Article

The Effects of Hedonically Acceptable Red Pepper Doses on Thermogenesis and Appetite

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Previous studies suggest consumption of red pepper (RP) promotes negative energy balance. However, the RP dose provided in these studies (up to 10 g/meal) usually exceeded the amount preferred by the general population in the United States (mean=~1 g/meal). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of hedonically acceptable RP doses served at a single meal in healthy, lean individuals on thermogenesis and appetite. Twenty-five men and women (aged 23.0 ± 0.5 years, BMI 22.6 ± 0.3 kg/m(2), 13 spicy food users and 12 non-users) participated in a randomized crossover trial during which they consumed a standardized quantity (1 g); their preferred quantity (regular spicy food users 1.8 ± 0.3 g/meal, non-users 0.3 ± 0.1 g/meal); or no RP. Energy expenditure, core body and skin temperature, and appetite were measured. Postprandial energy expenditure and core body temperature were greater, and skin temperature was lower, after test loads with 1 g RP than no RP. Respiratory quotient was lower after the preferred RP dose was ingested orally, compared to in capsule form. These findings suggest that RP's effects on energy balance stem from a combination of metabolic and sensory inputs, and that oral exposure is necessary to achieve RP's maximum benefits. Energy intake was lower after test loads with 1 g RP than no RP in non-users, but not in users. Preoccupation with food, and the desire to consume fatty, salty, and sweet foods were decreased more (or tended to be decreased more) in non-users than users after a 1 g RP test load, but did not vary after a test load with no RP. This suggests that individuals may become desensitized to the effects of RP with long-term spicy food intake.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Obesity raises the risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and several cancers (Haslam and James, 2005). Capsaicin is the major pungent principle of red chili pepper, which limits energy intake while it contains only negligible amounts of energy itself (Yoshioka et al., 1999;Westerterp-Plantenga et al., 2005 andLudy andMattes, 2011). Therefore, capsaicin might be an interesting target for anti-obesity therapy. ...
... Obesity raises the risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and several cancers (Haslam and James, 2005). Capsaicin is the major pungent principle of red chili pepper, which limits energy intake while it contains only negligible amounts of energy itself (Yoshioka et al., 1999;Westerterp-Plantenga et al., 2005 andLudy andMattes, 2011). Therefore, capsaicin might be an interesting target for anti-obesity therapy. ...
... So, oral exposure to red chili pepper is more effective to achieve the maximum effect (Westerterp-Plantenga et al., 2005). Moreover, capsaicin has been reported to suppress orexigenic sensations, it might decrease desire to eat (Ludy and Mattes, 2011) and hunger (Westerterp-Plantenga et al., 2005) in energy balance as well as in positive energy balance (Reinbach et al., 2009). ...
Thesis
This study investigated the effect of different drying methods, such as solar drying at 45oC and conventional drying at 60oC on the quality of red chili pepper for two varieties Serrano and Fresno. There were no significant difference between drying methods effects on chemical composition of the two varieties Serrano and Fresno with the exception of moisture which decreased in conventional dried samples more than solar. Meanwhile, the conventional drying method had the highest capsaicin content extracted by ethanol (2.74 and 1.28 %) for Serrano and Fresno varieties respectively. The antioxidant activity of fresh red chili pepper recorded the highest values (95.32 and 90.67 %). The effect of dried red chili pepper at 1 and 2% and the pure capsaicin at 0.015% were studied in experiments using male albino rats containing 20 % high fat diet (HFD) rendered diabetic with alloxan injection for 4 weeks. The lowest value of blood serum glucose was with G4 that fed HFD + 0.015% capsaicin that recorded 160 mg/dl. Moreover, serum cholesterol as well as serum triglycerides for the diabetic groups G4 and also G6 “fed HFD + 2% Serrano red dried chili pepper” were significantly low. The HDL concentration for the groups G4 and G6 were significantly higher than the G3 diabetic rats fed with HFD. Feeding the groups of diabetic rats with HFD + 1 or 2% dried red chili pepper or 0.015% capsaicin, the LDL and VLDL levels as well as total lipids were significantly low as compared with control diabetic HFD “G3”. The histopathological examination of liver and pancreas show that G4 and G6 of diabetic rats fed HFD, either administerated with 0.015 % capsaicin or fed with diet containing 2% dried Serrano pepper had the best histological examination for liver or pancreas. The chemical composition of all prepared chicken patty samples were almost the same, meanwhile, the chicken patty samples containing 2 % Serrano pepper show the best results for all physical and microbiological examination as well as sensory evaluation. Keywords: Red chili, Capsicum annum, capsaicin, drying, type 2 diabetes, cholesterol, high fat diet, chicken patties
... Although the current literature on the benefits of incorporating chili peppers into a healthy diet is limited, Figure 1 depicts the ways in which trigeminal stimuli have been shown or suggested to modify food intake and satisfaction, and these topics will be discussed throughout this paper. In addition to maintaining consumer satisfaction with less food and adding a dimension to flavor complexity (the third chemical sense), trigeminal stimuli have the potential to increase the perception of other tastes and odors, reduce the eating rate, suppress the appetite, increase micronutrient absorption, and possibly increase the metabolism, all factors that could lead to weight loss (Berridge & Fentress, 1985;Carstens et al., 2002;Delwiche, 2004;Dessirier et al., 2000Dessirier et al., , 2001Golzarand et al., 2018;Green, 1996a;Janssens et al., 2013Janssens et al., , 2014Kostyra et al., 2010;Lawless & Stevens, 1984;Ludy & Mattes, 2011;Prakash & Srinivasan, 2013;Rozin, 1990;Spence, 2018aSpence, , 2018bSpence & Wang, 2018;Tremblay et al., 2016;Urbina et al., 2017;Whiting et al., 2012Whiting et al., , 2014Yoshioka et al., 2004). ...
... In Western populations, a preference for spicy food is linked to increased adventurousness, sensation seeking, and open-minded attitudes regarding food, reduced food neophobia, as well as increased liking of vegetables and openness to vegetarianism in some cases, all of which translate to more variety and more deviation from the conventional Western diet that is high in meat, salt, sugar, and fat (Byrnes & Hayes, 2016;Carstens et al., 2002;Dalton & Byrnes, 2016;Ludy & Mattes, 2011;Prescott & Stevenson, 1995;Spence, 2018a;Spencer, Kurzer, Cienfuegos, & Guinard, 2018;Spinelli, De Toffoli, Dinnella, et al., 2018;Törnwall et al., 2014). Interestingly though, in cultures where chili is less frequently consumed, a high tolerance for spiciness is associated with masculinity and masculine traits (Byrnes & Hayes, 2015;Rozin & Schiller, 1980;Spence, 2018a). ...
... Capsaicin also has metabolic benefits: Research shows that isolated capsaicin or cayenne red pepper (which contains capsaicin) promotes negative energy balance and weight loss by increasing energy expenditure (increasing the metabolic rate and lipid oxidation rate) and decreasing energy intake (suppressing the appetite) (Golzarand et al., 2018;Green, 1996a;Henry & Emery, 1986;Janssens et al., 2013;Ludy & Mattes, 2011;Spence, 2018a;Tremblay et al., 2016;Urbina et al., 2017;Whiting et al., 2012Whiting et al., , 2014Yoshioka et al., 2004). However, these metabolic effects are reduced with regular spicy food users, suggesting that individuals become desensitized to the effects of red pepper with long-term intake of spicy foods. ...
Article
Obesity and obesity‐related illness are an increasingly prevalent problem globally, especially in Western society. One of the largest contributing factors to the obesity pandemic is the modern food environment and food culture. It is necessary to identify and develop strategies to increase the sensory appeal of healthy food and beverage options in order to provide healthy options to consumers without sacrificing the fundamental sensory enjoyment of eating. Since flavor is the largest driver of food intake and choice, it follows that flavor ought to be part of the solution. This paper reviews the potential of chili pepper or capsaicin (the pungent component of chili pepper) as a healthy eating strategy, by increasing energy expenditure, decreasing intake, decreasing eating rate, and enhancing flavor and satisfaction. Furthermore, we suggest a holistic chemesthetic approach to weight management, by using the sensory impact of trigeminal stimulation (spiciness or heat) in foods, rather than medicinally, in order to cross‐modally enhance tastes and odors, increase perceived complexity and overall flavor, increase sensory satisfaction, and decrease salt and caloric intake. Future research directions are discussed. It is necessary to provide strategies, such as trigeminal stimulation, global culinary practices, and flavor complexity, to consumers to maintain sensory satisfaction derived from healthier foods and beverages. Healthy does not have to equate to flavorless or unappealing, although it is commonly believed that unhealthy = tasty in the United States. Food can be both healthy and flavorful if we harness our collective sensory and culinary knowledge to generate a satisfying sensory experience. Incorporation of trigeminal stimulation, the third dimension of flavor in addition to taste and aroma, such as capsaicin or hot pepper, is an excellent example of drawing from global cuisines, increasing flavor complexity, and increasing overall flavor impression, in order to boost the sensory appeal, nutrition content, and nutrient absorption of healthy foods and to promote healthier eating.
... One of the most promising substances is capsaicin, the active ingredient responsible for the pungency of chili pepper, a cultivar group of the species named Capsicum, widely consumed in many traditional cuisines such as those in Mexico, India (the world's largest producer), Thailand, Korea, and Indonesia. In contrast, the consumption of chili pepper is limited in the traditional European and North American diets [2,3]. In this context, epidemiologic data show that consumption of foods containing capsaicin is associated with a lower prevalence of obesity [4]. ...
... Although these negative results are not a novelty [17,20], many clinical studies investigating the effects of capsaicin (or other capsaicinoids/capsinoids) on energy intake report positive effects, particularly a decrease in food intake, hunger, and desire of eating in subjects free to eat ad libitum after the ingestion of a capsaicin-containing meal [3,5]. This hypophagic effect seems to (particularly, but not completely) depend on oral exposure and, thereby, sensory stimulation of capsaicin, being less evident when perception of the pungency is reduced or abolished by the use of capsaicin-containing capsules (or other non-or less pungent compounds among capsaicinoids/capsinoids), a route of administration adopted in the present study [2,21,22]. We rule out that the ineffectiveness of capsaicin on energy intake and appetite is related to pharmacological (dose) and/or pharmacokinetic (early administration or late evaluation) reasons. ...
... Furthermore, in the first session of each experimental day, there were no differences in VAS rating scores for hunger and satiety in our obese subjects forced to completely consume lunch (ie, early evaluation). By contrast, we cannot invoke a desensitization to the pharmacological actions of capsaicinoids [2] because the obese subjects recruited in the present study were not exposed to chili pepper in the previous 3 weeks before the test. ...
Article
Although capsaicin has been reported to reduce energy intake and increase energy expenditure in an adult (normal-weight or overweight) population, thus resulting in a net negative energy balance and weight loss. These beneficial effects have not been investigated in young obese subjects. We hypothesize that capsaicin acutely administered in young obese subjects exerts the same effects on energy balance and that these effects are mediated by changes in gastrointestinal peptides regulating appetite. Thus the aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of capsaicin (2 mg) or placebo on energy intake, hunger and satiety in obese adolescents and young adults (F/M = 4/6, age: 21.0±5.8 yrs; BMI: 41.5±4.3 kg/m²), provided an ad libitum dinner. Furthermore, circulating levels of some orexigenic (ghrelin) and anorexigenic (GLP-1 and PYY) peptides were measured after a meal completely consumed (lunch), together with the evaluation of hunger and satiety and assessment of resting energy expenditure (REE) through indirect computerized calorimetry. When compared to placebo, capsaicin did not significantly change either energy intake or hunger/satiety six hours after its administration (dinner). No differences in circulating levels of ghrelin, GLP-1 and PYY and in hunger/satiety were found in the three hours immediately after food ingestion among obese subjects treated with capsaicin or placebo (lunch). By contrast, the meal significantly increased REE in the capsaicin- but not placebo-treated group (capsaicin: from 1957.2±455.1 kcal/day up to 2342.3±562.1 kcal/day, p<0.05; placebo: from 2060.1±483.4 kcal/day up to 2296.0±484.5 kcal/day). The pre-post meal difference in REE after capsaicin administration was significantly higher than that observed after placebo (385.1±164.4 kcal/day vs. 235.9±166.1 kcal/day, p<0.05). In conclusion, although capsaicin does not exert hypophagic effects, these preliminary data demonstrate its ability as a metabolic activator in young obese subjects.
... In human, oral intake of chili peppers acutely causes facial sweating and salivation [9] and increases blood pressure and heart rate [10]. The intake of chili peppers is also reported to decrease core body [11,12] and skin surface temperature [12]. ...
... In human, oral intake of chili peppers acutely causes facial sweating and salivation [9] and increases blood pressure and heart rate [10]. The intake of chili peppers is also reported to decrease core body [11,12] and skin surface temperature [12]. ...
... It is well known in rodents that the tail is an important thermal effector organ controlling heat dissipation [35]. This result is agreement with the results of human that oral intake of chili peppers acutely decreases core body temperature [11,12]. The present our data also coincide with the results from rodents that subcutaneous administration of CAP decreases colon temperature and increases skin surface temperature in immobilized rats [14,[16][17][18] and freely moving WT mice [21]. ...
Article
Capsaicin (CAP), the pungent ingredient of hot red pepper, is a selective ligand for the heat-sensitive transient receptor potential V1 cation channel 1 (TRPV1). Although CAP has been traditionally used as the ingredient of spices for various foods in the world, the effect of oral intake of CAP on thermoregulation and locomotor activity, and CAP-induced activation of brain neural circuits are not well understood. In this study, therefore, we examined the effects of oral gavage of CAP on core body and tail surface temperature, locomotor activity, and Fos expression in thermoregulation- and sensory information-associated hypothalamic and medullary brain regions using freely moving mice. Oral gavage of CAP acutely decreased core body temperature and alternatively increased tail surface temperature of wild type (WT) mice, whereas such acute temperature changes were not observed in TRPV1 knockout (KO) animals. Moreover, a long-lasting increase of locomotor activity was observed in both WT and TRPV1 KO mice after oral gavage of CAP, but increase in core body temperature was seen only in TRPV1 KO animals. Oral gavage of CAP induced neuronal Fos expression in the circumventricular organs, median and medial preoptic area, arcuate nucleus, and nucleus of the solitary tract, whereas neuronal Fos expression was scarcely observed in TRPV1 KO mice. Thus, the present study demonstrates in the mice that oral intake of CAP causes TRPV1-dependent acute hypothermia and TRPV1-independent long-lasting increase of locomotor activity, and moreover activates the brain circuits controlling thermoregulation and metabolism.
... , in six studies were men(Ang et al., 2017;Kawabata et al., 2006;Schwarz et al., 2013;Shin & Moritani, 2007) and 11 studies included both genders(Ahuja et al., 2006(Ahuja et al., , 2007Inoue et al., 2007;Janssens et al., 2013;Kroff et al., 2017;Lee et al., 2010;Lejeune et al., 2003;Ludy & Mattes, 2011;Smeets et al., 2013;Smeets & Westerterp- Plantenga, 2009;Snitker et al., 2009). The design of 11 studies was crossover(Ahuja et al., 2006(Ahuja et al., , 2007Ang et al., 2017;Janssens et al., 2013;Kroff et al., 2017;Ludy & Mattes, 2011;Schwarz et al., 2013;Smeets et al., 2013;Smeets & Westerterp-Plantenga, 2009;Yoshioka et al., 1998), while the remaining (n = 7) had parallel designInoue et al., 2007;Kawabata et al., 2006;Lee et al., 2010;Lejeune et al., 2003;Shin & Moritani, 2007;Snitker et al., 2009). ...
... , in six studies were men(Ang et al., 2017;Kawabata et al., 2006;Schwarz et al., 2013;Shin & Moritani, 2007) and 11 studies included both genders(Ahuja et al., 2006(Ahuja et al., , 2007Inoue et al., 2007;Janssens et al., 2013;Kroff et al., 2017;Lee et al., 2010;Lejeune et al., 2003;Ludy & Mattes, 2011;Smeets et al., 2013;Smeets & Westerterp- Plantenga, 2009;Snitker et al., 2009). The design of 11 studies was crossover(Ahuja et al., 2006(Ahuja et al., , 2007Ang et al., 2017;Janssens et al., 2013;Kroff et al., 2017;Ludy & Mattes, 2011;Schwarz et al., 2013;Smeets et al., 2013;Smeets & Westerterp-Plantenga, 2009;Yoshioka et al., 1998), while the remaining (n = 7) had parallel designInoue et al., 2007;Kawabata et al., 2006;Lee et al., 2010;Lejeune et al., 2003;Shin & Moritani, 2007;Snitker et al., 2009). Participants' mean age ranged from 20.4 to 53.9 years. ...
... Regarding sample size, it should be stated that included eligible studies had sample size range from 10 to 91 subjects. According to the reported data in the included studies, four trials were single blindShin & Moritani, 2007;Smeets et al., 2013;Smeets & Westerterp-Plantenga, 2009), eight were double blind(Ang et al., 2017;Inoue et al., 2007;Lee et al., 2010;Lejeune et al., 2003;Schwarz et al., 2013;Snitker et al., 2009) and the remaining (n = 6)(Ahuja et al., 2006(Ahuja et al., , 2007Kawabata et al., 2006;Kroff et al., 2017;Ludy & Mattes, 2011;Yoshioka et al., 1998) did not reported any level of blindness. In 11 studies(Ang et al., 2017;Inoue et al., 2007;Lee et al., 2010;Lejeune et al., 2003;Ludy & Mattes, 2011;Schwarz et al., 2013;Shin & Moritani, 2007;Smeets et al., 2013;Snitker et al., 2009), Capsaicinoids/Capsinoids were consumed in the capsule form and in seven studies(Ahuja et al., 2006(Ahuja et al., , 2007Janssens et al., 2013;Kawabata et al., 2006;Kroff et al., 2017;Smeets & Westerterp-Plantenga, 2009;Yoshioka et al., 1998) the powder form was preferred. ...
Article
The outcomes of the earlier trials are controversial concerning the effect of Capsaicinoids/Capsinoids on thermogenesis. We carried out this systematic review and meta‐analysis to examine the effect of Capsaicinoids/Capsinoids on thermogenesis indices including resting metabolic rate (RMR) and respiratory quotient (RQ) in healthy adults. An electronic literature search was conducted between 1990 and 2019, using the following databases: PubMed, Web of Sciences, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and EMBASE. Placebo‐controlled clinical trials were considered as eligible papers. Effect sizes were pooled using weighted mean difference (WMD), with a random‐effects model. Of the 4,092 articles, 13 studies were included in the meta‐analysis. Pooled effect sizes revealed that compared with placebo, Capsaicinoids/Capsinoids significantly increased RMR (WMD: 33.99 Kcal/day, 95% CI: 15.95, 52.03; I²: 0%, p = .94), energy expenditure, and fat oxidation. It also significantly lessened RQ (WMD: −0.01, 95% CI: −0.02, −0.01; I²: 5.4%, p = .39) and carbohydrate oxidation. Moreover, intervention in capsule form for longer duration had a more considerable influence on RMR than comparative groups. We observed moderate improvement in RMR, RQ, and fat oxidation following supplementation with Capsaicinoids/Capsinoids. However, further high‐quality studies are required to clarify the thermogenic properties of Capsaicinoids/Capsinoids.
... The effects of capsaicin supplementation on satiety and food intake are illustrated in Table 1. In human studies, dietary supplementation of a TRPV1 agonist such as capsaicin, or the less pungent sweet form capsiate, caused a short-term trend or significant decrease in energy intake along with an increase in satiety (88,89,91,92,97). These effects could at least in part be due to the effect of TRPV1 on appetite hormones and/or gastrointestinal vagal afferents. ...
... Dietary supplementation of capsaicin can also influence nutrient preference. It has been demonstrated that capsaicin ingestion reduced the desire for and subsequent intake of fatty foods (91,97,98), whilst also increasing the desire for and intake of carbohydrates (92,97). Conversely, in other studies, capsaicin ingestion reduced the desire for and consumption of carbohydrates, and increased the desire for salt rich foods (91,102). ...
... It has been demonstrated that capsaicin ingestion reduced the desire for and subsequent intake of fatty foods (91,97,98), whilst also increasing the desire for and intake of carbohydrates (92,97). Conversely, in other studies, capsaicin ingestion reduced the desire for and consumption of carbohydrates, and increased the desire for salt rich foods (91,102). The sensory mechanisms responsible for the changes in food preferences remain to be determined. ...
Article
Full-text available
The ion channel TRPV1 is involved in a wide range of processes including nociception, thermosensation and, more recently discovered, energy homeostasis. Tightly controlling energy homeostasis is important to maintain a healthy body weight, or to aid in weight loss by expending more energy than energy intake. TRPV1 may be involved in energy homeostasis, both in the control of food intake and energy expenditure. In the periphery, it is possible that TRPV1 can impact on appetite through control of appetite hormone levels or via modulation of gastrointestinal vagal afferent signaling. Further, TRPV1 may increase energy expenditure via heat production. Dietary supplementation with TRPV1 agonists, such as capsaicin, has yielded conflicting results with some studies indicating a reduction in food intake and increase in energy expenditure, and other studies indicating the converse. Nonetheless, it is increasingly apparent that TRPV1 may be dysregulated in obesity and contributing to the development of this disease. The mechanisms behind this dysregulation are currently unknown but interactions with other systems, such as the endocannabinoid systems, could be altered and therefore play a role in this dysregulation. Further, TRPV1 channels appear to be involved in pancreatic insulin secretion. Therefore, given its plausible involvement in regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis and its dysregulation in obesity, TRPV1 may be a target for weight loss therapy and diabetes. However, further research is required too fully elucidate TRPV1s role in these processes. The review provides an overview of current knowledge in this field and potential areas for development.
... SNS activation has been shown to be involved in the appetite-suppressing effect of capsaicin, and repeated exposure to capsaicin may induce TRPV1 desensitization [17]. This may also explain the fact that the appetite-suppressing effects of capsaicin were less pronounced in individuals who regularly consumed capsaicin before the trial [36]. Therefore, habitual consumption of capsaicin may alter the effects of capsaicin on appetite and food intake. ...
... However, a single administration of a low dose of capsaicin (1-5 mg) resulted in different outcomes. Concretely, some reported no effect [40,41] whereas two other studies reported increases in lipid oxidation and/or energy expenditure [21,36]. Studies assessing repeated administration over a long period also yielded different outcomes. ...
... For example, the thermogenic components of SNS activity and energy expenditure were only significantly increased in lean but not obese women after a capsaicin-containing diet; however, both groups showed similar SNS activity levels at rest [21]. Additionally, the effect of capsaicin on postprandial thermogenesis was higher in study participants that did not regularly consume spicy foods compared to habitual users [36]. Capsaicin pretreatment was shown to prevent capsaicin-induced catecholamine secretion in animal studies [5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The consumption of capsaicinoids, the active components in chili peppers, has been associated with both positive and negative health effects, and the level of capsaicinoid exposure may be an important determinant. Dietary capsaicinoid exposure was estimated using a previously developed database for capsaicinoid content and a 24-h dietary recall dataset obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The estimated consumption level was evaluated to determine its potential effects on weight reduction and gastrointestinal distress. The estimated daily mean capsaicinoid intake was 3.25 mg (2.17 mg capsaicin), and most Koreans consumed 1–30 mg of capsaicinoids (0.67–20 mg capsaicin) in a day. No adverse effect of capsaicin consumption was reported other than abdominal pain. For long-term repeated consumption, 30 mg may be the maximum tolerable dose. However, the effects on body weight or energy balance were inconsistent in 4–12 week clinical studies conducted with various capsaicin doses (2–135 mg), which was likely due to the complex interplay between capsaicin dose, study length, and participant characteristics. Therefore, the capsaicin consumption of most Koreans was below the levels that may cause adverse effects. However, more long-term studies for the dose range of 2–20 mg are required to further characterize capsaicin’s health benefits in Koreans.
... Over the years, it has been demonstrated that capsaicinoid compounds could have various beneficial effects on health (Chapa-Oliver and Mejia-Teniente, 2016;Fathima, 2015), such as an antiobesity effect (Varghese et al., 2017) and an antidiabetic effect (Chaiyata et al., 2003;Fathima, 2015;Salehi et al., 2018;Varghese et al., 2017). Capsaicin increases thermogenesis through stimulation of catecholamine secretion and subsequent SNS activation (Ludy and Mattes, 2011), and regulates glucose metabolism (Page et al., 2019) via TRPV1 activation (Luo et al., 2012). Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the acute effect of the consumption of 5 g of chili peppers on thermogenesis and the glycemic response postoral glucose load in men. ...
... Chili is used in many countries and currently its consumption suggests the possibility of health benefits (Fathima, 2015;Salehi et al., 2018). Although there is no information about the average intake of chili in Chile, it is said that the average intake of red pepper in the United States is 1 g per meal (Ludy and Mattes, 2011), and it is estimated that in Mexico the average intake of chili per capita is of 30 g per day (SIAP, 2012). In our study, we observed that the consumption of 5 g of chili pepper (C. ...
... Additionally, this study shows there was an increase of 34% in the EE of all the participants and 28% in the EE of sedentary participants during the first minute after consuming chili; however, no significant results regarding the EE at the 15-min mark postprandial or at the 60-min mark postprandial were observed. Another study carried out with 25 healthy participants (women and men) concluded that the consumption of 1 g of cayenne pepper (1995 µg/g capsaicin, 247 µg/g of nordihydrocapsaicin, and 1350 µg/g of dihydrocapsaicin) in a tomato soup caused an increase of 10 kcal in EE during 270 min in comparison to the tomato soup without cayenne pepper (Ludy and Mattes, 2011). Generally speaking, it is suggested that capsaicin and its analogues produce an increase of approximately 58.56 kcal/day and of 69.79 kcal/day in overweight participants. ...
Article
Hypoglycemic and thermogenic effects are attributed to the capsaicinoid compounds (capsaicin). The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute effect of the consumption of 5g of chili pepper on thermogenesis and the glycemic response. In a pretest-post-test quasi-experimental study, the energy expenditure (EE) of 15 healthy men was evaluated by using indirect calorimetry at rest and with the consumption of 5g of Capsicum annum. In addition, the glycemic response after an oral glucose load was evaluated. After the consumption of C. annum, there was a significant increase in the EE of all the participants during the first few seconds postchili consumption. In sedentary participants, the consumption of chili pepper caused a significant decrease of blood glucose levels. The consumption of chili pepper has a potential immediate thermogenic effect during the first few seconds and, in sedentary people, it has a potential hypoglycemic effect.
... Obesity raises the risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and several cancers (Haslam and James, 2005). Capsaicin is the major pungent principle of red chili pepper, which limits energy intake while it contains only negligible amounts of energy itself (Yoshioka et al., 1999;Westerterp-Plantenga et al., 2005 andLudy andMattes, 2011). Therefore, capsaicin might be an interesting target for anti-obesity therapy. ...
... Obesity raises the risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and several cancers (Haslam and James, 2005). Capsaicin is the major pungent principle of red chili pepper, which limits energy intake while it contains only negligible amounts of energy itself (Yoshioka et al., 1999;Westerterp-Plantenga et al., 2005 andLudy andMattes, 2011). Therefore, capsaicin might be an interesting target for anti-obesity therapy. ...
... So, oral exposure to red chili pepper is more effective to achieve the maximum effect (Westerterp-Plantenga et al., 2005). Moreover, capsaicin has been reported to suppress orexigenic sensations, it might decrease desire to eat (Ludy and Mattes, 2011) and hunger (Westerterp-Plantenga et al., 2005) in energy balance as well as in positive energy balance (Reinbach et al., 2009). ...
Thesis
This study investigated the effect of different drying methods, such as solar drying at 45oC and conventional drying at 60oC on the quality of red chili pepper for two varieties Serrano and Fresno. There were no significant difference between drying methods effects on chemical composition of the two varieties Serrano and Fresno with the exception of moisture which decreased in conventional dried samples more than solar. Meanwhile, the conventional drying method had the highest capsaicin content extracted by ethanol (2.74 and 1.28 %) for Serrano and Fresno varieties respectively. The antioxidant activity of fresh red chili pepper recorded the highest values (95.32 and 90.67 %). The effect of dried red chili pepper at 1 and 2% and the pure capsaicin at 0.015% were studied in experiments using male albino rats containing 20 % high fat diet (HFD) rendered diabetic with alloxan injection for 4 weeks. The lowest value of blood serum glucose was with G4 that fed HFD + 0.015% capsaicin that recorded 160 mg/dl. Moreover, serum cholesterol as well as serum triglycerides for the diabetic groups G4 and also G6 “fed HFD + 2% Serrano red dried chili pepper” were significantly low. The HDL concentration for the groups G4 and G6 were significantly higher than the G3 diabetic rats fed with HFD. Feeding the groups of diabetic rats with HFD + 1 or 2% dried red chili pepper or 0.015% capsaicin, the LDL and VLDL levels as well as total lipids were significantly low as compared with control diabetic HFD “G3”. The histopathological examination of liver and pancreas show that G4 and G6 of diabetic rats fed HFD, either administerated with 0.015 % capsaicin or fed with diet containing 2% dried Serrano pepper had the best histological examination for liver or pancreas. The chemical composition of all prepared chicken patty samples were almost the same, meanwhile, the chicken patty samples containing 2 % Serrano pepper show the best results for all physical and microbiological examination as well as sensory evaluation. Keywords: Red chili, Capsicum annum, capsaicin, drying, type 2 diabetes, cholesterol, high fat diet, chicken patties
... After a chili meal, a reduced energy expenditure was noted in adult men and women with body mass index ≥ 26 [173] and postprandial respiration quotient was reduced by 30% [179,180]. This reduction on respiration quotient was observed in dietary consumption of chili among habitual users and non-users of chili [181]. In a study performed with 12 men and 12 women, the exposure to capsaicin, oral and gastrointestinal, increased satiety and reduced caloric as well as fat intake [182]. ...
... A larger increase in energy expenditure was observed in men after a meal containing 10 g of red pepper, and the author of this study suggest that it was caused by beta-adrenergic stimulation [177]. Chili consumption increases diet-induced thermogenesis in a high fat and carbohydrate diet [179,184], but was more pronounced in irregular consumers of chili than habitual consumers [181]. In a 2-weeks study, a supplement containing 0.4 mg capsaicin, 625 mg green tea extract and 800 mg essence of chicken reduced body fat content of free-living healthy human subjects, approximately 460 g, and increases the resting energy expenditure [185]. ...
Article
Capsicum genus (Solanaceae) is native to the Americas. Today, it is an important agricultural crop cultivated around the world, not only due to its economic importance, but also for the nutritional value of the fruits. Among their phytochemical constituents, capsaicinoids are characteristic and responsible of the pungency of sharp-tasting cultivars. Moreover, Capsicum and capsaicinoids (mainly, capsaicin) have been largely studied because of their health benefits. Thus, this study reviews the scientific knowledge about Capsicum spp. and their phytochemicals against cancer, diabetes, gastrointestinal diseases, pain, and metabolic syndrome, as well as their antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. These bioactivities can be the basis of the formulation of functional ingredients and natural preservatives containing Capsicum extracts or isolated compounds.
... Chili is one of the most popular and important spices, used as food flavoring [13]. Studies show several positive effects of chili, including antimicrobial, anti-oxidative [14,15], anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-obesity through thermogenesis and reducing appetite [15,16]. It is also demonstrated to have a beneficial effect on supporting weight management [17], controlling hypertension [18e20,22]. ...
... Chili is one of the most popular and important spices, used as food flavoring [13]. Studies show several positive effects of chili, including antimicrobial, anti-oxidative [14,15], anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-obesity through thermogenesis and reducing appetite [15,16]. It is also demonstrated to have a beneficial effect on supporting weight management [17], controlling hypertension [18e20,22]. ...
Article
Background & aims: Population-based evidence that suggests health effects of spicy consumptions on fracture was scant. The study aimed to explore the association of spicy food intake with self-reported history of fractures in the Chinese populations. Methods: Data was drawn from the baseline survey of a large cohort study conducted in China between 2004 and 2008. A total of 512,891 adults (including 302,632 females) were included. Frequency, strength and duration of spicy food consumption were assessed using a survey questionnaire. Fracture history was self-reported based on physician's diagnoses. Multivariate logistic regression models stratified by socio-economic factors, body mass index and other lifestyle factors were performed adjusting for potential confounders. Results: The prevalence of daily spicy food intake was 30.32% in males and 29.90% in females. The adjusted odds ratios for fractures were 1.04 (95% CI: 1.01-1.07) for those who ate spicy food occasionally, 1.10 (95% CI: 1.05-1.16) for those who ate one or two days a week, 1.15 (95% CI: 1.09-1.20) for three to five days a week, and 1.12 (95% CI: 1.07-1.17) for daily consumers, compared to participants who never ate spicy food. Participants who ate weak spicy food (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.14-1.23), moderate spicy food (OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.06-1.15) and strong spicy food (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.12-1.25) were more strongly associated with self-reported history of fracture. In addition, the strengths of associations were consistently stronger with the duration of spicy food exposure. In stratified analyses, the strength of such an association appeared stronger in rural areas (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.09-1.20) than urban (OR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.05-1.12). The correlation was consistently stronger in males than in females. Conclusions: Among Chinese adults, a positive cross-sectional association between the level of spicy food intake and history of fractures was found in both sexes.
... Other studies have reported that capsaicinoid consumption reduces appetite (Castonguay & Bellinger, 1987;Ludy & Mattes, 2011;Westerterp-Plantenga, Smeets, & Lejeune, 2005;Yoshioka et al., 1999), although equivocal data exists ). In rodents, Castonguay and Bellinger (Castonguay & Bellinger, 1987) reported capsaicin injections reduced the intake of sweetened condensed milk. ...
... Yoshika et al (Yoshioka et al., 1999) reported in humans that the consumption of 10 g of red pepper with breakfast decreased food intake during a subsequent lunch meal, and the authors attributed this to the capsaicinoid content of the peppers. Similarly, Ludy and Mattes (Ludy & Mattes, 2011) reported that naïve red pepper consumers who consumed 1 g of red pepper exhibited a reduced preoccupation with their desire to consume fatty/salty/sweet foods. Regarding potential appetite-reducing mechanisms of capsaicin, prior rodent research has reported that peripheral gut sensory neurons that are capsaicin-sensitive can regulate food intake (Gomez et al., 2002). ...
... The anti-obesity action of capsaicin (and non-pungent related compounds) has been previously described in both animal and human studies. Evidence suggests that capsaicin decreases body weight by increasing energy expenditure [28][29][30][31][32] , stimulating adipose tissue lipid mobilization and fat oxidation 30,31,33,34 , and reducing energy intake 29,32,35,36 ; however, its concrete mechanism is not clear. ...
... The anti-obesity action of capsaicin (and non-pungent related compounds) has been previously described in both animal and human studies. Evidence suggests that capsaicin decreases body weight by increasing energy expenditure [28][29][30][31][32] , stimulating adipose tissue lipid mobilization and fat oxidation 30,31,33,34 , and reducing energy intake 29,32,35,36 ; however, its concrete mechanism is not clear. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract We aimed to assess the potential effects of hesperidin and capsaicin, independently and in combination, to prevent the development of obesity and its related metabolic alterations in rats fed an obesogenic diet. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: Control (animals fed a standard diet), WD (animals fed a high fat/sucrose (western) diet), HESP (animals fed a western diet + hesperidin (100 mg/kg/day)), CAP (animals fed a western diet + capsaicin (4 mg/kg/day)), and HESP + CAP (animals fed a western diet + hesperidin (100 mg/kg/day) + capsaicin (4 mg/kg/day)). Hesperidin and capsaicin were administered by gavage. Capsaicin decreased body fat gain and prevented insulin resistance, whereas hesperidin showed little effect on body fat gain and no apparent effects on insulin resistance. No additive effects were observed with the combination. Capsaicin and hesperidin, separately, improved blood lipid profile, diminished hepatic lipid accumulation, and prevented non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in western diet-fed rats, but the combination showed lower effects. Hesperidin alone, and to a lesser extent capsaicin or the combination, displayed hypotensive effects in western diet-fed rats. In conclusion, capsaicin and hesperidin, separately, exhibit health beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome-related alterations in western diet-fed rats, but the effects are mitigated with the combination.
... Estudios anteriores han demostrado que una exposición a la comida picante puede atenuar los efectos de pérdida de peso, debido a una adaptación inducida al efecto termogénico en el apetito y otros efectos de pérdida de peso (18). ...
... Capsaicinoids (e.g., capsaicin or dihydrocapsaicin) are the bioactive compounds of the chili pepper fruit, genus Capsicum, that are responsible for their pungent sensation [20,81,82]. A few studies report that orally ingested capsaicinoids are able to increase satiety [83][84][85]. However, the findings of this review regarding the efficacy of capsaicinoids are not entirely consistent. ...
Article
Full-text available
The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide. Bioactive phytochemicals in food supplements are a trending approach to facilitate dieting and to improve patients’ adherence to reducing food and caloric intake. The aim of this systematic review was to assess efficacy and safety of the most commonly used bioactive phytochemicals with appetite/hunger-suppressing and/or satiety/fullness-increasing properties. To be eligible, studies needed to have included at least 10 patients per group aged 18 years or older with no serious health problems except for overweight or obesity. Of those studies, 32 met the inclusion criteria, in which 27 different plants were tested alone or as a combination, regarding their efficacy in suppressing appetite/hunger and/or increasing satiety/fullness. The plant extracts most tested were derived from Camellia sinensis (green tea), Capsicum annuum, and Coffea species. None of the plant extracts tested in several trials showed a consistent positive treatment effect. Furthermore, only a few adverse events were reported, but none serious. The findings revealed mostly inconclusive evidence that the tested bioactive phytochemicals are effective in suppressing appetite/hunger and/or increasing satiety/fullness. More systematic and high quality clinical studies are necessary to determine the benefits and safety of phytochemical complementary remedies for dampening the feeling of hunger during dieting.
... Estudios anteriores han demostrado que una exposición a la comida picante puede atenuar los efectos de pérdida de peso, debido a una adaptación inducida al efecto termogénico en el apetito y otros efectos de pérdida de peso (18). ...
... This suggests that, compared with the control group, supplementation of the food with the powder of Capsicum frutescens did not favor a fattening in broilers Hubbard. This is linked to the slimming effect of capsaicin (the main component of chili), reported by Ludy and Mattes (2011). Individual food consumption, the average final weight and average daily gain are low compared to those reported by Al-Kassie et al. (2011) in broilers. ...
... The capsaicin present in red pepper powder can improve energy metabolism, lower cholesterol levels, improve blood lipid profiles, and break down fat tissues [5]. The use of red pepper powder has been shown to alter thermogenesis and appetite [6]. Other studies have reported changes in appetite and energy balance upon ingestion of capsaicin [7,8]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Kochujang shows anti-obesity effects in cell and animal models. Kochujang is traditionally prepared via slow fermentation or commercially using Aspergillus oryzae. We analyze the anti-obesity effects of two types of Kochujang in overweight and obese adults. The analyses included the following groups: traditional Kochujang containing either a high-dose (HTK; n = 19), or a low-dose of beneficial microbes (LTK; n = 18), and commercial Kochujang (CK; n = 17). Waist circumference decreased significantly in the HTK and CK groups. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels decreased in the HTK and LTK groups. Visceral fat is significantly reduced in the HTK group. The population of beneficial microorganisms in stool samples increased in all groups. Consumption of Kochujang reduces visceral fat content and improves the lipid profile, which can be enhanced by enrichment with beneficial microbes. These results suggest that Kochujang has the potential for application in obesity prevention.
... Current findings demonstrate that foodstuffs with hot or cold nature have biochemical and physiological effects. These effects include a change in thermogenesis, autonomic nervous system, immune systems, endocrine system, digestive enzymes [33,34,35], central temperature and energy expenditure [36]. Thus, Avicenna believed that foodstuffs should be selected more from the type one. ...
Article
Full-text available
Periconceptional care such as lifestyle plays an important impact role in offspring health. The aim of the present study was to clarify the perspective of Avicenna on periconceptional care. Avicenna (980-1037 A.D.) was one of the outstanding Persian physicians, who made great contributions to the field of medical sciences, in particular, obstetrics. In advance, Avicenna's book, Canon of Medicine, was considered to find his perspectives on periconceptional care. Then, his ideas and theories were compared to the current findings by searching the keywords in main indexing systems including PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus and Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science as well as the search engine of Google Scholar. Current investigations show that gamete quality, pregnancy outcome, and offspring health at birth and long term depend on both parents' lifestyle in pre- and periconceptional period, as well as the intrauterine environment. Avicenna believed that seminal fluid, sperm, ovum, and developing conditions in utero were influenced by the stages of food digestion and the function of some organs. On the other hand, food digestion and function of the organs also depend on each parent's lifestyle and environmental factors. He mentioned 6 principles of healthy lifestyle: exercise, nutrition, sleep and awareness, excretion of body wastes and retention of necessary materials, psychic features, as well as air and climate. Thus, a multicomponent healthy lifestyle should be considered by parents of child-bearing age in an appropriate period before and in early pregnancy as well as elimination of any disorders in parents, to give birth to more healthy offspring. Copyright © 2019 Shanghai Changhai Hospital. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... Stanton et al. (2016) and Geaney et al. (2015) find that there is a significant positive correlation between health awareness and healthy diet. Yoshioka et al. (2004) and Ludy and Mattes (2011) note that chili intake is closely linked with a healthy diet and eating too much chili can harm health. Standard errors are clustered in the county level (reported in parentheses) ***, **, and * indicate statistical significance at the 1%, 5%, and 10% level respectively Standard errors are clustered in the county level (reported in parentheses) ***, **, and * indicate statistical significance at the 1%, 5%, and 10% level respectively ...
Article
Full-text available
Based on the Theory of Rational Addiction (TORA), this paper uses the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) data to identify the correlation between income and preference for spicy foods. Results show that low-income individuals have a higher preference for spicy foods compared to high-income people, even in the same geographic area. Males and young people prefer spicy foods more than females and the elderly. Instrumental variable (IV) regression results also support that low-income individuals have a higher preference for spicy foods. The effect-channel results show that income affects the preference of spicy foods through health behaviors and health awareness. However, there is no significant evidence to support arguments about health capital stock and food selection channels.
... It is well known that the degree of exposure to spicy foods strongly predicts an individual's perceptual and hedonic ratings for such foods (Ludy & Mattes, 2011;Rozin & Schiller, 1980;Stevenson & Yeomans, 1995). In particular, frequent consumers of spicy foods typically expe rience less oral burn from chili pepper (or its active ingredient, capsaicin) and find its pungency more pleasant than infrequent or non-consumers (Cowart, 1987;Lawless, Hartono, & Hernandez, 2000;Lawless, Rozin, & Shenker, 1985;Nolden & Hayes, 2017;Prescott & Stevenson, 1995, 1996a, 1996bRozin, 1990;Stevenson & Prescott, 1994;Stevenson & Yeomans, 1993Tornwall, Silventoinen, Kaprio, & Tuorila, 2012). ...
Article
Individual differences in perception and liking of spicy foods are well known, but poorly understood. Most studies have investigated this phenomenon using chili pepper (capsaicin), while neglecting other pungent spices. This study examined the role of PROP taster status (a genetic marker for oral sensations), personality factors, and emotions in perception and liking of tomato and butternut squash soups flavored with chipotle chili and ginger extracts, respectively. Each extract was added at three concentrations: low, medium and high. Overall, the chili extract had a greater influence on the sensory profile and emotional ratings of the tomato soup than the ginger extract on the squash soup. Specifically, PROP non-tasters liked the burn of the tomato soup at the high chili extract concentration more than the other taster groups, high sensation seekers liked the burn from the low and high chili extract concentrations more than low sensation seekers, and emotional ratings for ‘disgust’, ‘mouthwatering’, and ‘relaxed’ were altered after soup tastings. Predictors of overall liking also differed between the soups; burn intensity, ‘disgust’ and the PROP x ‘disgust’ interaction predicted liking of the chili tomato soup, whereas ginger flavor, overall flavor, ‘disgust’ and ‘wellbeing’ predicted overall liking of the ginger squash soup. These data suggest that: 1) PROP status and sensation seeking influenced responses to chili pepper but not ginger flavored soups and 2) different emotions predicted overall liking of the soups, though ‘disgust’ was a negative predictor for both. Further exploration into the role of emotions on preferences for pungent spices is warranted.
... Although this study does support the influence of embodied cognition on romantic interest and perceived attractiveness, participants' arousal levels might have played a role in their responses as well. Past literature has revealed that a spicy flavor such as red pepper increases physiological processes such as body temperature (Ludy & Mattes, 2011). Because a spicy snack was consumed in this study, physiological processing was likely altered, which could increase arousal levels. ...
... Human data indicate that the acute TRPV1 activation increases GLP-1 and diminishes ghrelin levels in the plasma samples of individuals receiving a capsaicin-containing meal, as soon as 15 min after consumption, without altering energy expenditure [278]. Capsaicin effects on satiety are controversial with some studies indicating the compound reduces energy intake [279,280] and others showing no effects [278,281]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a complex pathology characterized by visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, arterial hypertension, and dyslipidaemia. It has become a global epidemic associated with increased consumption of high-calorie, low-fibre food and sedentary habits. Some of its underlying mechanisms have been identified, with hypoadiponectinemia, inflammation and oxidative stress as important factors for MS establishment and progression. Alterations in adipokine levels may favour glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity which, in turn, contribute to inflammation and cellular stress responses within the adipose, pancreatic and liver tissues, in addition to hepatic steatosis. The multiple mechanisms of MS make its clinical management difficult, involving both non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are non-selective calcium channels involved in a plethora of physiological events, including energy balance, inflammation and oxidative stress. Evidence from animal models of disease has contributed to identify their specific contributions to MS and may help to tailor clinical trials for the disease. In this context, the oxidative stress sensors TRPV1, TRPA1 and TRPC5, play major roles in regulating inflammatory responses, thermogenesis and energy expenditure. Here, the interplay between these TRP channels and oxidative stress in MS is discussed in the light of novel therapies to treat this syndrome.
... The aubergine Solanum aethiopicum anguivi is a vegetable plant of the Solanaceae family grown for its fruit, which are borne 3 to 5 months over planting [2] ( Djedji and Fondio, 2013), and consumed as vegetable. The interest of vegetable plants in food for populations is very widely recognized in the world [3,4] (Ludy and Mattes, 2011, Zimmer et al., 2012). In Côte d'Ivoire, the aubergine fruits and leaves are eaten. ...
Article
Full-text available
Solanum aethiopicum anguivi (Solanaceae) is a common vegetable widely used for food by population in Korhogo, northern Côte d'Ivoire. But this aubergine is not yet soundly utilized. The current study focuses the physico-chemical traits of this aubergine to fit more valorization. From the investigation, the aubergine showed higher moisture (90.73% to 92.71%). Oppositely, lower contents are recorded for crude proteins (1.44% to 1.64%), fats (0.12% to 0.16%), total carbohydrates (5.38% to 6.71%), and so for caloric energy value (28. 36 Kcal/100 g to 34.84 Kcal/100g). Besides, the aubergine is provided with significant fiber content (2.43% to 3.31%) and displayed antioxidants components such as vitamin C (6.25 mg/100 g to 6.74 mg/100g) and polyphenols (55.94 mg/100 g to 66.34 mg/100g). It also presents 0.36% to 0.76% of ash mainly constituted of potassium (4.52% to 5.42% DM), phosphorus (0.82% to 0.97% DM) and other oligoelements as iron (1.42 to 4.81 ppm), manganese (2. 06 to 2.33 ppm), zinc (0.22 to 0.32 ppm), and copper (0.01 to 0.02 ppm). Still, this vegetable records phytate (20.91 to 22.44 mg/100 g) and oxalate (28.69 to 38.83 mg/100 g) as main antinutrients components. Processed before consumption, Solanum aethiopicum anguivi constitutes a significant source of food fibre, natural antioxidant, and mineral elements for local population.
... Estudios anteriores han demostrado que una exposición a la comida picante puede atenuar los efectos de pérdida de peso, debido a una adaptación inducida al efecto termogénico en el apetito y otros efectos de pérdida de peso (18). ...
Article
Full-text available
Introducción: la tradición de la comida picante desempeña un papel muy importante en el gusto por este tipo de comida y su tolerancia. Las preferencias alimentarias muestran influencia genética y ambiental.Objetivos: estudiar la tolerancia y el gusto por el picante de tres poblaciones, y la influencia hereditaria y del ambiente.Métodos:se realizó una encuesta a 522 sujetos, de tres continentes (Asia, Europa y Latinoamérica) en tres idiomas (español, inglés y chino) a través de Internet. Se realizaron preguntas acerca de la tolerancia al picante, el gusto por los alimentos picantes, su uso, la edad de comienzo de consumo, el gusto del padre y de la madre y si ella lo consumía durante el embarazo y/o lactancia.Resultados: existe diferencia entre el gusto por el picante del hijo y el sexo (p < 0,001), la tolerancia (p < 0,001) y, solo en el sexo femenino, el gusto de la madre por el picante (p < 0,001), su consumo durante el embarazo (p < 0,001) y la lactancia (p = 0,005) y el gusto del padre por el picante (p = 0,003). Existe correlación entre el continente de residencia (p = 0,007) y de nacimiento (p = 0,012) y la tolerancia a los alimentos picantes.Conclusión: la influencia de los progenitores, el género y la composición corporal se relacionaron con gustos y tolerancias diferentes.
... Capsaicin and capsaicin analog, such as Capsiate (CAP) act through the Transient Receptor Potential Channel Vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1), a transmembrane channel expressed in many tissues, including the brain stem, mid-brain, hypothalamus, and limbic system centrally, and the gastrointestinal tract and adipose tissue peripherally (7). There is evidence that capsinoids possesses anti-obesity properties via reductions in appetite and energy intake (14). Although the mechanisms are not totally understood, it seems that it occurs through interactions with appetite-related hormones, such as an increase of GLP-1 (anorexigenic hormones) (22), as well as increased energy expenditure via activation of the sympathetic nervous system (7). ...
Article
Full-text available
. Objectives: Performance in running-based sport depends on the ability to perform repetitive high intensity muscle contractions. Previous studies have shown that capsaicin analog (CAP) (i.e. Capsiate) supplementation may improve this performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effect of CAP supplementation on short (400 m) and middle distance (3000 m) running time-trial performance, maximum heart rate (HR), and rate of perceived exertion (RPE). Methods: Twelve physically active men completed four randomized, double-blind trials: CAP condition (12 mg) or a placebo condition. Forty-five minutes after supplementation, the participants performed a 400- or 3000-meter running time trial. Time (in seconds) was recorded. HR was analyzed at rest and immediately post-exercise, and RPE was collected immediately after exercise. Results: For both the 400 m time-trial (CAP = 66.4 + 4.2 sec vs Placebo = 67.1 + 4.8 sec, p = 0.046) and the 3000 m time-trial (CAP = 893.9 ± 46.8 sec vs Placebo = 915.2 ± 67.6 sec, p = 0.015), the time in seconds was significantly less in the CAP compared to placebo conditions. There were no statistically significant differences for HR and RPE in any condition. Conclusion: In summary, acute CAP supplementation improved 400 m and 3000 m running time-trial performance in a distance-dependent way but without modifying the HR and RPE.
... 9. It has been suggested that capsaicin causes hypothermia via heat loss, increased skin surface temperature or perspiration in mice and rats, and in humans via oral intake [39][40][41]. The quadratic decrease in RT in this experiment may have a similar reason, despite the fact that HSP-70 did not differ between groups. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigates the effect of Capsicum oleoresin (CAP) supplementation on the dry matter intake, milk performance, plasma metabolites, and nutrient digestibility of dairy cows during the summer. Thirty-two lactating Holstein dairy cows (n = 32) were randomly divided into four groups. The CAP was dissolved in water and added to the total mixed ration with graded levels of CAP (0, 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg of dry matter). The trial period consisted of seven days for adaptation and thirty days for sampling. Data were analyzed using the MIXED and GLM procedure SAS. The linear and quadratic effects were tested. The milk yield, milk fat, and milk urea nitrogen increased linearly with the dietary addition of CAP (p < 0.05). The dry matter intake increased linearly in the 20CAP group (p < 0.05). Additionally, the 4% fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, milk fat yield, and milk fat to milk protein ratio increased quadratically (p < 0.05), while the rectal temperature decreased quadratically (p < 0.05). Serum total cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acids increased linearly (p < 0.05); glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate tended to increase quadratically with the dietary addition of CAP (p = 0.05). Meanwhile, CAP supplementation did not affect the milk protein yield, blood concentration of triglyceride, insulin, lipopolysaccharide, immunoglobulin G, or heat shock protein 70 expression level (p > 0.05). In addition, nutrient digestibility was comparable among groups (p > 0.05). These findings indicated that CAP supplementation could enhance the lactation performance of dairy cows during the summer.
... Capsaicin and capsaicin analog, such as Capsiate (CAP) act through the Transient Receptor Potential Channel Vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1), a transmembrane channel expressed in many tissues, including the brain stem, mid-brain, hypothalamus, and limbic system centrally, and the gastrointestinal tract and adipose tissue peripherally (7). There is evidence that capsinoids possesses anti-obesity properties via reductions in appetite and energy intake (14). Although the mechanisms are not totally understood, it seems that it occurs through interactions with appetite-related hormones, such as an increase of GLP-1 (anorexigenic hormones) (22), as well as increased energy expenditure via activation of the sympathetic nervous system (7). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Performance in running-based sport depends on the ability to perform repetitive high intensity muscle contractions. Previous studies have shown that capsaicin analog (CAP) (i.e. Capsiate) supplementation may improve this performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effect of CAP supplementation on short (400 m) and middle distance (3000 m) running time-trial performance, maximum heart rate (HR), and rate of perceived exertion (RPE). Methods: Twelve physically active men completed four randomized, double-blind trials: CAP condition (12 mg) or a placebo condition. Forty-five minutes after supplementation, the participants performed a 400- or 3000-meter running time trial. Time (in seconds) was recorded. HR was analyzed at rest and immediately post-exercise, and RPE was collected immediately after exercise. Results: For both the 400 m time-trial (CAP = 66.4 + 4.2 sec vs Placebo = 67.1 + 4.8 sec, p = 0.046) and the 3000 m time-trial (CAP = 893.9 ± 46.8 sec vs Placebo = 915.2 ± 67.6 sec, p = 0.015), the time in seconds was significantly less in the CAP compared to placebo conditions. There were no statistically significant differences for HR and RPE in any condition. Conclusion: In summary, acute CAP supplementation improved 400 m and 3000 m running time-trial performance in a distance-dependent way but without modifying the HR and RPE.
... Capsaicin is a transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) agonist and its activation can attenuate abnormal glucose homeostasis by enhancing insulin secretion and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels (Wang et al. 2012;Gram et al. 2017). Increasing evidence has indicated that TRPV1 is a potential target for the prevention of obesity due to its role in energy metabolism and in the regulation of appetite hormones like leptin and ghrelin (Ludy and Mattes 2011). Furthermore, capsaicin is an inhibitor of NF-jB (nuclear factor-jB) and activator of PPARc (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-c); thereby to modulate and suppress the inflammatory responses of adipose tissue macrophages (Kang et al. 2011). ...
Article
Capsaicinoids from pungent red chilies (Capsicum annum and Capsicum frutescens) have received significant attention as a natural supplement for the management of obesity. However, the consumption of chili extract at physiologically relevant dosage of capsaicinoids is a challenge owing to its pungency and gastrointestinal discomforts. The present study reports the systemic absorption, safety and influence of a novel, food-grade, and sustained-release formulation of capsaicinoids-rich red chili extract using fenugreek dietary fiber (Capsifen®). Twenty-four healthy overweight subjects were randomized into placebo (n = 12) and Capsifen (n = 12) groups and supplemented with 200 mg × 1/day of Capsifen (4 mg capsaicinoids/day) for 28 days. Influence of Capsifen on eating behavior and appetite was followed by Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and Council of Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire (CNAQ), respectively. Consumption of Capsifen did not reveal any adverse events or deviations in hematology and biochemical parameters related to safety. However, a significant decrease in body weight (2.1%), w/h ratio (4%) and body mass index (BMI) (2.2%) were observed among Capsifen group when compared to placebo. The TFEQ and appetite analysis revealed a significant improvement in uncontrolled eating and reduction in appetite among Capsifen subjects. The UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis confirmed the absorption of capsaicinoids from CAP supplementation. The study further demonstrated the safety and tolerability of Capsifen at the investigational dosage. Thus, the significant reduction in anthropometric parameters such as body weight, w/h ratio, and BMI along with the improvement in eating behaviour as well as appetite, indicated the potential body weight management effect of Capsifen.
... The use of chili peppers in food is especially frequent in countries such as India, where chili is the most commonly consumed spice (Siruguri & Bhat, 2015), and Mexico, where fresh chili consumption is reported to be as high as 20 g chili pepper per day (López-Carnllo, Avila, & Dubrow, 1994). Comparatively, the average American has been reported to prefer only approximately 1 g chili pepper per spicy meal (Ludy & Mattes, 2011). Frequency of chili pepper consumption has been primarily investigated as a means of explaining tolerance differences to spicy foods that are often observed across cultural groups. ...
Article
Although different cultural groups are known to vary in their tolerance for hot chili peppers, the influence of factors such as cultural background and upbringing on sensitivity to compounds in spicy food is unclear. A study was designed to investigate sensitivity differences to capsaicin between Caucasian American and South Asian Indian cultural groups while controlling for general chili pepper affinity. The two cultural groups were selected to match on metrics related to chili pepper use and liking. Subjects were exposed to a capsaicin (100 ppm) stimulus on the tongue, cheek, hard palate, and lip and rated the intensity of irritation every 30 s, over a 10‐min period. Overall sensitivity to capsaicin in the oral cavity did not differ between the groups, nor were responses different between the groups depending on the oral cavity area stimulated. These data suggest a limited role of cultural attributes on capsaicin sensitivity between Caucasian Americans and South Asian Indians. The methods and findings here provide subject recruitment insight and guidance on effectively designing a sensory study to answer perceptual questions regarding specific subject groups. Practical Application This study design provides a model for researchers interested in utilizing sensory testing to answer questions about subject groups. Although the objective of this study regarded sensitivity differences across two cultural groups, alterations in the subject matching process used presently could be easily implemented to investigate sensitivity across other differing subject characteristics of interest.
... Different approaches have been used in analyzing the effects of pungency, mostly through a sensorial perspective such as in adding cayenne pepper in meals [10] or soups flavored with chipotle chili [3]. The hedonic perspective was investigated by several authors, such as the works of Ludy and Mattes [11] and Carstens et al. [12]. Consumer acceptability of pungency-related flavor compounds was associated with the likeliness and choice of food pungency performed by Spinelli et al. [13]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Pungency is an interesting sensory stimulus analyzed from different perspectives, in particular the underpinning mechanisms of its sensation and perception. In this study, grilled pork meat coated with three types of hot sauces were investigated regarding its main food oral processing characteristics and evaluated using time-intensity and temporal dominance of pungency sensations methods analyzing the pungency descriptors and intensities. Besides these methods, facial expressions obtained from video capturing were subject to emotion detection. Mastication parameters showed a slight, but not statistically significant, trend of an increased number of chews and consumption time associated with pungency intensity, while saliva incorporation indicated an increasing trend depending on the pungency intensity, especially after 25 strokes and before swallowing. Both time intensity and temporal dominance of pungency sensations showed that the complexity of understanding these sensations is in relation to intensity and type. Finally, the use of emotion detection software in analyzing the faces of panelists during mastication confirmed the increase in non-neutral emotions associated with the increase in pungency intensity.
... In the present study, we found that C. annuum has marginally significant effects on body weight [SMD = − 0.19; 95% CI − 0.40, 0.03; P = 0.09]. Capsaicin is known to promote negative energy balance by increasing satiety and suppressing hunger, reducing energy and fat intake, and inducing thermogenesis [30][31][32] . Capsinoids, including capsiate and dihydrocapsiate, are also known to exert beneficial effects on energy balance. ...
Article
Full-text available
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has increasingly gained importance as the main risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes mellitus. Various natural compounds derived from plants are associated with beneficial effects on the incidence and progression of MetS. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Capsicum annuum on factors related to MetS by assessing randomized controlled trials (written in English). We searched the online databases of PubMed, Embase, Google scholar, and Cochrane Library up to April 2020. ‘Patient/Population, Intervention, Comparison and Outcomes’ format was used to determine whether intervention with C. annuum supplementation compared with placebo supplementation had any effect on the components of MetS among participants. We considered standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) as effect size measures using random-effects model. Analysis of the included 11 studies (n = 609) showed that C. annuum supplementation had significant effect on low density lipoprotein-cholesterol [SMD = − 0.39; 95% CI − 0.72, − 0.07; P = 0.02; prediction interval, − 1.28 to 0.50] and marginally significant effect on body weight [SMD = − 0.19; 95% CI − 0.40, 0.03; P = 0.09]. However, larger and well-designed clinical trials are needed to investigate the effects of C. annuum on MetS.
... Published work from our laboratory suggest that pungent capsaicin, an active ingredient in chili peppers, is more effective than non-pungent analogs in preventing diet-induced obesity (Baskaran et al., 2018). Capsaicin, the chemical that gives peppers its spiciness, has been shown to stimulate increased energy expenditure and fat oxidation to reduce body fat (Bloomer et al., 2010;Caterina et al., 1997;Janssens et al., 2013;Ludy & Mattes, 2011;Ludy, Moore, & Mattes, 2012;Nirengi, 2016;Ohnuki et al., 2001;Rondanelli et al., 2013). A combination of lipid metabolism, dietary preference, and energy expenditure directly affect the outcome of overall Corresponding author: Mark Menghini, BS School of Pharmacy, University of Wyoming 1000 E University Ave, Laramie, WY 82071 Email: mmenghi1@uwyo.edu ...
Article
Full-text available
Lipid metabolism and dietary choices directly affect the outcome of overall weight management in both lean and non-lean individuals. However, the perception of consuming spicy foods has diverse meaning among people. To understand this, it is essential to have thorough knowledge on how food preference is tied to health outcomes. The aim of this study is to enhance the understanding of how food preference affects the health outcome and perception in lean and non-lean populations. A mixed methods study was conducted via analysis of consumers’ food choices and compared the data based on age, gender, and body weight. The participants in audio recorded interviews were comprised of residents from a single town in a rural state. The study shows that most participants were aware of the implications that food choices had on their health status and it emphasizes the importance of understanding the differences between consumption of spicy and non-spicy foods. Spicy food consumption was associated with decreased overall portion size as well as increased satisfaction following the meal. Environmental factors, such as the influence of family and friends, impacted spicy food consumption according to most participants. The outcome of the study provides a comprehensive understanding of food preferences from a relatively large exploratory study. The observations made here show rudimentary associations between physical attributes and levels of food consumption. Future studies could further identify how certain attributes relate to food choices and levels of spicy food consumption in greater detail.
... In addition, participants were given 200 mL of tomato juice with 1 g of cayenne pepper (n = 16) or with no cayenne (n = 11) daily for 5 days prior to fecal sample collection. The cayenne dose was selected as it reduced dietary intake in previous work while remaining hedonically acceptable (Ludy & Mattes, 2011;Swint et al., 2015;Westerterp-Plantenga, Smeets, & Lejeune, 2005). Participants came to the laboratory on Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday of each week to drink the provided juice. ...
Article
The human gut microbiome has been classified into three distinct enterotypes (Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Ruminococcus). The relationship between probiotics and gut enterotype is not yet clear. Cayenne pepper is effective in vitro as a prebiotic for Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli, so cayenne ingestion with probiotics may lead to more profound gut microbial shifts. We aimed to determine whether probiotics (with or without cayenne pepper) alter gut bacterial community composition and if these changes are associated with the original gut enterotype of the individual. A total of 27 adult participants provided three fecal samples: prior to probiotic treatment (baseline), post probiotic treatment (probiotic), and post probiotic plus cayenne pepper treatment (probiotic + cayenne). DNA was extracted, amplified, and the V4 region sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform using V2 chemistry. Sequence reads were processed in mothur and assigned using the SILVA reference by phylotype. Three enterotypes characterized the study population—Bacteroides (B; n = 6), Prevotella (P; n = 11), and Ruminoccocus (R; n = 10). There was no significant increase in probiotic genera in fecal samples after treatment periods. Alpha diversity scores were significantly lower in B‐type but not in P‐ or R‐type individuals after probiotic treatment. For the majority of individuals, their enterotype remained constant regardless of probiotic (and cayenne) treatment. This suggests that baseline gut community characteristics and enterotype classification influence responsiveness to probiotic treatment, but that enterotype is stable across administration of prebiotic and probiotics. Practical Application A person's gut microbial community influences their responsiveness to probiotics and prebiotic ingredients. Consumers must understand that it is difficult to shift their gut microbiota even with simultaneous administration of prebiotic and probiotic. Greater understanding of these phenomena will enable consumers to choose the most efficacious products for their needs.
... First, most of the included studies did not consider some important characteristics of the participants, and this point may be a source of significant betweenstudy heterogeneity in the meta-analysis of PBG and PI. For instance, it is possible that regular versus non-regular chili consumers 53 and carriers of various polymorphisms in the TRPV1 gene 54 respond differently to capsaicin supplementation. Second, most of the included trials did not assess other important markers of glycemic control, such as glycated hemoglobin and insulin resistance indices. ...
Article
Background & aims: Animal studies have shown that capsaicin exerts beneficial effects on glucose metabolism. However, the findings of human studies are contradictory. Therefore, we aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials to assess the effect of capsaicin administration on glycemic indices. Methods: Medline, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar were searched from the database inception to January 14, 2021. The weighted (WMD) or standardized (SMD) mean difference with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using a random-effects model. Results: Fourteen trials were included in this study. Long-term capsaicin supplementation did not show significant effects on fasting blood glucose (WMD: 0.03 mmol L-1, 95% CI: -0.05 to 0.12, I2 = 40.5%) and fasting insulin (SMD: 0.09, 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.22, I2 = 0.0%). Short-term capsaicin supplementation had no significant effects on 2-hour postprandial blood glucose (WMD: 0.06 mmol L-1, 95% CI: -0.34 to 0.47, I2 = 92.5%) and 2-hour postprandial insulin (WMD: 1.70 μIU mL-1, 95% CI: -3.46 to 6.86, I2 = 72.4%). Subgroup analysis revealed that the dose and ingestion form of capsaicin could be sources of between-study heterogeneity. Conclusions: Capsaicin supplementation seems to have neither acute nor chronic beneficial or detrimental effects on blood glucose and insulin levels.
... In a randomized, cross-controlled study conducted in 30 healthy adults (BMI 20-30 kg/m 2 ), it was found that 1,030 mg of capsaicin added to lunch increased the plasma GLP-1 level and decreased the plasma ghrelin level; however, it had no effects on the feeling of satiety, energy expenditure, and PYY (58). In another study, individuals who consumed 1 g of red pepper had a decrease in the desire to consume fatty/salty/sweet foods (59). In another study in Denmark evaluating 27 individuals consuming capsaicin, it was found that capsaicin reduced energy intake and suppressed hunger in case of a positive energy balance (60). ...
Article
Capsaicin is a bioactive compound found in the fruits (i.e., peppers) of the plant genus Capsicum, which is widely used in many cultures. Besides many health effects of this compound, it can also be effective in body weight control through various mechanisms such as regulating lipolysis in adipocytes, increasing the feeling of satiety, stimulating energy expenditure, and reducing energy intake. This study investigated capsaicin and its effects on body weight control. In clinical studies, the amount of capsaicin affecting body weight loss differ. Longitudinal and randomized controlled studies are needed to explain the effects of capsaicin on body weight control. • Key teaching points • • Capsaicin can decrease hunger through hormones in the gastrointestinal tract. • • Capsaicin can increase energy expenditure through brown adipose tissue. • • Capsaicin can increase lipolysis in white adipose tissue. • • More comprehensive studies are needed to clarify this issue.
Article
Full-text available
Objective : To conduct a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis to compare mortality and other clinical outcomes associated with chili pepper (CP) consumption versus no/rare consumption of CP. Methods : A comprehensive search was performed using Ovid, Cochrane, Medline, EMBASE, and Scopus from inception till January 16, 2020. Observational studies and randomized controlled trials were included, while pediatric/animal studies, letters/case reports, reviews, abstracts, and book chapters were excluded. All-cause mortality was studied as the primary outcome. Cardiovascular mortality, cancer-related deaths and cerebrovascular accidents were studied as secondary outcomes. Results : From 4729 studies, four studies met the inclusion criteria. Random effects pooled analysis showed that all-cause mortality among CP consumers was lower, compared to rare/non-consumers, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.87 [95% CI: 0.85-0.90; p<0.0001; I2=1%]. HR for cardiovascular mortality was 0.83 [95% CI: 0.74-0.95; p=0.005, I2=66%] and for cancer-related mortality as 0.92 [95% CI: 0.87-0.97; p=0.001; I2=0%]. However, the HR for CVA was 0.78 [95% CI: 0.56-1.09; p=0.26; I2=60%]. The mode and amount of CP consumption varied across the studies, and data were insufficient to design an optimal strategy for its intake. Conclusion : Regular CP consumption was associated with significantly lower all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer-related mortalities. However, based on current literature, it is difficult to derive a standardized approach to guide the optimal mode and amount of CP consumption. This warrants well-designed prospective studies to further investigate the potential health benefits of CP consumption.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Type 2 diabetes is a growing public health problem and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The worldwide prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rising. Polyphenols, such as flavonoids, phenolic acid, and stilbens, are a large and heterogeneous group of phytochemicals in plant-based foods. In this review, we aimed at assessing the studies on polyphenols and diabetes management. Methods: A literature search in the PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science databases was conducted to identify relevant studies published from 1986 to Jan 2017. Results: Several animal models and a limited number of human studies have revealed that polyphenols decrease hyperglycemia and improve acute insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. The possible mechanisms include decrease in glucose absorption in the intestine, inhibition of carbohydrates digestion, stimulation of insulin secretion, modulation of glucose release from the liver, activation of insulin receptors and glucose uptake in insulin-sensitive tissues, modulation of intracellular signaling pathways, and gene expression. Conclusion: Growing evidence indicates that various dietary polyphenols may influence blood glucose at different levels and may also help control and prevent diabetes complication. However, we still need more clinical trials to determine the effects of polyphenols- rich foods, their effective dose, and mechanisms of their effects in managing diabetes.
Article
What does the best available balance of scientific evidence show is the optimum way to lose weight? Calorie density, water content, protein source, and other components significantly influence the effectiveness of different dietary regimes for weight loss. By “walling off your calories,” preferentially deriving your macronutrients from structurally intact plant foods, some calories remain trapped within indigestible cell walls, which then blunts the glycemic impact, activates the ileal brake, and delivers prebiotics to the gut microbiome. This may help explain why the current evidence indicates that a whole food, plant-based diet achieves greater weight loss compared with other dietary interventions that do not restrict calories or mandate exercise. So, the most effective diet for weight loss appears to be the only diet shown to reverse heart disease in the majority of patients. Plant-based diets have also been found to help treat, arrest, and reverse other leading chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension, whereas low-carbohydrate diets have been found to impair artery function and worsen heart disease, the leading killer of men and women in the United States. A diet centered on whole plant foods appears to be a safe, simple, sustainable solution to the obesity epidemic.
Article
Cellular transport of ions, especially by ion channels, regulates physiological function. The transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, with 30 identified so far, are cation channels with high calcium permeability. These ion channels are present in metabolically active tissues including adipose tissue, liver, gastrointestinal tract, brain (hypothalamus), pancreas and skeletal muscle, which suggests a potential role in metabolic disorders including obesity. TRP channels have potentially important roles in adipogenesis, obesity development and its prevention and therapy because of their physiological properties including calcium permeability, thermosensation and taste perception, involvement in cell metabolic signalling and hormone release. This wide range of actions means that organ-specific actions are unlikely, thus increasing the possibility of adverse effects. Delineation of responses to TRP channels has been limited by the poor selectivity of available agonists and antagonists. Food constituents that can modulate TRP channels are of interest in controlling metabolic status. TRP vanilloid 1 channels modulated by capsaicin have been the most studied, suggesting that this may be the first target for effective pharmacological modulation in obesity. This review shows that most of the TRP channels are potential targets to reduce metabolic disorders through a range of mechanisms.
Article
Objective The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of capsiate supplementation on energy intake, self-reported appetite-related sensations, energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and autonomic parameters with and without an exercise intervention. Methods Thirteen healthy men completed four randomized trials: two trials for the control condition (without exercise), one with capsiate supplementation (CTRLcap) and one with a placebo (CTRLpla), and two trials for the exercise condition, one with capsiate supplementation (EXcap) and one with placebo (EXpla). Exercise sessions were performed 150 min after the consumption of a standardized breakfast, and supplementation 115 min after consumption of breakfast. An ad libitum buffet was offered 200 min following the completion of the standardized breakfast, and energy intake (EI) and relative energy intake (REI) (relative energy intake = energy intake - energy expenditure related to exercise) were evaluated. Results There were no significant effects on EI, self-reported appetite sensations, fat oxidation, and energy expenditure. REI was reduced in conditions involving EX when compared to CTRL. A low-frequency to high-frequency ratio for heart rate variability was higher in CTRLcap (1.6 ± 1.1) vs. CTRLpla (1.2 ± 0.9) (p = 0.025; d = 0.39). Conclusion Acute capsiate supplementation combined with aerobic exercise has limited effects on the examined variables (EI, REI, fat oxidation, energy expenditure, and autonomic parameters), while changes in the autonomic nervous system function in the absence of exercise may have occurred without influencing other variables. Clinical trial registration ensaiosclinicos.gov.br number, RBR-5pckyr https://ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/rg/RBR-5pckyr
Article
Objective The presence of capsaicin in the diet has been revealed to enhance energy expenditure and it has been used in anti-obesity therapy. The present work investigated the potential antihyperlipidemic effect of capsaicin loaded hydrogel beads on hyperlipidemic rats. Hydrogels are three dimensional, hydrophilic, polymeric networks capable of imbibing large amounts of water or biological fluids. Methods Capsaicin loaded hydrogel beads were prepared by the ionotropic gelation method using Aluminium Chloride (AlCl₃) as a cross-linking agent. The characterization of hydrogel beads was carried out by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) analysis. Results The surface morphology revealed that the prepared beads were spherical in shape. XRD and DSC study of the hydrogel beads revealed that the drug was homogeneously dispersed in the hydrogel matrix. The beads showed pH sensitive behavior and when the medium pH was changed from 1.2 to 7.4, the capsaicin release was considerably increased. 100mg/kg body weight of Triton was injected intraperitoneally in rats to induce hyperlipidemia and it showed elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triglyceride. Capsaicin loaded hydrogel beads were administered to normal and hyperlipidemic rats for 7 days and the prepared hydrogel beads were significantly reduced high lipid profile in comparison to free capsaicin. Conclusion The results clearly demonstrated that hydrogel beads can be used as a potential carrier for delivery of capsaicin to reduce lipid profile.
Article
Background & aims: The thermic effect of food (TEF) is one of the components of total energy expenditure (TEE). Some bioactive compounds present in food could be useful to increase TEE. In this context, ginger has been extensively used as a thermogenic food despite no clear effect has been demonstrated yet. Herein, we evaluated the acute thermogenic effect of gingerol, a bioactive compound present in ginger, in healthy women. Methods: We carried out a randomized double-masked, cross-over and placebo-controlled clinical trial with 20 healthy eutrophic women. Anthropometric, body composition, indirect calorimetry and clinical variables were collected at baseline and throughout the intervention phase. A standardized breakfast was offered together with two dry extract of ginger capsules (5% gingerol) or a placebo (cellulose). Indirect calorimetry, blood pressure, heart rate, axillary temperature and blood collection were assessed at baseline and thereafter, at 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min postprandial. The analyses were repeated with a minimum of seven days' washout period. Results: Ginger intake did not increase the TEF of a standardized breakfast compared to the placebo. Oxygen consumption, respiratory quotient, blood pressure, heart rate, axillary temperature and metabolic profile were not different as well. Conclusions: Our data show that gingerol did not modify the acute TEF in healthy women. More studies in human subjects, using different concentrations of gingerol, administration methods and intervention type (chronic effect) are necessary to clarify the putative thermogenic effect of ginger. Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (Thermogenic Effect of Ginger - NCT03089593).
Article
Obesity and overweight have become a serious health problem in the world, which are linked to a varity of metabolic disorders. Phytochemicals with weight-loss effect have been widely studied for past few decades. Capsaicin is the major bioactive component in red chili peppers with many beneficial functions. Its anti-obesity effects have been evaluated extensively using different model systems, including cell models, animal models and human subjects. In this paper, anti-obesity effects of capsaicin are reviewed and the underlying mechanisms are characterized.
Article
In China, the rate of spicy food consumption is rising, and chili pepper is among the most popular spicy foods consumed nationwide. Therefore, investigation into spicy food craving is of public health interest and can also provide better insights into the mechanisms that underlie food cravings more generally. This exploratory study aimed to determine neural circuits underlying spicy food craving by comparing brain response to the cues of foods containing chili peppers in extreme cravers and non-cravers defined by scores on the Spicy Food Craving Questionnaire. A group of extreme cravers (n = 25) and a group of age- and sex-matched non-cravers (n = 26) participated in an fMRI event-related cue-reactivity paradigm, during which pictures of foods with visible chili peppers and pictures of foods with no chili peppers were presented. Results showed that extreme spicy food cravers exhibited increased activation in bilateral insula, left putamen, left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, right inferior parietal lobule, right lingual gyrus, bilateral cuneus, left precuneus, left fusiform gyrus, and right precentral gyrus compared to non-cravers when exposed to the cues of foods containing chili versus foods without chili. While we did not observe the differential activation of orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala of this contrast in extreme cravers compared to non-cravers. Changes in beta values within the right insula, left putamen, left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and left precuneus were positively associated with subjective spicy food craving during the scan among extreme cravers. In addition, changes in beta values within right inferior parietal lobule was significantly correlated with the frequency of spicy food intake among extreme cravers. These results align with prior work suggesting that the dorsal striatum, the anterior cingulate cortex and the insula underlie food craving.
Article
Full-text available
Mite and Insect pest fauna associated with the green pepper, Capsicum chinense Jacq. (Solanales : Solanaceae) in the municipalities of Kandi and Malanville in the Northern-Benin Abstract: In Benin, vegetable cropping has gained considerable attention during recent years, due to its agricultural as well as economic importance through the processing of its raw products. Among the vegetable crops with great nutritional and economic importance is the green pepper Solanum chinense. This fruit-vegetable is popular across Benin where, for its production, the departments of Borgou/Alibori rank second after those of Ouémé/Plateau. This crop is, however, subject to many attacks from diseases and arthropod pests. Unfortunately, very little information is available on the identity and extent of the damage of these pests on the green pepper in Benin, particularly in the northern regions. This present study conducted from May to December 2015 aims at making the inventory of the arthropod fauna attacking pepper in the communes of Kandi and Malanville. Two sites have been selected in each municipality. These sites were Sinawongourou and Tissarou in Kandi, and Monkassa and Bodjecali in Malanville. The assessments were made at two week-intervals on all sites. Two genera of mite species were recorded including Tetranychus spp. and Polyphagotarsonemus latus, with Tetranychus spp. as the dominant group of species. Mites were more abundant at Malanville, with an average density of 0.45 (eggs + mobiles) per plant, than at Kandi. As for insects, three major pest species were identified including: Aphis gossypii, Bemisia tabaci and Frankliniella schultzei. The aphid A. gossypii was the most abundant insect pest across the two municipalities with the highest densities at Malanville with an average density of 12 individuals per plant. Our results reveal that in Northern-Benin, those two genera of mite pests and the aphid species constituted, for the green pepper, a major phytosanitary constraint against which it urges to find a sustainable solution whereby preserving the environment and the health of the stakeholders. Résumé : Au Bénin, le secteur maraîcher connaît depuis quelques années un essor qui fait de cette filière une importante activité tant dans l'agriculture, le commerce que la transformation des produits agricoles. Parmi les cultures maraîchères à grands enjeux alimentaires et économiques se trouve le piment. Ce légume-fruit est très apprécié un peu partout au Bénin où pour sa production, les Départements du Borgou/Alibori viennent en deuxième rang après ceux de l'Ouémé/Plateau. Cette culture est pourtant sujette à de nombreuses attaques de maladies et d'arthropodes ravageurs. Malheureusement, très peu d'informations sont disponibles sur l'identité et l'importance des rava-geurs et de leurs dégâts sur le piment au Bénin et en particulier dans la zone septentrionale. La présente étude conduite de Mai à Décembre 2015 vise à inventorier la faune des arthropodes s'attaquant au piment dans les communes de Kandi et de Malanville. Deux sites ont été retenus au niveau de chaque commune. Il s'agit des localités de Sinawongourou et Tissarou à Kandi, Monkassa et Bodjécali à Malanville. La fréquence des évaluations a été de deux semaines sur tous les sites. Cette étude nous a permis de dénombrer pour ce qui est des acariens deux ravageurs (i.e. Tetranychus spp. et Polyphagotarsonemus latus avec une dominance des Tetranychus spp.). Les acariens ont été plus abondants sur les sites de Malanville avec une densité moyenne de 0,45 acariens (tous stades confondus) par plant, qu'à Kandi. En ce qui concerne les insectes, il a été recensé trois espèces d'insecte ravageur majeurs dont : Aphis gossypii, Frankliniella schultzei et Bemisia tabaci. Le puceron A. gossypii a été l'insecte ravageur le plus abondant au niveau des deux communes avec une forte densité sur les sites de la commune de Malanville, soit en moyenne 12,0 stades mobiles par plant. Des résultats de cette étude, il ressort que dans le Nord-Bénin ces deux espèces d'acariens ravageurs ainsi que les aphides constituent une contrainte phytosanitaire pour le piment vert et contre laquelle il importe de trouver des pistes de solution durable tout en préservant l'environnement et la santé des acteurs.
Chapter
Obesity is one of the leading causes of death because it is associated with most metabolic disorders in the body such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, and cancers. Herbs are known to be natural sources of medicines. Scientists are working toward making plants the best alternative to synthetic drugs, majorly because it has no side effects, is low price and easily accessible, and offers solution to most chronic diseases, among others. Medicinally, constituents of plants are safer for consumption when based on therapeutic formulations. Important phytomolecules such as alkaloids, phenols, saponin, terpenoids, and flavonoids have been discovered to have anti-obesity properties. Most of these plant extracts are a mixture of different molecules, and not a single compound. The phytomolecules would exert their anti-obesity effect through their mechanism by acting on certain organ and cellular systems. This review tends to discuss briefly some of the major phytometabolities that have anti-obesity properties and the mechanism in which they execute their effects.
Article
Full-text available
We are pleased that our article ( [1][1] ) has stimulated Butte and Ellis ( [2][2] ) to ask the question, “How much change in energy balance would be required to prevent weight gain in children?” The primary point of our article was that we need to set more realistic and specific goals for
Article
Full-text available
Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of red pepper (capsaicin) on feeding behaviour and energy intake. In the first study, the effects of dietary red pepper added to high-fat (HF) and high-carbohydrate (HC) meals on subsequent energy and macronutrient intakes were examined in thirteen Japanese female subjects. After the ingestion of a standardized dinner on the previous evening, the subjects ate an experimental breakfast (1883 kJ) of one of the following four types: (1) HF; (2) HF and red pepper (10 g); (3) HC; (4) HC and red pepper. Ad libitum energy and macronutrient intakes were measured at lunch-time. The HC breakfast significantly reduced the desire to eat and hunger after breakfast. The addition of red pepper to the HC breakfast also significantly decreased the desire to eat and hunger before lunch. Differences in diet composition at breakfast time did not affect energy and macronutrient intakes at lunch-time. However, the addition of red pepper to the breakfast significantly decreased protein and fat intakes at lunch-time. In Study 2, the effects of a red-pepper appetizer on subsequent energy and macronutrient intakes were examined in ten Caucasian male subjects. After ingesting a standardized breakfast, the subjects took an experimental appetizer (644 kJ) at lunch-time of one of the following two types: (1) mixed diet and appetizer; (2) mixed diet and red-pepper (6 g) appetizer. The addition of red pepper to the appetizer significantly reduced the cumulative ad libitum energy and carbohydrate intakes during the rest of the lunch and in the snack served several hours later. Moreover, the power spectral analysis of heart rate revealed that this effect of red pepper was associated with an increase in the ratio sympathetic: parasympathetic nervous system activity. These results indicate that the ingestion of red pepper decreases appetite and subsequent protein and fat intakes in Japanese females and energy intake in Caucasian males. Moreover, this effect might be related to an increase in sympathetic nervous system activity in Caucasian males.
Article
Full-text available
This study compared the agreement between core temperature measurements obtained using an ingestible temperature pill telemetry system (Tpill) with those obtained from rectal (Tre) and esophageal (Tes) thermocouples under conditions of increasing and decreasing body temperature. Four men and five women (age 25+/-2 yr, BSA 1.81+/-0.05 m2, VO2 peak 3.1+/-0.4 L x min[-1]) participated in four 3-h trials: cold (18 degrees C) water rest (CWR), cold water exercise (CWE), warm (36 degrees C) water rest (WWR), and warm water exercise (WWE). Subjects were immersed to the neck for each trial. During resting trials, subjects sat quietly. During exercise trials, subjects completed three bouts of 15 min of rest, followed by 45 min of exercise on a cycle ergometer at 50% of peak oxygen uptake. The temperature pill was taken 10-12 h before testing, after which the subjects fasted. The trials created conditions of constantly decreasing (CWR) or increasing (WWR) core temperature, as well as periods of oscillating core temperature (CWE and WWE). Root mean squared deviation (RMSD) was calculated for each pair of measurements (Tpill vs Tre, Tpill vs Tes, Tre vs Tes) for each trial. An RMSD of "0" indicates perfect agreement; as RMSD increases, agreement worsens. On CWR, the RMSD for Tpill-Tes (0.23+/-0.04) was lower (P < 0.05) than for Tpill-Tre (0.43+/-0.10) or Tre-Tes (0.46+/-0.09). There were no significant differences in RMSD between measurement pairs on any other trial (average RMSD = 0.26 degrees C). Telemetry pill temperature and response time tended to be intermediate between Tre and Tes. These results suggest the telemetry pill system provides a valid measurement of core temperature during conditions of decreasing as well as increasing body temperature and during steady state.
Article
Full-text available
The prevalence of obesity increased in the United States between 1976-1980 and 1988-1994 and again between 1988-1994 and 1999-2000. To examine trends in obesity from 1999 through 2008 and the current prevalence of obesity and overweight for 2007-2008. Analysis of height and weight measurements from 5555 adult men and women aged 20 years or older obtained in 2007-2008 as part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a nationally representative sample of the US population. Data from the NHANES obtained in 2007-2008 were compared with results obtained from 1999 through 2006. Estimates of the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults. Overweight was defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 25.0 to 29.9. Obesity was defined as a BMI of 30.0 or higher. In 2007-2008, the age-adjusted prevalence of obesity was 33.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 31.6%-36.0%) overall, 32.2% (95% CI, 29.5%-35.0%) among men, and 35.5% (95% CI, 33.2%-37.7%) among women. The corresponding prevalence estimates for overweight and obesity combined (BMI > or = 25) were 68.0% (95% CI, 66.3%-69.8%), 72.3% (95% CI, 70.4%-74.1%), and 64.1% (95% CI, 61.3%-66.9%). Obesity prevalence varied by age group and by racial and ethnic group for both men and women. Over the 10-year period, obesity showed no significant trend among women (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for 2007-2008 vs 1999-2000, 1.12 [95% CI, 0.89-1.32]). For men, there was a significant linear trend (AOR for 2007-2008 vs 1999-2000, 1.32 [95% CI, 1.12-1.58]); however, the 3 most recent data points did not differ significantly from each other. In 2007-2008, the prevalence of obesity was 32.2% among adult men and 35.5% among adult women. The increases in the prevalence of obesity previously observed do not appear to be continuing at the same rate over the past 10 years, particularly for women and possibly for men.
Article
Full-text available
Addition of capsaicin to the diet has been shown to increase satiety and thermogenesis. The effects of capsaicin on ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), in relation to changes in hunger and satiety are unknown. To test the acute effects of a lunch containing capsaicin on gut derived hormones (GLP-1, ghrelin, and PYY), energy expenditure (EE), substrate oxidation and satiety at lunch in the postprandial state. Thirty subjects (age: 31 +/- 14 years, BMI: 23.8 +/- 2.8 kg/m(2)) were studied twice in a crossover design. After 30 min resting on a bed, resting metabolic rate was measured by a ventilated hood system. Subsequently lunch (35% of daily energy intake) was served. The two lunch conditions were: (1) lunch without capsaicin and (2) lunch with capsaicin (CAPS). The macronutrient composition (energy percentage) of the lunches was 60% carbohydrates, 10% protein and 30% fat. During 3 h after the lunch diet-induced thermogenesis was measured. Furthermore, anchored 100 mm visual analogue scales on the appetite profile were collected (t = 0, 30, 60, 120, 150, 180 and 240) and blood samples were taken for analysis of GLP-1, PYY, and ghrelin concentrations (t = 0, 45, 60, 120, and 180). Satiety and EE were not different after CAPS lunch as compared to the control lunch. Fifteen minutes after lunch CAPS lunch increased GLP-1 (p < 0.05) and tended to decrease ghrelin (p = 0.07) as compared to the control lunch. PYY responses were not different between the CAPS lunch and the control lunch. An acute lunch containing capsaicin had no effect on satiety, EE, and PYY, but increased GLP-1 and tended to decrease ghrelin.
Article
Full-text available
Capsinoids from the Capsicum genus of plants are nonpungent capsaicin-related substances with effects on metabolism and body weight in animals. Our objectives were to explore the safety and efficacy of capsinoids taken orally (6 mg/d) for weight loss, fat loss, and change in metabolism and to examine whether candidate genes are predictors of capsinoid response. This was a 12-wk, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized study. Eligibility criteria included a body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) of 25-35. Body weight was measured, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, indirect calorimetry (men only), and genotyping were conducted. Forty women and 40 men with a mean (+/- SD) age of 42 +/- 8 y and BMI of 30.4 +/- 2.4 were randomly assigned to a capsinoid or placebo group. Capsinoids were well tolerated. Mean (+/- SD) weight change was 0.9 +/- 3.1 and 0.5 +/- 2.4 kg in the capsinoid and placebo groups, respectively (P = 0.86). There was no significant group difference in total change in adiposity, but abdominal adiposity decreased more (P = 0.049) in the capsinoid group (-1.11 +/- 1.83%) than in the placebo group (-0.18 +/- 1.94%), and this change correlated with the change in body weight (r = 0.46, P < 0.0001). Changes in resting energy expenditure did not differ significantly between groups, but fat oxidation was higher at the end of the study in the capsinoid group (least-squares mean difference: 21.0 mg/min; P = 0.06). Of 13 genetic variants tested, TRPV1 Val585Ile and UCP2 -866 G/A correlated significantly with change in abdominal adiposity. Treatment with 6 mg/d capsinoids orally appeared to be safe and was associated with abdominal fat loss. Capsinoid ingestion was associated with an increase in fat oxidation that was nearly significant. We identified 2 common genetic variants that may be predictors of therapeutic response.
Article
Full-text available
Both the amount and composition of food eaten influence body-weight regulation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether and by what mechanism excess dietary fat leads to greater fat accumulation than does excess dietary carbohydrate. We overfed isoenergetic amounts (50% above energy requirements) of fat and carbohydrate (for 14 d each) to nine lean and seven obese men. A whole-room calorimeter was used to measure energy expenditure and nutrient oxidation on days 0, 1, 7, and 14 of each overfeeding period. From energy and nutrient balances (intake-expenditure) we estimated the amount and composition of energy stored. Carbohydrate overfeeding produced progressive increases in carbohydrate oxidation and total energy expenditure resulting in 75-85% of excess energy being stored. Alternatively, fat overfeeding had minimal effects on fat oxidation and total energy expenditure, leading to storage of 90-95% of excess energy. Excess dietary fat leads to greater fat accumulation than does excess dietary carbohydrate, and the difference was greatest early in the overfeeding period.
Article
Full-text available
No current treatment for obesity reliably sustains weight loss, perhaps because compensatory metabolic processes resist the maintenance of the altered body weight. We examined the effects of experimental perturbations of body weight on energy expenditure to determine whether they lead to metabolic changes and whether obese subjects and those who have never been obese respond similarly. We repeatedly measured 24-hour total energy expenditure, resting and nonresting energy expenditure, and the thermic effect of feeding in 18 obese subjects and 23 subjects who had never been obese. The subjects were studied at their usual body weight and after losing 10 to 20 percent of their body weight by underfeeding or gaining 10 percent by overfeeding. Maintenance of a body weight at a level 10 percent or more below the initial weight was associated with a mean (+/- SD) reduction in total energy expenditure of 6 +/- 3 kcal per kilogram of fat-free mass per day in the subjects who had never been obese (P < 0.001) and 8 +/- 5 kcal per kilogram per day in the obese subjects (P < 0.001). Resting energy expenditure and nonresting energy expenditure each decreased 3 to 4 kcal per kilogram of fat-free mass per day in both groups of subjects. Maintenance of body weight at a level 10 percent above the usual weight was associated with an increase in total energy expenditure of 9 +/- 7 kcal per kilogram of fat-free mass per day in the subjects who had never been obese (P < 0.001) and 8 +/- 4 kcal per kilogram per day in the obese subjects (P < 0.001). The thermic effect of feeding and nonresting energy expenditure increased by approximately 1 to 2 and 8 to 9 kcal per kilogram of fat-free mass per day, respectively, after weight gain. These changes in energy expenditure were not related to the degree of adiposity or the sex of the subjects. Maintenance of a reduced or elevated body weight is associated with compensatory changes in energy expenditure, which oppose the maintenance of a body weight that is different from the usual weight. These compensatory changes may account for the poor long-term efficacy of treatments for obesity.
Article
Full-text available
The experiments reported here found that judgments of 'burn' intensity are affected by long-term memory (LTM). The implication of these findings for range-frequency theory and the role of LTM in intensity judgments are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
The effect of a high-fiber (4.7 g/MJ) and an isoenergetic low-fiber (1.7 g/MJ) meal on 6-h postprandial thermogenesis, substrate metabolism, hormones, and satiety was investigated in 10 healthy, normal-weight male subjects. Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) was significantly reduced after the high-fiber meal (416.4 +/- 28.6 kJ/6 h) compared with the low-fiber meal (498.5 +/- 23.1 kJ/6 h; ANOVA: P < 0.0001), as was postprandial fat oxidation (P < 0.0001). The difference in DIT was correlated with the different palatability of the test meal (r = 0.89, P < 0.01). No differences were observed in plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, norepinephrine, epinephrine, or gastrointestinal hormones, but C-peptide increased less (P < 0.05) and nonesterified fatty acids decreased more (P < 0.05) after the high-fiber meal. Finally, fullness was increased and desire to eat decreased after the high-fiber meal (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, a high-fiber meal decreased DIT and fat oxidation but increased fullness compared with a low-fiber meal.
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the effects of dietary red pepper on the energy metabolism in male subjects. In the first experiment, after having a standardized dinner on the previous evening, the subjects consumed a breakfast (650 kcal) either with or without 10 g of red pepper. For 150 min after the meal, they took a rest and their expired gas was collected. During the initial 30 min after the meal, the energy expenditure tended to be higher in the red-pepper diet period than in the control diet period. For the remaining 120 min, no difference in the energy expenditure was found between the red-pepper diet period and the control diet period. However the carbohydrate oxidation was significantly higher in the red-pepper diet period than in the control diet period while the lipid oxidation was lower in the red-pepper diet period than in the control diet period for 150 min after the meal. In the second experiment, the subjects consumed a breakfast with 10 g of red pepper after an oral administration of propranolol or a placebo. The propranolol abolished the increase in energy expenditure during the initial 30 min due to the meal containing red pepper. For the remaining 120 min, no difference in energy expenditure was found between the propranolol period and the placebo period. These results suggest than an increase in the energy expenditure after the meal containing red pepper appeared only immediately after the meal ingestion and a red-pepper diet increases the carbohydrate oxidation without increasing total energy expenditure for 150 min after the meal. And an increase in the energy expenditure immediately after the meal containing red pepper is considered to be caused by beta-adrenergic stimulation.
Article
Full-text available
The effects of dietary red pepper added to high-fat (HF) and high-carbohydrate (HC) meals on energy metabolism were examined in thirteen Japanese female subjects. After ingesting a standardized dinner on the previous evening, the subjects took an experimental breakfast (1883 kJ) under the following four conditions: HF meal, HF and red-pepper (10 g) meal, HC meal, or HC and red-pepper meal. Palatability of the experimental meals was measured immediately after the meals. Expired air was collected before and for 210 min after the meal to determine energy expenditure and macronutrient oxidation. Diet-induced thermogenesis was significantly higher after the HC meals than after the HF meals. Lipid oxidation was significantly lower and carbohydrate oxidation was significantly higher after the HC meals than after the HF meals. Addition of red pepper to the experimental meals significantly increased diet-induced thermogenesis and lipid oxidation, particularly after the HF meal. On the other hand, carbohydrate oxidation was significantly decreased by the addition of red pepper to the experimental meals. Addition of red pepper to the HC meal increased the perceived oiliness of the meal to the same level as that of the HF meals. These results indicate that red pepper increases diet-induced thermogenesis and lipid oxidation. This increase in lipid oxidation is mainly observed when foods have a HF content whereas the increase in the perceived oiliness of the meal was found under the HC meal conditions.
Article
Full-text available
To examine reproducibility and validity of visual analogue scales (VAS) for measurement of appetite sensations, with and without a diet standardization prior to the test days. On two different test days the subjects recorded their appetite sensations before breakfast and every 30 min during the 4.5 h postprandial period under exactly the same conditions. 55 healthy men (age 25.6+/-0.6 y, BMI 22.6+/-0.3 kg¿m2). VAS were used to record hunger, satiety, fullness, prospective food consumption, desire to eat something fatty, salty, sweet or savoury, and palatability of the meals. Subsequently an ad libitum lunch was served and energy intake was recorded. Reproducibility was assessed by the coefficient of repeatability (CR) of fasting, mean 4.5 h and peak/nadir values. CRs (range 20-61 mm) were larger for fasting and peak/nadir values compared with mean 4.5 h values. No parameter seemed to be improved by diet standardization. Using a paired design and a study power of 0.8, a difference of 10 mm on fasting and 5 mm on mean 4.5 h ratings can be detected with 18 subjects. When using desires to eat specific types of food or an unpaired design, more subjects are needed due to considerable variation. The best correlations of validity were found between 4.5 h mean VAS of the appetite parameters and subsequent energy intake (r=+/-0.50-0.53, P<0.001). VAS scores are reliable for appetite research and do not seem to be influenced by prior diet standardization. However, consideration should be given to the specific parameters being measured, their sensitivity and study power. International Journal of Obesity (2000)24, 38-48
Article
Full-text available
The effects of red pepper and caffeine ingestion on energy and macronutrient balances were examined in eight Caucasian male subjects. All subjects participated in two randomly assigned conditions: control and experimental (red pepper and caffeine). After ingesting a standardized breakfast, subjects ate three meals ad libitum (lunch, dinner and breakfast) and snacks which were served approximately 2 h after the lunch and dinner over a 24 h period. Two appetizers with or without 3 g red pepper) were given before lunch and dinner, and a drink (decaffeinated coffee with or without 200 mg caffeine) was served at all meals and snacks except for the after-dinner snack. It is also important to note that on the experimental day, 8.6 and 7.2 g red pepper were also added to lunch and dinner respectively. Red pepper and caffeine consumption significantly reduced the cumulative ad libitum energy intake and increased energy expenditure. The mean difference in energy balance between both conditions was 4000 kJ/d. Moreover, the power spectral analysis of heart rate suggested that this effect of red pepper was associated with an increase in sympathetic:parasympathetic nervous system activity ratio. These results indicate that the consumption of red pepper and caffeine can induce a considerable change in energy balance when individuals are given free access to foods.
Article
Full-text available
The obesity epidemic shows no signs of abating. There is an urgent need to push back against the environmental forces that are producing gradual weight gain in the population. Using data from national surveys, we estimate that affecting energy balance by 100 kilocalories per day (by a combination of reductions in energy intake and increases in physical activity) could prevent weight gain in most of the population. This can be achieved by small changes in behavior, such as 15 minutes per day of walking or eating a few less bites at each meal. Having a specific behavioral target for the prevention of weight gain may be key to arresting the obesity epidemic.
Article
Full-text available
Dietary red pepper suppresses energy intake and modifies macronutrient intake. We have investigated whether a stimulus in the mouth and the sensation of spiciness are necessary for red pepper-induced changes in energy and macronutrient intake in human volunteers. In a preliminary test, sixteen Japanese male volunteers tasted samples of a soup with graded doses of red pepper in order to define a moderate and a maximum tolerable (strong) dose of red pepper. On the day of the experiment, a standardised breakfast was given to the volunteers. At lunchtime, the subjects ingested one of four experimental soups containing either a placebo, a moderate or a strong dose of red pepper plus placebo capsules, or a placebo soup plus capsules delivering a strong dose of red pepper. The rest of the meal was given ad libitum to all subjects. The amount of food, protein and carbohydrate ingested was similar for all conditions. Energy and fat intake were similar after the ingestion of the moderate soup compared with placebo. However, the strong soup significantly lowered fat intake compared with placebo (P=0.043), and ingestion of strong capsules also tended to suppress it (P=0.080). Moreover, energy intake after strong soup and capsules tended to be lower than placebo (P=0.089 and 0.076, respectively). The present results indicate that the maximum tolerable dose is necessary to have a suppressive effect of red pepper on fat intake. The main site of the action of red pepper is not in the mouth.
Article
Full-text available
Animal and some human studies have indicated that the consumption of chili-containing meals increases energy expenditure and fat oxidation, which may help to reduce obesity and related disorders. Because habitual diets affect the activity and responsiveness of receptors involved in regulating and transporting nutrients, the effects of regular consumption of chili on metabolic responses to meals require investigation. The objective was to investigate the metabolic effects of a chili-containing meal after the consumption of a bland diet and a chili-blend (30 g/d; 55% cayenne chili) supplemented diet. Thirty-six subjects with a mean (+/-SD) age of 46 +/- 12 y and a body mass index (in kg/m2) of 26.3 +/- 4.6 participated in a randomized, crossover, intervention study with 2 dietary periods (chili and bland) of 4 wk each. The postprandial effects of a bland meal after a bland diet (BAB), a chili meal after a bland diet (CAB), and a chili meal after a chili-containing diet (CAC) were evaluated. Serum insulin, C-peptide, and glucose concentrations and energy expenditure (EE) were measured at fasting and up to 120 min postprandially. Significant heterogeneity was observed between the meals for the maximum increase in insulin and the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for insulin (P = 0.0002); the highest concentrations were with the BAB meal and the lowest with the CAC meal. When separated at the median BMI (26.3), the subjects with a BMI > or = 26.3 also showed heterogeneity in C-peptide, iAUC C-peptide, and net AUC EE (P < 0.02 for all); the highest values occurred after the BAB meal and the lowest after the CAC meal. Conversely, the C-peptide/insulin quotient (an indicator of hepatic insulin clearance) was highest after the CAC meal (P = 0.002). Regular consumption of chili may attenuate postprandial hyperinsulinemia.
Article
Full-text available
'CH-19 Sweet' is a non-pungent red pepper and enhances the energy expenditure in humans in like manner to the pungent red pepper. We investigated in this study the effects of a repeated intake of CH-19 Sweet for two weeks on the body weight and body fat in humans. Changes in the autonomic nervous activity after ingesting CH-19 Sweet were also measured by a power spectral analysis. We established a new protocol which allows the precise detection of weight change in humans by using fewer subjects. These methods were used to show that the repeated intake of CH-19 Sweet reduced the body weight and suppressed body fat accumulation. Furthermore, the body weight loss due to the repeated intake of CH-19 Sweet was significantly correlated with the sympathetic nervous response after its ingestion. We propose that the repeated intake of CH-19 Sweet reduced the body weight and suppressed body fat accumulation by sympathetic nervous activation in humans.
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the changes in autonomic nervous activity, body temperature, blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) after intake of the non-pungent pepper CH-19 Sweet and of hot red pepper in humans to elucidate the mechanisms of diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) due to CH-19 Sweet. We found that CH-19 Sweet activates the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and enhances thermogenesis as effectively as hot red pepper, ant that the heat loss effect due to CH-19 Sweet is weaker than that due to hot red pepper. Furthermore, we found that intake of CH-19 Sweet does not affect systolic BP or HR, while hot red pepper transiently elevates them. These results indicate that DIT due to CH-19 Sweet can be induced via the activation of SNS as well as hot red pepper, but that the changes in BP, HR, and heat loss effect are different between these peppers.
Conference Paper
U.S. adults are now gaining more weight and becoming obese at an earlier age than in previous years. The specific causes of adult weight gain are unknown, but may be attributed to a combination of factors leading to positive energy balance. U.S. food supply data indicate that Americans have had a gradual increase in energy intake since 1970, and that per capita energy intake was 1.42 MJ/d (340 kcal/d) higher in 1994 than that in 1984. In contrast, self-reported physical activity remained constant between 1990 and 1998. Taken together, these data indicate that the increasing trend in U.S. adult weight gain is primarily attributable to overconsumption of energy. Epidemiological and experimental studies in animals and humans provide strong evidence that biobehavioral factors such as dietary variety, liquid (vs. solid) energy, portion size, palatability (taste), snacking patterns, restaurant and other away-from-home food, and dietary restraint and disinhibition influence hunger, satiety and/or voluntary energy intake. When these eating behaviors are consistently experienced either separately or in combination over the long term, they are likely to facilitate overeating. We provide a brief overview of the evidence to date for the role of these biobehavioral factors in contributing to excess energy intake and increases in body weight over time.
Article
The prevailing economic conditions in the US have caused consumers of all ages and incomes to re-evaluate, re-prioritize, and experiment with their food spending, eating preferences, and dining habits. The economy, lack of healthful options, and a new sense of boredom with quick-service-restaurant (QSR) menus, have caused 77% of the citizens of the country to eat out less often and to choose less-expensive venues. The NPD Group reports that the average number of annual meals purchased from a restaurant has declined from 209 in 2006 to 202 in 2009. Foodservice traffic has declined for the fourth consecutive quarter, reaching 3.6% for the quarter ending August 2009, as compared with the same period in 2008. Visits to QSRs fell 3%, casual dining has declined by 4%, while midscale dining declined by 5% during the same period.
Article
If liking for the chili burn is acquired, then the relationship between ratings of burn intensity and pleasantness in chili non-likers should be representative of the inital response pattern to chili, and in chili likers, the final acquired response pattern. Close examination of these relationships may provide insights into the mechanisms that mediate liking development. The experiment reported here asked chili likers (frequent users) and non-likers (very infrequent users) to make burn intensity and pleasantness judgements for an ascending series of capsaicin concentrations in an attempt to define the relationship between these variables. Non-likers were found to be indifferent to low to moderate burn intensities, which were liked by chili likers. Both groups disliked strong burn intensities. These data provide preliminary support for a model of liking development whereby initially indifferent responses develop into liking responses apparently independent of sensory changes.
Article
This study assessed the reliability and validity of a palm-top-based electronic appetite rating system (EARS) in relation to the traditional paper and pen method. Twenty healthy subjects [10 male (M) and 10 female (F)] — mean age M=31 years (S.D.=8), F=27 years (S.D.=5); mean BMI M=24 (S.D.=2), F=21 (S.D.=5) — participated in a 4-day protocol. Measurements were made on days 1 and 4. Subjects were given paper and an EARS to log hourly subjective motivation to eat during waking hours. Food intake and meal times were fixed. Subjects were given a maintenance diet (comprising 40% fat, 47% carbohydrate and 13% protein by energy) calculated at 1.6×Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR), as three isoenergetic meals. Bland and Altman's test for bias between two measurement techniques found significant differences between EARS and paper and pen for two of eight responses (hunger and fullness). Regression analysis confirmed that there were no day, sex or order effects between ratings obtained using either technique. For 15 subjects, there was no significant difference between results, with a linear relationship between the two methods that explained most of the variance (r2 ranged from 62.6 to 98.6). The slope for all subjects was less than 1, which was partly explained by a tendency for bias at the extreme end of results on the EARS technique. These data suggest that the EARS is a useful and reliable technique for real-time data collection in appetite research but that it should not be used interchangeably with paper and pen techniques.
Article
This paper deals with the general problem of the acquisition of positive affective responses, by study of the reversal of an innate aversion to the irritant properties of chili pepper. Interviews, observations, and measurements were carried out in both Mexico and the United States. Exposure to gradually increasing levels of chili in food seems to be a sufficient condition for preference development. Chili likers are not insensitive to the irritation that it produces. They come to like the same burning sensation that deters animals and humans that dislike chili; there is a clear hedonic shift. This could be produced by association with positive events, including enhancement of the taste of bland foods, postingestional effects, or social rewards. It is also possible that the initial negative response to chili pepper is essential for the eventual liking. Chili stimulates an innate sensory warning system but is not harmful. The enjoyment of the irritation may result from the user's appreciation that the sensation and the body's defensive reaction to it are harmless. Eating of chili, riding on roller coasters, taking very hot baths, and many other human activities can be considered instances of thrill seeking or enjoyment of constrained risks. Evidence for and against various explanations of chili ingestion is presented.
Article
A program of research that compared the taste perceptions and preferences of Japanese and Australian consumer panels is reviewed from the point of view of the general issues that have emerged. These studies revealed few cross-cultural differences in the perceptions of the panels, implicating an important role for dietary experience in differences in preference. there was also little evidence for cross-cultural influences on panellists' assessment behaviour, such as scale usage. Studies of predominantly sweet and salty foods from both Australia and Japan illustrated the importance of familiarity with the overall product as an influence an the assessment of individual sensory characteristics. Subsequent attempts to overcome this influence by comparing cross-cultural responses to the manipulation of tastes within foods common to both cultures revealed no differences in the optimum tastant level within each of the foods. The implications of these studies for future cross-cultural research is addressed, and it is argued that future studies need to develop methods for determining the acceptability of relatively novel foods specifically developed for export markets, and also to address the complexity of food preferences from the point of view of both sensory and non-sensory influences. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.