Predictors of Cervical and Recurrent Laryngeal Lymph Node Metastases From Esophageal Cancer

ArticleinThe Annals of thoracic surgery 90(6):1805-11; discussion 1811 · December 2010with4 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2010.06.085 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Although patients with esophageal cancer (EC) often develop lymph node metastases in the cervical and recurrent laryngeal (CRL) distribution, lymphadenectomy in this field is rarely performed. The purpose of this study was to determine factors associated with CRL node positivity and to determine the appropriate indications to perform a "three field" lymphadenectomy. In a retrospective review, EC patients who underwent three-field lymphadenectomy were analyzed. Predictors of positive CRL nodes were examined univariately, then selected for inclusion in a multivariate logistic regression model. From 1994 to 2009, 185 patients had a three-field lymphadenectomy, of whom 46 patients (24.9%) had positive CRL nodes. Final pathology stages (seventh edition) were I in 24 patients, II in 43, III in 109, and IV in 1 patient. Eight patients had a major pathologic response after induction therapy. On univariate analysis, variables significantly associated with positive CRL nodes included squamous cell histology, proximal location, advanced clinical presentation, the presence of clinical nodal disease, higher pT classification, and higher pN classification. There was no reduction in the rate of positive CRL nodes after induction chemotherapy. On multivariate analysis, higher pN classification (adjusted odds ratio 16.25, 95% confidence interval: 5.40 to 48.87; p < 0.0001) and squamous histology (adjusted odds ratio 6.04, 95% confidence interval: 2.21 to 16.56; p < 0.0001) predicted positive CRL nodes. Complete lymphadenectomy is necessary in esophageal cancer to appropriately stage patients. Low rates of positive CRL nodes are present with early clinical stage, with pT0-2 tumors, and with pN0 classification, particularly in patients with adenocarcinoma and gastroesophageal junction tumors. Dissection of the CRL field should be considered with advanced disease for adenocarcinoma and in all patients with squamous cell cancer.
    • "However, permanent damage is relatively low (3.4%). This result may have been obtained due to the performance of radical dissection of upper thoracic esophagus and aggressive lymph node dissection along the recurrent laryngeal nerve because recurrent laryngeal lymph node metastasis is a significant prognostic factor in ESCC [11]. One study revealed early recovery with minimally invasive Ivor Lewis esophagectomy through left lateral decubitus position compared with the open procedure [12, 13] . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) has the potential to reduce the morbidity and mortality of esophageal cancer surgery. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has a high incidence of earlier lymphatic spread and is usually located more proximal to the incisor than esophageal adenocarcinoma; consequently, the anastomosis should be made more proximal in the thorax or in the neck. We adopted the proximal intrathoracic anastomotic technique using thoracoscopy for mid-to-lower ESCC. Methods: From October 2010 to August 2014, fifty-eight consecutive patients underwent MIE for ESCC. After laparoscopic gastric tubing, thoracoscopic esophageal resection and reconstruction were performed using a 28-mm circular stapler following radical mediastinal lymph node dissection. We tried to make an anastomosis at the apex of the chest. Postoperative outcomes, including overall survival and recurrence, were assessed. Results: The mean patient age was 64.3±9 years. The mean operative time was 371.8±51.6 minutes, and the duration of the thorax procedure was 254.8±38.3 minutes. The mean number of lymph nodes dissected was 31±11.7. The mean intensive care unit (ICU) stay and hospital stay were 3.5±8.2 hours and 13.6±7.4 days, respectively. The level of anastomosis was 22.3±1.8cm from the incisor. One patient died of uncontrolled sepsis due to necrosis of the gastric graft. Two patients developed small contained leakage. Nine patients exhibited distant metastasis during the follow-up period. Conclusion: Thoracoscopic intrathoracic anastomosis at the proximal esophagus is feasible and safe.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2016
    • "Our findings support the published reports that the patients with EC who had abdominal LNs recurrence after the curative resection did not survive longer than 3 yr and that the cervical LNs recurrence occurring after the curative resection was a significant prognostic factor for EC patients (19, 20). In addition, we found that the LNs involved were located most frequently in cervical-thoracic fields especially in cervix and upper mediastinum, which was consistent with the previous report and might be due to abundant LNs located in cervix and upper mediastinum (21). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate how patterns of lymph nodes recurrence after radical surgery impact on survival of patients with pT1-3N0M0 thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. One hundred eighty consecutive patients with thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma underwent radical surgery, and the tumors were staged as pT1-3N0M0 by postoperative pathology. Lymph nodes recurrence was detected with computed tomography 3-120 months after the treatment. The patterns of lymph nodes recurrence including stations, fields and locations of recurrent lymph nodes, and impacts on patterns of survival were statistically analyzed. There was a decreasing trend of overall survival with increasing stations or fields of postoperative lymph nodes involved (all P<0.05). Univariate analysis showed that stations or fields of lymph nodes recurrence, and abdominal or cervical lymph nodes involved were prognostic factors for survival (all P<0.05). Cox analyses revealed that the field was an independent factor (P<0.05, odds ratio=2.73). Lymph nodes involved occurred predominantly in cervix and upper mediastinum (P<0.05). In conclusion, patterns of lymph node recurrence especially the fields of lymph nodes involved are significant prognostic factors for survival of patients with pT1-3N0M0 thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent advances in thoracoscopic surgery have made it possible to perform esophagectomy with conventional lymphadenectomy (paraesophageal and subcarinal lymph node dissection) using minimally invasive techniques. However, minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) combined with extensive lymphadenectomy along the recurrent laryngeal nerves (RLN) has remained technically challenging for thoracic surgeons. The aim of this study was to examine the safety and efficacy of extensive lymphadenectomy when compared to conventional lymphadenectomy during MIE. We retrospectively reviewed data from a cohort of 147 consecutive patients who underwent MIE for esophageal cancer (EC) over a 3-year period at our institution. During thoracoscopic esophagectomy, extensive lymphadenectomy along the RLN was performed on 76 patients from June 2009 to December 2010 (group A), while 71 patients underwent conventional lymphadenectomy from June 2008 to May 2009 (group B) and were enrolled as historical controls. Clinical characteristics including patient demographics, operation features, and the rate and type of complications were recorded for both groups. The number of dissected lymph nodes and the number of patients with nodes positive for cancer on histological examination were determined for both groups. Statistical analysis was used to identify differences between the two groups. All patients underwent thoracoscopic esophagectomy without conversion to open thoracotomy. Patient demographics and operation features were similar between the two groups. Of the 76 patients that underwent extensive lymphadenectomy there were 13 patients (17.11%) who were RLN positive, which resulted in upstaging of TNM in 5 patients (6.58%). The overall incidence of postoperative complications (42.10% versus 39.47%, p = 0.742) and permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy (1.32% versus 0%, p = 0.517) was similar between the two groups. Extensive mediastinal lymphadenectomy during minimally invasive esophagectomy is a feasible procedure for EC patients. It is technically safe and oncologically adequate in experienced hands, and improves the accuracy of tumor staging. Further study is required to discuss its long-term prognostic value for esophagus cancer patients.
    Article · Jan 2012
Show more