levels in the fatty liver rats. We propose that the FGF21 up-regulation may partly account for the favorable effects of CS in this steatohepatitis model.
... Hepatoprotective [18], immunomodulatory [19], anti-inflammatory [20] (RCT) ...
Article
Historical literature on portal hypertension is mainly focused on the contemporary advances in therapeutic methods, especially surgical ones. However, it seems that the origin of the human knowledge on the portal system, its association with the caval system, obstructive pathologies in this system and the gastrointestinal bleeding due to hepatic diseases might be much older than previously believed. Avicenna provided a detailed anatomy of the portal venous system and its feeding branches in the Canon of Medicine. Soddat al-Kabed va al-Masarigha (liver and mesenteric oc-clusion) is also a disease presented by Avicenna with clinical, etiological and therapeutic 115 descriptions suggesting the fact that Soddat al-Kabed va al-Masarigha has multiple similarities with the currently identified concept of "portal hypertension". He presented sense of heaviness in the liver area with or without mild pain, anemia, pale and inappropriate body color, and loose stool which can be complicated with ascites, infection, fever and abdominal pain as clinical manifestations of this disease. He has also suggested therapeutic approaches including laxative and diuretic herbs to help excreting the obstructive material into stool or urine.
... The CSF aqueous extract were separated into three fractions (CSF1-CSF3) by macroporous adsorption resins. The fractions CSF2 and CSF3 effectively inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice [151]. The extracts of C. spinosa were found to possess marked anti-inflammatory activity but devoid of analgesic activity in animal models, cappaprenol-13 isolated from C. spinosa showed significant anti-inflammatory activity [152]. ...
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The pharmacological studies showed that many medicinal plant possessed antiinflammatory activity. Biochemical and molecular investigations revealed that the anti-inflammatory activities of medicinal plants and plant-derived compounds were related to their interactions with several key enzymes, signaling cascades involving cytokines and regulatory transcription factors, and to their antioxidant effects. The current review highlighted the medicinal plants possessed antiinflammatory effects with special focus on their mode of action.
... In spite of the very wide-spread use of Capparis spinosa, few studies were carried out on leaves and fruits to support its ethno pharmacological use. Pharmacological studies have demonstrated that C. spinosa known to possess hypoglycemic [6] antibacterial [7] antifungal [8] anti-inflammatory [9] anti hepatotoxic [10], broncho-relaxant [11], and immunomodulatory activities [12,13]. These biological activities could be attributed to the presence of secondary metabolites present in caper such as carotenoids [14] sterols [15,16] alkaloids [17] flavonoids and phenolics [18] . ...
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The aim of this study was to evaluate anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of methanolic extracts from fruits and leaves of Capparis spinosa. For hepatoprotective activity, liver injury was induced in male Wistar mice by administration of CCl4 (1 ml / kg of CCl4 30% in olive oil,), while C. spinosa leaf extract (CSLE) and fruit extract (CSFE) were administered orally to the experimental animals. Haematoxylin and Eosin based histology was performed to evaluate the histological changes in the liver. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using albumin denaturation assay and membrane stabilization inhibitory activity at different concentrations. The methanol extracts showing effective in vitro anti-inflammatory activity were also tested for in vivo anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice model. At a dose of 400 mg / kg, both extracts showed significant reduction of edema in the early and late phases of acute inflammation with a maximal effect at 6 hours after induction of the inflammation. Also and at the concentration of 400 µg / ml, the CSFE and CSLE exhibited significant protection of erythrocyte membrane against the lysis induced by heat (35.4% and 28.4%, respectively) and induced hypotonicity (58.9% and 72.8%, respectively). They also showed a significant protective effect, with a maximum percent of inhibition of the denaturation of albumin of 61.78% and 61.12%, respectively. Moreover, both extracts showed significant hepatoprotective activity that was evident by enzymatic examination and histopathological study. These findings proved that CSFE and CSLE have an anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities, although slightly better for the leaf extract.
... Polyphenols and flavonoids are two important compounds that their correlation with antioxidant activities reported in many studies. Spectroscopic analysis of aqueous extract of C. spinosa fruits led to the identification of 13 compounds that flavonoids, indoles, and phenolic acids are the major of them [36]. According to Allaith (2016) antioxidant capacity in C. spinosa fruits strongly correlated with the total free phenolics and total flavonoids. ...
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Non-enzymatic glycation of protein is the major cause of various diabetic complications. Medicinal plants having therapeutic potential against glycation are pivotal to treat diabetic complications. In this regard, with the aim of evaluation of antiglycation and antioxidant potential of four different plant extracts, 25 grams of fine powdered aerial part of Oliveria decumbens and Citrullus colocynthis, fruits of Capparis Spinosa, and seeds of Ferula assa-foetida, and Vitex agnus-castus and Juglans regia leaves were extracted in 100 ml methanol, ethanol, methanol-ethanol and water. In vitro antiglycation activity of extracts were examined by BSA-fluorescent assay and the DPPH free radical scavenging assay was used to evaluate antioxidant activity. Results clearly showed that all medicinal plants exhibited antiglycation activities but vary considerably from plant to plant and also between different solvents. Among all investigated medicinal plants, V. agnus-castus, O. decumbens and C.colocynthis exhibited better glycation inhibitory activity compared to other plants. V. agnus-castus showed best inhibitory activity as inhibition percent of all four its extracts was above 50% and among all extract of medicinal plants, methanolic extract of V. agnus-castus exhibited stronger antiglycation activity, so that glycated BSA was decreased about 77%. Also methanolic extract of C. colocynthis and methanolic and ethanolic extracts of O. decumbens significantly exhibited glycation inhibitory activity so that formation of glycated BSA was decreased 64.6%, 58.5%, and 58.75% respectively. Antiglycation activity of other medicinal plants assessed in this study was under 50% at all four different solvent. For instance about J. regia the best inhibitory activity was methanolic extract (46%), C. spinosa and F.assa-foetida ethanolic extracts and methanolic extracts exhibited 38.8% and 34% respectively. According to DPPH assay results, antioxidant potential of investigated medicinal plants (100µg/ml) based on mean scavenging activity are in the following order, C. spinosa > F.assa-foetida > V.agnus-castus > O. decumbens > C. colocynthis > J.regia. It can be concluded that V.agnus-castus with strong antiglycation activity and good DPPH scavenging activity has high therapeutic potential against glycation-associated diabetic complications.
... Capparis spinosa L. (Capparidaceae) is one of the medicinal plants that have been widely used in the traditional medicine during successive civilizations to cure various health disorders and illnesses. A wide range of therapeutic benefits are credited to caper extracts such as anti-hypertensive (Ali et al., 2007), anti-hepatotoxic (El Tanbouly et al., 1989Gadgoli and Mishra, 1999), anti-diabetic (Kazemian et al., 2015;Mollica et al., 2017;Vahid et al., 2017), anti-obesity (Lemhadri et al., 2007), bronchorelaxant (Benzidane et al., 2013), anti-allergic and antihistaminic (Angelini et al., 1991;Trombetta et al., 2005), antiinflammatory (Al-Said et al., 1988;Zhou et al., 2010) or antibiotic (Abraham et al., 2011;Mahboubi and Mahboubi, 2014) properties. ...
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Caper (Capparis spinosa L.) is a xerophytic shrub with a remarkable adaptability to harsh environments. This plant species is of great interest for its medicinal/pharmacological properties and its culinary uses. Its phytochemical importance relies on many bioactive components present in different organs and its cultivation can be of considerable economic value. Moreover, taxonomic identification of C. spinosa L. has been difficult due to its wide heterogeneity, and many authors fell into confusion due to the scarcity of genetic studies. The present review summarizes information concerning C. spinosa L. including agronomic performance, botanical description, taxonomical approaches, traditional pharmacological uses, phytochemical evaluation and genetic studies. This knowledge represents an important tool for further research studies and agronomic development on this indigenous species with respect to the emerging climatic change in the Eastern Mediterranean countries. Indeed, this world region is particularly under the threat of global warming and it appears necessary to rethink agricultural systems to adapt them to current and futures challenging environmental conditions. Capparis spinosa L. could be a part of this approach. So, this review presents a state of the art considering caper as a potential interesting crop under arid or semi-arid regions (such as Eastern Mediterranean countries) within the climate change context. The aim is to raise awareness in the scientific community (geneticists, physiologists, ecophysiologists, agronomists, …) about the caper strengths and interest to the development of this shrub as a crop.
... In the alternative medicine, the parts of C. spinosa have been widely used for the treatment of many human diseases [15]. The aerial parts and roots of C. spinosa have been used for the treatment of multiple diseases such as the gastrointestinal diseases, rheumatism, headache, liver and kidney disease, and toothache [16]. ...
Article
Medicinal plant is still one of most effective and safe treatment against the human diseases. The stem of Capparis spinosa was extracted by three solvents (petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol) by employing three different methods (continuous shaking at room temperature, Soxhlet methods and Ultrasonication). The phytochemical component of plant extract was increased with increasing of solvent polarity. The result show that there are significant differences among all three studied solvents for each extraction methods at p <0.05, where p values are 0.001, 0.00 and 0.001 respectively. Moreover, there are no significant difference among the three studied of extraction methods p> 0.05, for each solvent, where p values are 0.097, 0.328 and 0.281 respectively. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of crude extracts by three solvents (Petroleum ether, Ethyl acetate and methanol) against S. epidermidis were 100 mg/ml and 200 mg/ml for crude extract of each solvent respectively, in addition the MIC of the same solvents extract on S. aureus were 100 mg/ml for petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and 200 mg/ml for methanol solvents extract, finally the MIC were 100 mg/ml for petroleum ether and 200 mg/ml for other solvents extract respectively against E. coli.
... In the alternative medicine, the parts of C. spinosa have been widely used for the treatment of many human diseases [15]. The aerial parts and roots of C. spinosa have been used for the treatment of multiple diseases such as the gastrointestinal diseases, rheumatism, headache, liver and kidney disease, and toothache [16]. ...
Article
Abstract. Medicinal plant is still one of most effective and safe treatment against the human diseases. The stem of Capparis spinosa was extracted by three solvents (petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol) by employing three different methods (continuous shaking at room temperature, Soxhlet methods and Ultrasonication). The phytochemical component of plant extract was increased with increasing of solvent polarity. The result show that there are significant differences among all three studied solvents for each extraction methods at p <0.05, where p values are 0.001, 0.00 and 0.001 respectively. Moreover, there are no significant difference among the three studied of extraction methods p> 0.05, for each solvent, where p values are 0.097, 0.328 and 0.281 respectively. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of crude extracts by three solvents (Petroleum ether, Ethyl acetate and methanol) against S. epidermidis were 100 mg/ml and 200 mg/ml for crude extract of each solvent respectively, in addition the MIC of the same solvents extract on S. aureus were 100 mg/ml for petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and 200 mg/ml for methanol solvents extract, finally the MIC were 100 mg/ml for petroleum ether and 200 mg/ml for other solvents extract respectively against E. coli.
... Ethnobotanical research carried out in Sicily [18] shows how extracts of the stem of the caper plant have been used in traditional Sicilian medicine to treat toothache for many years. Various pharmacological properties are attributed to the extracts of leaves, stems, flowers, fruits and roots, such as anti-hypertensive [19], anti-hepatic [20], anti-diabetic [21,22], anti-obesity [23], anti-allergic [24], anti-inflammatory [25] and antibiotic [26] properties. It is to be noted that the biochemical compounds of the caper are influenced by geographical and environmental conditions, by the harvesting period of the immature flower bud and its size, by storage methods, by genotype and by method of extraction and processing [12,27] as evidenced in other Mediterranean species of the same Country [28]. ...
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The caper plant is widespread in Sicily (Italy) both wild in natural habitats and as specialized crops, showing considerable morphological variation. However, although contributing to a thriving market, innovation in caper cropping is low. The aim of the study was to evaluate agronomic and production behavior of some biotypes of Capparis spinosa L. subsp. rupestris, identified on the Island of Linosa (Italy) for growing purposes. Two years and seven biotypes of the species were tested in a randomized complete block design. The main morphological and production parameters were determined. Phenological stages were also observed. Analysis of variance showed high variability between the biotypes. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis highlighted a clear distinction between biotypes based on biometric and production characteristics. Production data collected in the two-year period 2007–2008 showed the greatest production levels in the third year following planting in 2005. In particular, biotype SCP1 had the highest average value (975.47 g) of flower bud consistency. Our results permitted the identification of biotypes of interest for the introduction into new caper fields. Further research is needed in order to characterize caper biotypes in terms of the chemical composition of the flower buds and fruits.
... The immature flower buds, called "capers", the fruits, called "cucunci" or "caperone" and the tender leaves, preserved in salt or vinegar, are widespread in the kitchen, enjoying good levels of world trade (Saadaoui et al., 2014;Chedraoui et al., 2017;Legua et al., 2013;Romeo et al., 2007). Furthermore, different pharmacological properties are attributed to the extracts of leaves, stems, flowers, fruits and roots (Ali et al., 2007;Gadgoli and Mishra, 1999;Kazemian et al., 2015;Mollica et al., 2017;Trombetta et al., 2005;Zhou et al., 2010). Among the most abundant phenolic compounds, in fresh bud, rutin is included, while quercetin, now attentive to the possible interference against the replication of the SARS-COV-2 virus, is the most abundant phenolic compound in fermented bud (Francesca et al., 2016;Haslberger et al., 2020). ...
Conference Paper
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The caper is widespread in the Mediterranean basin both spontaneously and in specialized cultivation, showing considerable genetic and phenotypic variations. Although this plant represents a good opportunity for growers in subtropical areas, it still needs innovation in agrotechnical techniques. The aim of the study was to evaluate the morphological and productive behavior of seven accessions of C. spinosa L. subsp. rupestris, identified on the island of Linosa, in the two-year period 2007-2008. The experimental protocol involved a randomized block design. Not only the main morphological and production parameters were determined but also the phenological phases. In order to broaden the qualitative parameters of the flower buds, in addition to the evaluation of the diameter, the consistency was evaluated using a penetrometer. The results obtained showed variability between accessions and higher levels of production in the second year. Although for most of the parameters examined the best results were provided by the SCP2 access, it is also worth noting that the results for the SCP1 and SCP5 biotypes were also satisfactory. Our results have allowed us to identify accessions of interest for the introduction of new caper fields. Further research is needed to characterize caper biotypes in terms of the chemical composition of flower buds and fruit.
... Kulisic-Bilusic et al., 2012;Lam and Ng, 2009;Zhou et al., 2010) Anti-microbial, anti-bacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, anti-cancer(Ahmed et al., 2015; Bibi Anti-oxidant, anti-ulcer, anti-fungal (Laghari et al., 2011;Nigam and Paarakh, 2011;Rauf and Javaid, 2013) ...
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Ethnopharmacological relevance: This is the first study of the indigenous knowledge in regard to the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of oral diseases in the Central Punjab, Pakistan region. The study aimed to document indigenous knowledge about the treatments of oral diseases using quantitative ethnobotanical indices, as well as highlighting important medicinal plant species by comparing the data obtained with previously published ethnobotanical and pharmacological data. Methods: The ethnomedicinal data was collected from local informants and Traditional Health Practitioners (THPs). The Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC) and Diseases Consensus Index (DCI) were calculated to analyse the documented data. The results were compared with those of the nine ethnobotanical studies highlighted in our literature review relating to oral disease, as well as many pharmacological studies evaluating the reported plants. Results: In total, 72 medicinal plants belonging to 38 families were reported by the 180 local informants and 17 THPs interviewed. The most commonly used family, life form and plant part used was Asteraceae (6 species), herbs (30 reports) and leaves (22 reports) respectively. The RFC ranged from 7.61% (Berberis lycium, Dodonea viscosa) to 51.78% (Abutilon indicum, Accacia nilotica, Cuscuta reflex and Solanum nigrum), while the DCI varied from 0.062 to 0.78 with the highest value of DCI for Zizyphus oxyphylla and the lowest for Abutilon indicum. The most prominent species based on quantitative indices in the present study and comparison with previous published data were Zizyphus oxyphylla, Pongamia pinnata, Launea nudicaulis, Acacia nilotica, Abutilon indicum, Salvadora persica and S. oleoides. Conclusion: This study has identified a range of medicinal plants traditionally used in Central Punjab, Pakistan for the treatment of oral diseases. This data can usefully inform the direction of future research and it is suggested that further detailed phyto-pharmacological, toxicological and clinical studies be conducted on the plant species documented in the study, especially those with the highest RFC and, DCI values.
... In our study, 37.6% polysaccharides and 3.5% protein were detected in CSWE. It has been reported that the water extract of C. spinosa may also contain flavonoids (quercetin) [24], indoles, phenolic sterols [18], glycosides, and saponins [21]. Here, we verified that CSWE (polysaccharides are the main component) treatment could alleviate DSS-induced UC via regulation of gut microbiota, oxidative stress, and inflammatory mediators in mice. ...
Article
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Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease. Here, the potential effects of Capparis spinosa water extract (CSWE) on colonic histopathology, inflammation, and gut microbiota composition in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced UC mice were evaluated. Our results showed that CSWE treatment improved the colonic histopathology of UC mice, increased the levels of tight junction protein gene ZO-1 and Occludin in intestinal epithelial cells, and inhibited the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α). Furthermore, CSWE administration alleviated oxidative stress in the colon of UC mice. The effects of CSWE on the compositions and metabolomic profiles of the gut microbiota in UC mice were investigated. It was found that CSWE could enhance the diversity of gut microbes and the abundance of probiotics and metabonomics had the strongest association with Firmicutes. Our results indicated that CSWE might be an ideal candidate as a potential therapeutic natural product for the treatment of UC.
... Caper has about 250 species, most of which are wild and can grow in arid and semi-arid environments with adaptability to drought conditions (12,13). Phytochemical studies reported that this plant contains several bioactive factors, including saccharides, glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids, indoles, and phenolic acids, terpenoids, volatile oils, fatty acids, vitamin C, vitamins E, and steroids (14,15). The root of the Caper contains pectin, saponin, a very small amount of essential oil, resinous substance, aminoglycoside, and capparirutine (16,17). ...
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Background: Herbals are rich in effective compounds such as phenolic and antioxidant. Various methods are developed to extract these compounds, including Soxhlet, maceration, microwave, and ultrasound. The extraction method affects the quantity and quality of materials. Objectives: The current study aimed to investigate the effect of ultrasound in phenolic and antioxidants compounds extraction from Caper roots. Methods: Response surface methodology (RSM) and Box-Behnken design were used to optimize the two extraction parameters, including extraction time (10, 25, and 40 min) and ultrasound power (40%, 70%, 100 %) by aqueous and alcoholic solvents. Results: Based on the results, ultrasound power was more effective than the extraction time. A direct association was observed between ultrasound power and the extraction time with the total extraction. The optimum aqueous and alcoholic extraction condition for phenolic and antioxidant compounds extraction were as follow: extraction time 36 min and ultrasound power 91 percent. Total phenolic content was obtained 14.96 mg/g with aqueous solvent and 17.24 mg/g with alcoholic solvent, and IC50 was 52.17 µg/mg with aqueous solvent and 40.20 µg/mg with alcoholic solvent. Conclusions: Overall, alcoholic extracts had more phenolic and antioxidant compounds than aqueous extracts.
... In the 1 H-NMR spectrum data of 1 (CD 3 OD, see Table 1 and Figure S6) In addition to signals for the above-deduced subunits that contained a hexose and a 1,2-disubstituted benzene [δ C 122.6 (C-4b), 122.5 (C-5), 121.4 (C-6), 129.8 (C-7), 113.3 (C-8), 142.8 (C-8a)], the 13 C-NMR and DEPT spectra showed additional signals for eight sp 2 carbons [three acyl carbons at δ C 176.8 (C-5"), 175.8 (C-1"), and 167.7 (C-10), one methine at δ C 114.4 (C-4), and four quaternary carbons at δ C 136.0 (C-9a), 131.4 (C-4a), 145.6(C-1), 139.2(C-3)] and three sp 3 carbons [one methine at δ C 53.9 (C-2"), and two methylenes at δ C 31.5 (C-4") and 28.8 (C-3")]. When comparing the 13 C-NMR data with those of 1-methyl-β-carboline-3-yl-(piperidin-1-yl)methanone [24], ethyl 2-methyl-9H-pyrido [2,3-b]indole-3-carboxylate [25] and flazin [26], and taking into consideration the elemental constitution and carbon resonances, a β-carboline scaffold was supposed to be present in 1 through convergence of the 1,2-disubstituted benzene group (see Figure S4), two of the three nitrogen atoms, and the five non-acyl sp 2 carbons. Two-dimensional NMR experiments (HSQC, 1 H-1 H COSY, and HMBC) were further carried out to confirm the conclusion and to reveal the details of the structure. ...
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Pseudostellaria heterophylla is used in China not only as a functional food but also as an herb to tonify the spleen, enhance immunity, and treat palpitation. Our previous investigation showed that a fraction enriched in glycosides obtained from the roots of P. heterophylla possessed pronounced protective effects on H9c2 cells against CoCl2-induced hypoxic injury. However, the active compounds responsible for the observed effects were still unknown. In the current investigation, pseudosterins A–C (1–3), three new alkaloids with a 1-ethyl-3-formyl-β-carboline skeleton, together with polydatin, have been isolated from the active fraction. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and quantum chemical calculations. The four compounds showed cardioprotective effects against sodium hydrosulfite-induced hypoxia-reoxygenation injury in H9c2 cells, with the three alkaloids being more potent. This is also the first report of alkaloids with a β-carboline skeleton isolated from P. heterophylla as cardioprotective agents.
... The plant extract has also been reported for its activity as sedative and Central Nervous System depressant (Goyal et al., 2009). Antiinflammatory activity of the extracts of the fruits of C. decidua has been experimentally proven on mice (Zhou et al., 2010). Methanol and water extracts of C. decidua stems were reported to possess hepatoprotective activity (Ali et al, 2011). ...
Article
Glutathione (GSH) and indole glucosinolates (IGs) exert key functions in the immune system of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Appropriate GSH levels are important for execution of both pre- and post-invasive disease resistance mechanisms to invasive pathogens, while an intact PENETRATION2 (PEN2)-pathway for IG-metabolism is essential for pre-invasive resistance in this species. Earlier indirect evidence suggested that the latter pathway involves conjugation of GSH with unstable products of IG metabolism and further processing of the resulting adducts to biologically active molecules. Here we describe the identification of Glutahione-S-Transferase class-tau member 13 (GSTU13) as an indispensable component of the PEN2 immune pathway for IG metabolism. gstu13 mutant plants are defective in the pathogen-triggered biosynthesis of end products of the PEN2 pathway, including 4-O-β-D-glucosyl-indol-3-yl formamide, indole-3-ylmethyl amine and raphanusamic acid. In line with this metabolic defect, lack of functional GSTU13 results in enhanced disease susceptibility towards several fungal pathogens including Erysiphe pisi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Plectosphaerella cucumerina. Seedlings of gstu13 plants fail also to deposit the (1,3)-β-glucan cell wall polymer, callose, after recognition of the bacterial flg22 epitope. We show that GSTU13 mediates specifically the role of GSH in IG-metabolism without noticeable impact on other immune functions of this tripeptide. We postulate that GSTU13 connects GSH with the pathogen-triggered PEN2 pathway for IG metabolism to deliver metabolites that may have numerous functions in the innate immune system of A. thaliana.
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Herbals have effective components such as phenolic, antimicrobial, and antioxidant.There are many methods to extract these compounds include soxhlet, maceration, microwave and ultrasound. Kind of method extraction is effective to quantity and quality material extracted. The aim of this study was survey of ultrasound extraction efficacy in phenolics, antimicrobial and antioxidants of leaves and roots of Capparis spinosa L. Response surface methodology (RSM) and Box–Behnken design were employed for the optimization of two extraction parameters, including extraction time (10, 25, 40 min) and ultrasound power (40, 70, 100 %) by alcoholic extraction. The results showed ultrasound power was more effective factor than time. By increasing of ultrasound power and the time of extraction the yield increased. The optimum extraction conditions for antioxidant and antimicrobial extraction were as follows: extraction time 36 min and ultrasound power 91 percent. Total phenolic content was obtained 25.47 mg/g in leave and 17.24 mg/g in root and IC50 was 9.13 µg/mg in leave and 40.20 µg/mg in root. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were less in coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus when compared to E.coli.
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The antioxidant and antifungal activities of crude hydro-ethanolic extract from Capparis spinosa L. (Capparidaceae) leaves and their fractions, obtained by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) using solvents with increasing polarity (hexane, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water), were investigated. The crude extract and the obtained fractions were characterized by colorimetric analysis, pyrolysis-gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectroscopy (MS), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and their antioxidant and antifungal capacity were determined. It was observed that the ethyl acetate fraction was enriched in polyphenols, the butanol fraction resulted in purified from proteins and the residual aqueous fraction contains more hydrophobic compounds. The evaluation of the antioxidant activity revealed that the ethyl acetate fraction possesses an interesting capacity 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) radical scavenging with a percentage of inhibition of 84.02% at a concentration of 2 mg/mL and better ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) 4.275 ± 0.011 mmol/g of dry sample than the other fractions tested. Regarding the antifungal activity, the diethyl ether fraction showed the highest activity against Aspergillus niger with 58.78% of inhibition. The results obtained in this work showed the relevance of the valorization of the leaves of Capparis spinosa L., given its richness in bioactive molecules can be regarded as a natural source of antioxidant and antifungal and may be considered in the future to replace synthetic preservatives in food, pharmaceutic products and cosmetic.
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Background: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has become a global medical problem. Currently, there is no approved pharmacologic treatment for this condition. This study aimed to evaluate the ameliorative effects of Capparis spinosa (CS) on NASH in comparison to fenofibrate. Methods: An animal model of NASH was developed using a high-fat (HF) emulsion. Fatty liver rats were treated with aqueous extract of CS fruit or fenofibrate in parallel to the HF for six weeks. Animals were examined for weight gain, serum biochemistry, insulin sensitivity, hepatic triglyceride (TG) content, histopathological changes as well as gene expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT1) in liver. Results: Fasting blood sugar, insulin level, body and liver weight, activities of liver enzymes, hepatic triglyceride (TG) content as well as serum lipids were decreased following six weeks CS and fenofibrate treatments compared to the HF administration alone. Histopathological examinations also showed that liver steatosis, inflammation and hepatic fibrosis were markedly attenuated in response to CS and fenofibrate interventions. At the molecular level, CS treatment down-regulated SREBP1c, ACC and up-regulated CPT1 expression, but did not show a significant effect on PPARα. In contrast, fenofibrate treatment induced the expression of all studied genes in fatty liver rats. Conclusions: These findings indicated the favorable therapeutic effects of CS fruit extract on liver damages associated with NASH. The beneficial effects of CS on lipid accumulation and steatosis were comparable to those of fenofibrate.
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This study illustrates the importance of Iraqi medicinal plants in the treatment and management of human diseases and ailments as known by traditional medicine.
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Rhizosphere microorganisms play important ecological roles in promoting herb growth and producing abundant secondary metabolites. Studies on the rhizosphere microbes of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) are limited, especially on the genomic and metabolic levels. In this study, we reported the isolation and characterization of a Steptomyces netropsis WLXQSS-4 strain from the rhizospheric soil of Clematis manshurica Rupr. Genomic sequencing revealed an impressive total of 40 predicted biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs), whereas metabolomic profiling revealed 13 secondary metabolites under current laboratory conditions. Particularly, medium screening activated the production of alloaureothin, whereas brominated and chlorinated pimprinine derivatives were identified through precursor-directed feeding. Moreover, antiproliferative activities against Hela and A549 cancer cell lines were observed for five compounds, of which two also elicited potent growth inhibition in Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Our results demonstrated the robust secondary metabolism of S. netropsis WLXQSS-4, which may serve as a biocontrol agent upon further investigation.
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Caper (Capparis spinosa L.) is a xerophytic shrub cultivated for its flower buds and fruits, used as food and for their medicinal properties. Breeding programs and even proper taxonomic classification of the genus Capparis has been hampered so far by the lack of reliable genetic information and molecular markers. Here, we present the first genomic resource for C. spinosa, generated by transcriptomic approach and de novo assembly. The sequencing effort produced nearly 80 million clean reads assembled into 124,723 unitranscripts. Careful annotation and comparison with public databases revealed homologs to genes with a key role in important metabolic pathways linked to abiotic stress tolerance and bio-compounds production, such purine, thiamine and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, α-linolenic acid and lipid metabolism. Additionally, a panel of genes involved in stomatal development/distribution and encoding for Stress Associated Proteins (SAPs) was also identified. We also used the transcriptomic data to uncover novel molecular markers for caper. Out of 50 SSRs tested, 14 proved polymorphic and represent the first set of SSR markers for the genus Capparis. This transcriptome will be an important contribution to future studies and breeding programs for this orphan crop, aiding to the development of improved varieties to sustain agriculture in arid conditions.
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The use of dietary or medicinal plant based natural compounds to disease treatment has become a unique trend in clinical research. Polyphenolic compounds, were classified as flavones, flavanones, catechins and anthocyanins. They were possessed wide range of pharmacological and biochemical effects, such as inhibition of aldose reductase, cycloxygenase, Ca+2-ATPase, xanthine oxidase, phosphodiesterase, lipoxygenase in addition to their antioxidant, antidiabetic, neuroprotective antimicrobial anti-inflammatory, immunomodullatory, gastroprotective, regulatory role on hormones synthesis and releasing…. etc. The current review was design to discuss the medicinal plants contained phenolics and flavonoids, as natural ingredients for many therapeutic purposes.
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We demonstrate here for the first time a one step and efficient phytosynthesis of cupric oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) using easily available Capparis spinosa leaf extract as a bio-reductant and bio-stabilizer at room temperature without the addition of any harmful and expensive reagent and solvents. The effect of pH of the reaction, the leaf extract quantity, concentrations of the copper precursor, temperature, and reaction time were also studied in order to control over the particle size and stability. The synthesized CuO NPs at the optimum condition was characterized through UV–Vis spectroscopy, TEM and FT-IR spectroscopy. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the biosynthesized CuO NPs centered at λmax 408. The FT-IR analysis demonstrates the role of phyto-compounds in the capping of the formed nanoparticles. TEM images clarified the spherical shape of the as-prepared nanoparticles with 21 to 58 nm in size and XRD analysis clarified the monoclinic phase of formed CuO NPs. Also, as a novel work, we display a colorimetric detection ability of as-synthesized CuO NPs (without surface functionalization or modification) respect to Fe²⁺ and Fe³⁺ in aqueous solution. Under the optimized conditions, a good linear relationship (R² = 0.9954, R² = 0.9903 for Fe²⁺ and Fe³⁺, respectively) were obtained between the absorbance at 500 nm and the concentration of iron ions with a limit of quantification 0.084 ppm and 0.12 ppm for Fe²⁺ and Fe³⁺, respectively. A remarkable feature of this first reported the colorimetric detection of iron ions based on the green synthesized CuO NPs is a simple and fast operation with high selectivity to Fe²⁺ and Fe³⁺ over other tested metal ions.
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Relevance, material and methods. Purpose of the work: comparative assessment of the content of the sum of phenolic compounds exhibiting antioxidant activity in various organs of herbaceous capers C. herbacea Willd. The 4 samples of C. herbaceawere collected from natural populations of Dagestan during the flowering and fruiting phases in the summer of 2019. The collected raw materials were divided into fractions (organs), dried in the shade to an air-dry mass, then subjected to further analysis to determine the total content of flavonoids, anthocyanins by the spertrophotometric method on SF-56; the total content of antioxidants by the amperometric method on the instrument of express analysis "Color-Yauza-001-AAA ". Results. During the analysis, good indicators were obtained for the content of the studied compounds. Thus, in terms of the content of flavonoids, the greatest variation is seen in the stems of herbaceous capers (0.34-0.86%) compared to their content in leaves and inflorescences (2.67-2.97% and 2.45-2.90%, respectively). The amount of anthocyanins varies in all organs within the range of 0.05-0.23%. The smallest spread is observed in the total content of antioxidants in the fruits of herbaceous capers (21.35-21.40 mg/l), while in inflorescences this indicator varies greatly (27.44-42.19 mg/l). It is noteworthy that the samples with a high value of antioxidants showed a low content of flavonoids, thereby indicating that flavonoids are not the main components in the antioxidant system of the studied caper species. An important condition determining the variability of the content of phenolic compounds in various plant organs is a complex of abiotic environmental factors. The study of this factor (altitude gradient) revealed a significant relationship with the accumulation of flavonoids in all organs, which has a multi-vector nature (correlation coefficient r*= 0.57; 0.56; -0.47), respectively, in stems, leaves, and inflorescences (P<0,05). A positive relationship in the accumulation of anthocyanins is observed with the height in caper leaves. In all other cases, the connection is random. In addition, the analysis of variance revealed that a large difference in the variability of the studied compounds is observed between individual groups of plants in the absence of intragroup variability.
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A pair of new enantiomeric trinorsesquiterpenes, (+)-genpenterpene A (1a) and (-)-genpenterpene A (1b), together with seven known compounds (2–8), were isolated from the aerial parts of Justicia gendarussa Burm.f.. All of these known compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time. Racemic genpenterpene A was separated by chiral HPLC column. Their chemical structures were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analysis, single crystal X-ray diffraction, and ECD calculations. (+)-genpenterpene A (1a) exhibited potent inhibitory effect against nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells with an IC50 value of 9.54 ± 1.02 μM.
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In this study, changes in bioactive properties and phenolic compounds of different caper parts were reported. Total phenolic contents of C. ovata and C. spinosa plants varied between 175.35 mgGAE/100 g (fruit) and 518.4 mgGAE/100 g (small bud) to 143.58 mgGAE/100 g (fruit and 597.57 mgGAE/100 g (small bud), respectively. While total flavonoid contents of C. ovata parts vary between 9.12 mg/g (fruit) and 37.22 mg/g (small bud), total flavonoid contents of C. spinosa parts changed between 7.43 mg/g (fruit) and 62.39 mg/g (small bud). Antioxidant activity values of C. ovata and C. spinosa parts varied between 53.43% (sprout) and 76.40% (medium bud) to 50.51% (fruit) and 76.65% (medium bud), respectively. While (+) catechin contents of C. ovata parts change between 22.16 mg/100 g (fruit) and 149.13 mg/100 g (small bud), (+)‐catechin contents of C. spinosa parts varied between 65.50 mg/100 g (fruit) and 99.29 mg/100 (small bud). 1,2‐Dihydroxybenzene contents of C. ovata ranged from 33.4 mg/100 g (fruit) to 142.41 mg/100 g (small bud) while 1,2‐dihydroxybenzene contents of C. spinosa parts are found between 75.17 mg/100 g (fruit) and 127.32 mg/100 g (medium bud). Caper plant grows at the most countries of Africa, Asia, and South European. Capers have very important roles for beneficial natural components in the food industry. Caper buds and fruits are used for human nutrition. It is utilized to prepare salada as a culinary herb. Caper has pungent and bitter flavor, and are used as an appetizer with olives, cheese, and nuts. There are a significant increase in the interest of bioactive compounds from plant products. Curative and medicinal properties of capers are linked to the presence of bioactive compounds.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Capparis spinose (C. spinosa) belonging to Capparaeae, originates from dry areas in the west or central Asia and Mediterranean basin. For thousands of years, C. spinosa has been reported to be used as a therapeutic traditional medicine to relieve various ailments including rheumatism, pain and inflammatory diseases. Aim of the study There are several studies mentioning that systemic inflammation results in learning and memory impairments through the activation of microglia. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of C. spinosa on both in vivo and in vitro models of neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment using lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Materials and methods In vivo: 40 male rats were used in the present study. Cognitive impairment was induced using LPS (1 mg/kg/d; i.p.) for 4 weeks. Treatment with C. spinosa (100 and 300 mg/kg/d; p.o.) was performed 1 h before LPS administration. At the end of the experiment, rats were undergone for behavioral and biochemical analysis. In vitro: Primary microglia isolated from mouse was used in the present study. The cells were pretreated with C. spinosa extract (10–300 μg/ml) and then stimulated with LPS (1 μg/ml). The expression levels of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were elucidated using Real-Time PCR and ELISA methods. Results The escape latency in the Morris water maze test in the LPS group was significantly greater than the control group (p < 0.001), while, in extract-treated groups, it was less than the LPS group (p < 0.001). Additionally, we found that the levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, and iNOS/Arg-1 ratio was also significantly lower in extract-treated groups than the LPS group (p < 0.001). The results revealed that C. spinosa extract significantly reduced the levels of TNF-α, iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, NO and PGE2, and the ratios of iNOS/Arg-1 and NO/urea, following the LPS-induced inflammation in microglia (p < 0.001). Conclusions Our finding provides evidence that C. spinosa has a neuroprotective effect, and might be considered as an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases that are accompanied by microglial activation, such as AD.
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Chinese Kun Ming (KM) mouse, an outbreed strain of laboratory animal, has been widely utilized in related pharmaceutical and genetic studies throughout China. However, the value of KM mice to the research community has been severely limited, partially due to the fact that well-characterized inbred strain of KM mice is not available. Several expected inbred strains from KM mice have been bred, but their genetic purity remains uncertain. In this study, four expected inbred strains of KM mice (A1, T2, N2, and N4) were chosen and their inbred degree were compared with two classical inbred mouse lines (BALB/c and C57BL/6) by analyzing the genotypes of about 30 microsatellite markers. In the four strains, A1 and N4 were homozygous at all genotyped loci, but N2 and T2 were only heterozygous at locus D15Mit16. These results indicate that the level of genetic purity/homozygousity of A1, N4, N2, and T2 inbred line is comparable to those of BALB/c and C57BL/6. This study provided the first and solid evidence for genetic purity of four expected inbred strains of KM mice. These 4 inbred mice strains should be well maintained for further characterization and utilization in genetic studies.
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Three new spermidine alkaloids capparispine (1), capparispine 26-O-β-d-glucoside (2) and cadabicine 26-O-β-d-glucoside hydrochloride (3) were isolated from the roots of Capparis spinosa. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments (1H–1H COSY, HSQC, HMBC).
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4-Hydroxy-3-indolecarbaldehyde (1) is produced simply by heating (3-formylindol-4-yl)thallium bis-trifluoroacetate with copper sulfate in N,N-dimethylformamide and water. Alkylation of 1 afforded predominantly 1-alkyl derivatives. Utilizing these results pindolol analog, 1-allyl-4-(3-t-butylamino-2-hydroxypropoxy)-3-indolecarbaldehyde was synthesized.
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The assignment of some 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of apigenin have been uncertain and even contradictory. A reinvestigation with recent NMR techniques has led to a new set of 13C NMR parameters and confirmed the accepted 1H NMR data.
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A new guaiacylglycerol ether, threo-guaiacylglycerol-8′-vanillic acid ether, pyrocatechuic acid, pyrocatechuic acid 3-O-β-d-glucoside, gentisic acid, gentisic acid 5-O-β-d-glucoside, vanillic acid and vanillic acid 4-O-β-d-glucoside were identified from fruits of Boreava orientalis. Structural elucidation was carried out on the basis of UV, mass, 1H and 13C NMR spectral data, including 2D shift-correlation and selective INEPT experiments.
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This paper presents the first investigation of the flavour profile of capers (Capparis spinosa L.) from the Eolian Archipelago. In all, 145 volatile compounds were identified and quantified in capers, by HS-SPME/GC–MS analysis. Aldehydes (22.2%) and esters (21%) were the most abundant chemical classes; five sesquiterpenes and ten monoterpenes were identified for the first time; among sulphur compounds (8.42%), methyl-isothiocyanate was the major one, followed by benzyl-isothiocyanate. The application of this solvent-free extraction technique combined with the GC–MS analysis, showed its potential as a simple routine method for analyzing food flavour.
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Caper (Capparis L.), a shrub plant with a large natural distribution, is used in traditional medicines to cure various illnesses. Phytochemicals studies have shown the presence of many beneficial compounds such as spermidine, rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, stigmasterol, campesterol, tocopherols, and carotenoids. Biological studies reveal important antimicrobial, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antiviral properties. The presented review summarizes information concerning the morphology, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and biological activities of caper plants.
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Epidemiological evidence suggests that a high intake of plant foods is associated with lower risk of chronic diseases. However, the mechanism of action and the components involved in this effect have not been identified clearly. In recent years, the scientific community has agreed to focus its attention on a class of secondary metabolites extensively present in a wide range of plant foods: the flavonoids, suggested as having different biological roles. The anti-inflammatory actions of flavonoids in vitro or in cellular models involve the inhibition of the synthesis and activities of different pro-inflammatory mediators such as eicosanoids, cytokines, adhesion molecules and C-reactive protein. Molecular activities of flavonoids include inhibition of transcription factors such as NF-kappaB and activating protein-1 (AP-1), as well as activation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). However, the in vitro evidence might be somehow of limited impact due to the non-physiological concentrations utilized and to the fact that in vivo flavonoids are extensively metabolized to molecules with different chemical structures and activities compared with the ones originally present in the food. Human studies investigating the effect of flavonoids on markers of inflammation are insufficient, and are mainly focused on flavonoid-rich foods but not on pure molecules. Most of the studies lack assessment of flavonoid absorption or fail to associate an effect on inflammation with a change in circulating levels of flavonoids. Human trials with appropriate placebo and pure flavonoid molecules are needed to clarify if flavonoids represent ancillary ingredients or key molecules involved in the anti-inflammatory properties of plant foods.
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Many of the inflammatory diseases are becoming common in aging society throughout the world. The clinically used anti-inflammatory drugs suffer from the disadvantage of side effects and high cost of treatment (in case of biologics). Alternative to these drugs are traditional medicines and natural products, which offer a great hope in the identification of bioactive lead compounds and their development into drugs for treating inflammatory diseases. Since ancient times traditional medicines and phytopharmaceuticals are being used for the treatment of inflammatory and other disorders. The present review article describes anti-inflammatory natural products derived from plants and marine sources reported during last decade. The compounds described belong to different chemical classes such as alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, polyphenolics, phenylpropanoids, fatty acids and lipids, and various miscellaneous compounds. The attempt is also being made to enumerate the possible leads, e.g. curcumin, resveratrol, baicalein, boswellic acid, betulinic acid, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid, for further development with the help of structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies and their current status. In addition SAR studies carried out on the anti-inflammatory activity of flavonoid compounds and clinical studies performed on anti-inflammatory natural products are also discussed.
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Five plants which have been used for the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis and gout in the traditional medicine of Saudi Arabia, were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory properties. Of these the ethanolic extract of Capparis decidua and the aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa were found to possess significant anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced oedema in rats. These two plants were also tested for their antipyretic and analgesic activity. C. decidua was found to possess significant antipyretic effect. Both of them are devoid of analgesic activity.
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The indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is a plant growth hormone (auxin) being considered as a tryptophan metabolite in animals. The main purpose of this work was to verify IAA's topical anti-inflammatory action using croton oil- or arachidonic acid-induced mouse ear edema, in comparison to known anti-inflammatory agents. IAA antioxidant activity was also verified by measuring the inhibition of brain homogenate lipid peroxidation with the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) test. IAA inhibited the action of both croton oil-and arachidonic acid-induced edema in a dose-dependent manner (4.0 mumoles IAA inhibited 75.8% in croton oil and 82.5% in arachidonic acid induced ear edema). Both IAA (5.3 mM) and indomethacin (8.0 mM) inhibited TBARS formation. Data suggest that IAA exhibits antiinflammatory effect possibly by its anti-oxidant activity.
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Different species of the Scrophularia genus (Scrophulariaceae) have been reported to have bacteriostatic and anti-inflammatory properties. In previous studies the anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activity of different extracts from Scrophularia frutescens were investigated and p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic gentisic, protocatechuic, syringic and isovanillic acids were isolated and identified. In this work the anti-inflammatory activity of these compounds, administered orally, has been studied against carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema and, administered topically, against tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA)-induced mouse ear oedema. The compounds' myeloperoxidase activity in inflamed ear was also investigated. Some of the phenolic acids were remarkably active in the TPA test (protocatechuic 71.59% inhibition, P < 0.001; syringic 74.43%, P < 0.001; ferulic 71.02% P < 0.001) and all significantly inhibited mouse ear oedema. They were only moderately active, or were without activity, in the carrageenan test. These results imply that the phenolic acids assayed are more effective topically than as oral anti-inflammatory agents and that their action is markedly influenced by the inhibition of neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue. This study has also enabled us to make some observations on the possible relationship between the chemical structure and antiinflammatory activity of the compounds assayed.
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In addition to rutin, quercetin 3-O-glucoside and quercetin 3-O-glucoside-7-O-rhamnoside, the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Capparis spinosa yielded the new flavonoid quercetin 3-O-[6'"-alpha-L-rhamnosyl-6"-beta-D-glucosyl]-beta-D-glucoside (1).
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Two new (6S)-hydroxy-3-oxo-alpha-ionol glucosides, together with corchoionoside C ((6S,9S)-roseoside) and a prenyl glucoside, were isolated from mature fruits of Capparis spinosa. The structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic, chiroptic and chemical evidence. In addition, the 13C-resonance of C-9 was found to be of particular diagnostic value in assigning the absolute configuration at that center in ionol glycosides. The alpha-ionol derivatives are metabolites of (+)-(S)-abscisic acid.
Article
Seed oils of 11 samples of Capparis ovata and Capparis spinosa from different locations in Turkey were characterized with regard to the composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, and sterols as well as the content of glucosinolates. The oil content of the seeds ranged from 27.3 to 37.6 g/100 g (C. spinosa) and from 14.6 to 38.0 g/100 g (C. ovata). The dominating fatty acid of both species was linoleic acid, which accounted for 26.9-55.3% in C. ovata seed oils and for 24.6-50.5% in C. spinosa seed oils. Oleic acid and its isomer, vaccenic acid, were both found in the seed oils in concentrations between 10 and 30%, respectively. The seed oils of both species were rich in tocopherols with the following composition: gamma-tocopherol, 124.3-1944.9 mg/100 g; delta-tocopherol, 2.7-269.5 mg/100 g; and alpha-tocopherol, 0.6-13.8 mg/100 g. The concentration of total sterols ranged from 4875.5 to 12189.1 mg/kg (C. ovata) and from 4961.8 to 10009.1 mg/kg (C. spinosa), respectively. In addition to sitosterol, which amounted to approximately 60% of the total amount of sterols, campesterol and stigmasterol accounted for 16 and 10% of the total sterols, respectively. The seed oils showed remarkably high contents of Delta5-avenasterol (between 138.8 and 599.4 mg/kg). The total content of glucosinolates of C. ovata and C. spinosa samples was determined as 34.5-84.6 micromol/g for C. ovata and 42.6-88.9 micromol/g for C. spinosa, respectively, on a dry weight basis, with >95% as glucocapperin.
Article
Oral administration of alcoholic extracts of Schouwia thebica Webb showed that extracts are safe for human use. The studied extracts are considered safe, since they failed to induce death of mice in doses up to 4000 mg/kg body weight. Hepatoprotective activity was studied for the total alcoholic extracts. The total extract was fractionated in turn with diethyl ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol, respectively. These extracts were tested for possible hepatoprotective activity. It was found that the ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts of S. thebica Webb showed hepatoprotective activity. These extracts significantly reduced the increase in activities of ALT, AST, and GGT, and levels of glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol in serum of CCl(4)-treated rats. The extracts showing activity were found to contain flavonoids; one new compound, chrysoeriol-7-O-xylosoide- (1,2)-arabinofuranoside (2), in addition to another known four compound chrysoeriol (1), quercetin (3), quercetin-7-O-rhamnoside (4), and kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside (5). The isolated new compound was mainly found to be responsible for this activity when tested on animals in the laboratory. The structures were established by melting point, UV spectroscopy, EI-Mass, Fab-Mass, and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques on a 600MHz instrument.
Article
An increasing body of evidence on the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and healthy status is being accumulated. Floral buds of Capparis spinosa L. are commonly used in the Mediterranean cuisine as flavoring for meat and other foods. The present study evaluated bioactive components and antioxidant activity of Sicilian capers stabilized in salt. Whereas α-tocopherol was absent, low levels of γ-tocopherol and vitamin C were measured. With reference to one serving size (8.6 g of capers), rutin was 13.76 mg, isothiocyanates, recently acknowledged as anticarcinogen phytochemicals, were 42.14 μmol, total phenols were 4.19 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE), and the total antioxidant potential measured using the [2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] diammonium salt (ABTS) cation radical decolorization assay was 25.8 μmol of Trolox equivalents. The antioxidative activity of a caper hydrophilic extract was assessed in a number of assays. The extract at 3.5 and 7.0 μM GAE exhibited a dose-dependent peroxyl radical scavenging activity in a methyl linoleate methanol solution oxidized by azo initiator, and reduced hypervalent iron myoglobin species formed from met-Mb an H2O2, at 180 μM GAE. The hydrophilic extract, at 70-280 μM GAE, caused a dose-dependent inhibition of lipid autoxidation in heated red meat, incubated with simulated gastric fluid for 180 min. In the same model rutin tested at a concentration corresponding to its content in the extract was ineffective, and α-tocopherol at 25 μM was poorly effective. The hydrophilic extract (70 μM GAE) prevented the consumption of the co-incubated α-tocopherol, whereas lipid oxidation was inhibited for the experimental time, suggesting cooperative interactions between extract components and the vitamin. The findings encourage the use of caper with foods that contribute oxidizable lipids in view of the association between dietary oxidized lipids and risk of oxidative stress-based diseases.
Article
Two new alkaloids, Capparin A (1) and B (2), along with seven known compounds 6-methoxyindoline-2,3-dione (3), wogonin (4), oroxylin A (5), kaempferol (6), apigenin (7), quercetin (8) and luteolin (9), were isolated from the whole plant of Capparis himalayensis. Their structures have been established on the basis of spectral methods and the structure of 1 was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis.
Chemical structures of 14 compounds isolated from caper fruit aqueous extract bioactive fractions of CSF2þ3 (/ indicates compounds reported from caper fruits for the first time). rArticleJ. Agric Recent developments in anti-inflammatory natural products
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Figure 4. Chemical structures of 14 compounds isolated from caper fruit aqueous extract bioactive fractions of CSF2þ3 (/ indicates compounds reported from caper fruits for the first time). rArticleJ. Agric. Food Chem., Vol. 58, No. 24, 201012721 (6) Gautam, R.; Jachak, S. M. Recent developments in anti-inflammatory natural products. Med. Res. Rev. 2009, 29, 767-820
Gr€ un-Wollny, I.; Wagner-Do¨ , I.; Laatsch, H. Flazin, perlolyrin, and other β-carbolines from marine-derived bacteria. Rev Latinoam. Quim
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Shaaban, M.; Schro¨, D.; Shaaban, K. A.; Helmke, E.; Gr€ un-Wollny, I.; Wagner-Do¨, I.; Laatsch, H. Flazin, perlolyrin, and other β-carbolines from marine-derived bacteria. Rev Latinoam. Quim. 2007, 35, 58-67.