Best Practices in Dengue Surveillance: A Report from the Asia-Pacific and Americas Dengue Prevention Boards

Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative, International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases (Impact Factor: 4.45). 11/2010; 4(11):e890. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000890
Source: PubMed


Dengue fever is a virus infection that is spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito and can cause severe disease especially in children. Dengue fever is a major problem in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world.
We invited dengue experts from around the world to attend meetings to discuss dengue surveillance. We reviewed literature, heard detailed reports on surveillance programs, and shared expert opinions.
Presentations by 22 countries were heard during the 2.5 day meetings. We describe the best methods of surveillance in general, the stakeholders in dengue surveillance, and the steps from mosquito bite to reporting of a dengue case to explore how best to carry out dengue surveillance. We also provide details and a comparison of the dengue surveillance programs by the presenting countries.
The experts provided recommendations for achieving the best possible data from dengue surveillance accepting the realities of the real world (e.g., limited funding and staff). Their recommendations included: (1) Every dengue endemic country should make reporting of dengue cases to the government mandatory; (2) electronic reporting systems should be developed and used; (3) at minimum dengue surveillance data should include incidence, hospitalization rates, deaths by age group; (4) additional studies should be completed to check the sensitivity of the system; (5) laboratories should share expertise and data; (6) tests that identify dengue virus should be used in patients with fever for four days or less and antibody tests should be used after day 4 to diagnose dengue; and (7) early detection and prediction of dengue outbreaks should be goals for national surveillance systems.

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    • "Dengue is a tropical mosquito borne disease affecting over half of the world population (Beatty et al. 2010) with about 390 million cases annually (Bhatt et al. 2013). The diagnosis of dengue can be difficult because its symptoms are nonspecific and current laboratory techniques are expensive, time consuming, and require highly skilled lab personnel. "
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    ABSTRACT: The non-structural 1 (NS1) protein of the dengue virus circulates in infected patients' blood samples and can be used for early diagnosis of dengue infection. In this paper, we present the detection of naturally-occurring dengue NS1 antigen in infected patient blood plasma using straight long-range surface plasmon waveguides. Three commercially-available anti-NS1 monoclonal antibodies were used for recognition and their performance was compared and discussed. A similar figure of merit to the one used in conventional dengue NS1 capture using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was applied to our results. In general, the positive patient samples can be clearly differentiated from the negative ones and the results agree with those obtained using ELISA. The largest signal-to-noise ratio observed during the experiments was 356 and the best detection limit observed is estimated as 5.73pg/mm(2).
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Biosensors & Bioelectronics
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    • "In Brazil, the current distribution of Ae. aegypti extends to almost the whole country (Braga & Valle 2007), causing cyclic outbreaks of dengue fever in various regions, in which there are four main serotypes of the virus in circulation (Bastos et al. 2012, Dick et al. 2012). There is neither a vaccine nor specific treatment for dengue (Bhatt et al. 2013), so that combating the virus is limited to elimination of the mosquito vector (Beatty et al. 2010, Dick et al. 2012). Therefore, the search for new alternative strategies and increased vigilance for vector resistance have become essential for the control of this disease (Maciel-de-Freitas et al. 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Studies evaluated the effects of hexanic extracts from the fruits and flowers of Clusia fluminensis and the main component of the flower extract, a purified benzophenone (clusianone), against Aedes aegypti. The treatment of larvae with the crude fruit or flower extracts from C. fluminensis did not affect the survival of Ae. aegypti (50 mg/L), however, the flower extracts significantly delayed development of Ae. aegypti. In contrast, the clusianone (50 mg/L) isolate from the flower extract, representing 54.85% of this sample composition, showed a highly significant inhibition of survival, killing 93.3% of the larvae and completely blocking development of Ae. aegypti. The results showed, for the first time, high activity of clusianone against Ae. aegypti that both killed and inhibited mosquito development. Therefore, clusianone has potential for development as a biopesticide for controlling insect vectors of tropical diseases. Future work will elucidate the mode of action of clusianone isolated from C. fluminensis.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
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    • "In Malaysia, the fatality rate of dengue infection is approximately 3.6% based on the total number of dengue infections. The majority of deaths caused by dengue infection occur after the mild infection develops into severe haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome [4]. In addition to the global health problem caused by dengue infection, it also has an economic burden. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Although there have been considerable advances in the study of dengue virus, no vaccines or anti-dengue drugs are currently available for humans. Therefore, new approaches are necessary for the development of potent anti-dengue drugs. Natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with potent antiviral activities are potential hits-to-leads for antiviral drug discovery. We performed this study to identify and characterise the inhibitory potential of the latarcin peptide (Ltc 1, SMWSGMWRRKLKKLRNALKKKLKGE) against dengue virus replication in infected cells. Results The Ltc 1 peptide showed a significantly inhibitory effect against the dengue protease NS2B-NS3pro at 37°C, a physiological human temperature, (IC50, 12.68 ± 3.2 μM), and greater inhibitory effect was observed at 40°C, a temperature similar to a high fever (IC50, 6.58 ± 4.1 μM). A greater reduction in viral load (p.f.u./ml) was observed at simultaneous (0.7 ± 0.3 vs. 7.2 ± 0.5 control) and post-treatment (1.8 ± 0.7 vs. 6.8 ± 0.6 control) compared to the pre-treatment (4.5 ± 0.6 vs. 6.9 ± 0.5 control). Treatment with the Ltc 1 peptide reduced the viral RNA in a dose-dependent manner with EC50 values of 8.3 ± 1.2, 7.6 ± 2.7 and 6.8 ± 2.5 μM at 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Conclusions The Ltc 1 peptide exhibited significant inhibitory effects against dengue NS2B-NS3pro and virus replication in the infected cells. Therefore, further investigation is necessary to develop the Ltc 1 peptide as a new anti-dengue therapeutic.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · BMC Microbiology
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