Design and rationale of the Reduction of Infarct Expansion and Ventricular Remodeling with Erythropoietin after Large Myocardial Infarction (REVEAL) trial

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA.
American heart journal (Impact Factor: 4.46). 11/2010; 160(5):795-803.e2. DOI: 10.1016/j.ahj.2010.09.007
Source: PubMed


Acute myocardial infarction (MI) remains a leading cause of death despite advances in pharmacologic and percutaneous therapies. Animal models of ischemia/reperfusion have demonstrated that single-dose erythropoietin may reduce infarct size, decrease apoptosis, and increase neovascularization, possibly through mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells.
REVEAL is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial evaluating the effects of epoetin α on infarct size and left ventricular remodeling in patients with large MIs. The trial comprises a dose-escalation safety phase and a single-dose efficacy phase using the highest acceptable epoetin α dose up to 60,000 IU. Up to 250 ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing primary or rescue percutaneous coronary intervention will be randomized to intravenous epoetin α or placebo within 4 hours of successful reperfusion. The primary study end point is infarct size expressed as a percentage of left ventricular mass, as measured by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging 2 to 6 days post study medication administration. Secondary end points will assess changes in endothelial progenitor cell numbers and changes in indices of ventricular remodeling.
The REVEAL trial will evaluate the safety and efficacy of the highest tolerated single dose of epoetin α in patients who have undergone successful rescue or primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

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Available from: Chiara Melloni
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    • "A functional erythropoietin receptor was found in the cardiovascular system including endothelial cells [2] and cardiomyocytes [38], and several in vitro and in vivo studies have shown a protective role of human recombinant Epo during ischemia and reperfusion in the heart with a reduction in infarct size and apoptosis [8-11]. Despite this promising experimental data, no clinical benefit of Epo in acute myocardial infarction was found in several clinical trials [17-21]. In contrast, two of these studies showed a trend to increased adverse events [17,18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Erythropoietin (Epo) has been shown to improve myocardial function in models of experimental myocardial infarction, but has also been associated with a rise in thromboembolic events. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of Epo on platelet activation and coagulation in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The study was designed as a substudy of the randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled REVIVAL-3 (REgeneration of VItal Myocardium in ST-Segment EleVation MyocardiAL Infarction by Erythropoietin) study that investigated the effects of recombinant human Epo in AMI. Serial venous blood samples were collected before and after study medication. Circulating prothrombin fragment F1 + 2, FVII, active FVII, beta thromboglobulin (TG) and P-Selectin were measured before and 60 hours after randomization by immunoassay (n = 94). In a randomly selected subgroup platelet aggregation was measured using whole blood aggregometry (Multiplate Analyzer, n = 45). After 5 days an increase in FVII was observed after Epo as compared to placebo (P = 0.02), yet active FVII and prothrombin fragment F1 + 2 remained unchanged. Moreover, no statistically significant differences in circulating TG or P-selectin were observed between the groups. As an expected response to peri-interventional therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin, platelet aggregation after stimulation with ADP, TRAP, ASPI or collagen decreased 12 hours and 2 days after PCI. However, no difference between the Epo and the placebo group was observed. After treatment with Epo in patients with AMI a slight increase in circulating FVII after Epo was not associated with an increase in active FVII, prothrombin fragment F1 + 2, TG or P-selectin. Moreover, platelet aggregation was not altered after treatment with Epo as compared to placebo. Trial registration Identifier: NCT01761435
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Thrombosis Journal
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    • "Thus, in the case of erythropoietin in patients with an acute MI, a reason why rhEPO was ineffective to reduce an MI size may have been the delay in drug administration. We investigated the role of such a delay in therapy in two rat models of MI induced by a permanent or temporary ligation of a coronary artery, in which we followed the design of the last clinical trial, REVEAL [17], [18]. Specifically, we compared the MI size among three different situations: when the bolus injections of rhEPO were administered systemically into rats either 2 hours after coronary ligation at the time of reperfusion, or 4 hours after reperfusion that followed 2 hours of coronary occlusion, or 6 hours after permanent coronary occlusion without reperfusion. "
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    ABSTRACT: To test a hypothesis that in negative clinical trials of erythropoietin in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) the erythropoietin (rhEPO) could be administered outside narrow therapeutic window. Despite overwhelming evidence of cardioprotective properties of rhEPO in animal studies, the outcomes of recently concluded phase II clinical trials have failed to demonstrate the efficacy of rhEPO in patients with acute MI. However, the time between symptoms onset and rhEPO administration in negative clinical trials was much longer that in successful animal experiments. MI was induced in rats either by a permanent ligation of a descending coronary artery or by a 2-hr occlusion followed by a reperfusion. rhEPO, 3000 IU/kg, was administered intraperitoneally at the time of reperfusion, 4 hrs after beginning of reperfusion, or 6 hrs after permanent occlusion. MI size was measured histologically 24 hrs after coronary occlusion. The area of myocardium at risk was similar among groups. The MI size in untreated rats averaged ~42% of area at risk, or ~24% of left ventricle, and was reduced by more than 50% (p<0.001) in rats treated with rhEPO at the time of reperfusion. The MI size was not affected by treatment administered 4 hrs after reperfusion or 6 hrs after permanent coronary occlusion. Therefore, our study in a rat experimental model of MI demonstrates that rhEPO administered within 2 hrs of a coronary occlusion effectively reduces MI size, but when rhEPO was administered following a delay similar to that encountered in clinical trials, it had no effect on MI size. The clinical trials that failed to demonstrate rhEPO efficacy in patients with MI may have missed a narrow therapeutic window defined in animal experiments.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2012 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: The clinical trials described in this article were presented at the Late Breaking Trials and the Clinical Science: Clinical Reports sessions of the American Heart Association Congress held in November 2010 in Chicago. The sessions and topics chosen for this article reflect the scope of interest of Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy. The presentations should be considered preliminary, as further analyses may be done, which could alter the final publication of the results of these studies. PROTECT (ProBNP Outpatient Tailored Chronic Heart Failure Therapy) was designed to test the hypothesis that adjustment of intensity of chronic heart failure (HF) therapy on the basis of NT-proBNP plasma level monitoring would improve outcomes. The results provided some support of this concept, but needs further evaluation in larger, blinded trials. REVEAL (Reduction of Infarct Expansion and Ventricular Remodeling with erythropoietin after large myocardial infarctions) evaluated in the clinical setting of ischemia-reperfusion following STEMI that erythropoietin could salvage ischemic myocardium. The results did not show a reduction in infarct size, but, in contrast, an increase in adverse event rates in the erythropoietin group. GRAVITAS (Gauging Responsiveness with a VerifyNow assay-Impact on Thrombosis and Safety trial) investigated the effect of a standard vs. high maintenance clopidogrel dose in patients with stable myocardial ischemia or NSTEMI and drug-eluting stent insertion. Patients with high PRU values as determined by VerfyNow assay were randomized to 75 mg or 150 mg clopidogrel daily. The study did not show a significant difference in primary event rate between both groups. The Cholesterol Treatment Trialists' Collaboration Studies group evaluated the concept proposed in the JUPITER study that HDL levels on statin treatment may not provide useful prognostic information. The CTTC in a large sample size of statin-treated patients observed, on the contrary, a significantly increased risk of CV events, even in patients with low LDL cholesterol levels. DEFINE (Determining the Efficacy and Tolerability of CETP inhibition with Anacetrapib) evaluated possible safety aspects with the CETP inhibitor anacetrapib (increase in blood pressure). The study did not show adverse safety aspects, but significantly reduced LDL cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol levels. ASSERT, a phase 2 dose-ranging study, investigated whether RVX-208 would increase Apo-A1 production. Apo-A1 may induce cholesterol efflux from macrophages and facilitate atherosclerosis regression. The study did not meet its primary endpoint, but significant prominent effects on lipids were found. ASCEND-HF was a large trial of nesiritide in >7000 patients with acute heart failure. The study did not show convincing symptom benefit, but on the other hand did not show harmful effects of nesiritide. EMPHASIS-HF evaluated the long term effects of eplerenone in patients with mild (NYHA class II) heart failure and systolic dysfunction. The study was prematurely ended because of highly significant beneficial effects. CUPID (Calcium Up-regulation by Percutaneous administration of gene therapy In cardiac Disease) is the first human study with gene transfer of SERCA2a (AVV1/SERCA2a: Mydicar). In a small placebo-controlled dose-ranging study in advanced heart failure patients a multiple endpoint analysis provided positive effects of the highest dose on symptomatic, functional and structural efficacy endpoints without adverse effects.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
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