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Clinical evidence supporting the use of an activated clinoptilolite suspension as an agent to increase urinary excretion of toxic heavy metals

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Abstract

James L Flowers1, Stewart A Lonky2, Erik J Deitsch31Eno Research and Development, Inc., Hillsborough, NC, USA; 2University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3Wellness Industries, LLC, Parkland, FL USAAbstract: Effective treatment of chronic illness resulting from the long-term buildup of heavy metals in the body, such as chelation therapy, presents numerous clinical challenges, including undesirable side effects and unpredictable efficacy. Use of a naturally occurring zeolite, clinoptilolite, to remove these toxic substances may offer an efficacious and safe alternative to the traditional approaches. This study was designed to evaluate the ability of activated clinoptilolite suspended in water (ACS) to remove heavy metals from the body through urinary excretion without the undesirable removal of physiologically important electrolytes. The protocol utilized two treatment groups, each consisting of eleven healthy men aged 36 to 70 years. Volunteers were given a commercially available version of the study substance for seven days (Group 1) and 30 days (Group 2) and urine samples were collected at specified time points in the study. Changes in urinary concentration of the heavy metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and compared to the baseline. Also, serum samples were obtained from five individuals in each group and serum electrolytes were measured prior to and after taking the product. Participants in both groups had increased concentrations of heavy metals in the urine with the peak excretion at around day 4. No clinically significant alterations in serum electrolyte levels were seen at either seven or 30 days on ACS. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the daily use of an activated clinoptilolite suspension represents a potentially safe and effective way to remove toxic heavy metals from the body through increased urinary excretion without removing clinically detrimental amounts of vital electrolytes.Keywords: zeolite, clinoptilolite, heavy metals, toxins, atomic absorption spectroscopy

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... High ion exchangers like zeolite P, Na-P1, 4A, X, KM, F, Chabazite, Herschelite and Faujasite with high CEC values up to 500 meq/100g and good sorption potential, have been found to be quite useful for decontamination of sludge, industrial effluents and other waste water by removal of their heavy metals like, Pb 2+ , Cd 2+ , Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ 2 . Their application for removing heavy metals and ammonia from the sludge is well established 1,5,31,90,100,113,114,[118][119][120][121][122][123][124][125] . ...
... In addition, they have potential applications as an additive in soils 128,129 , for heavy metal adsorption [118][119][120][121][122][123][124][125] and as carrier in pesticides, herbicides and fungicides. Based on such adsorbing characteristics, zeolites have also been effective as additive in animal feeds to act as a detoxing agent, e.g., Clinoptilolite 119,120-122 . ...
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Flyash, an industrial by-product, rich in silica and alumina contents, has been known to be a useful material for synthesizing zeolites. These zeolites are minerals of alumino silicate group and exhibit high affinity to accommodate and exchange one or a group of metallic cations and/or water molecules. Though, zeolites find several industrial applications of high commercial and environmental values, their synthesis, characterization and recommendations for the most appropriate application are challenging tasks. This is mainly due to the fact that ash zeolites can be synthesized by employing different synthesis methods (viz., hydrothermal, fusion, microwave assisted hydrothermal and molten salt method) and several factors (viz., concentration of alkali source, temperature, time of reaction, liquid/solid ratio and type of flyash), which can significantly affect their overall properties. As such, a critical review of these methods and their limitations and superiority over each other becomes necessary. Incidentally, it has also been demonstrated by the researchers that there are several industrial applications for these fly ash zeolites and selection of a particular type of the zeolite would depend on its basic properties (viz., pore volume, crystal structure, Si/Al ratio and ion exchange characteristics). Hence, review of various industrial applications of zeolites and a critical commentary on the methodologies employed for zeolite selection also becomes important. As such, efforts have been made in this paper to address these issues in detail.
... During treatment with activated clinoptilolite from 7 to 30 days in total, both urine and blood serum were collected and tested for heavy metals and electrolytes. In this study, the daily intake of activated clinoptilolite suspension was effective in removal of toxic heavy metals from the body via urine (Flowers et al., 2009). Urine is, indeed, important in elimination of lead released from the bones or body compartments, i.e., in chelation therapy where upon quenching of lead from different sites of the body it is expelled through urine (Flora et al., 2012). ...
... This decrease in harmful metal concentrations was a result of the clinoptilolite detoxification function and probable restoration of the body mineral metabolism homeostasis (Zhakov, 2003). Importantly, while great danger exists in removing the physiologically important electrolytes from the serum in a classical detoxification process, this has not been observed in clinoptilolite trials both in humans and animals, where no substantial changes in physiologically relevant trace elements or vitamins were observed even after long-term administration (Papaioannou et al., 2002;Katsoulos et al., 2005b;Flowers et al., 2009). ...
Article
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Unique and outstanding physical and chemical properties of zeolite materials make them extremely useful in a variety of applications including agronomy, ecology, manufacturing, and industrial processes. Recently, a more specific application of one naturally occurring zeolite material, clinoptilolite, has been widely studied in veterinary and human medicine. Due to a number of positive effects on health, including detoxification properties, the usage of clinoptilolite-based products in vivo has increased enormously. However, concerns have been raised in the public about the safety of clinoptilolite materials for in vivo applications. Here, we review the scientific literature on the health effects and safety in medical applications of different clinoptilolite-based materials and propose some comprehensive, scientifically-based hypotheses on possible biological mechanisms underlying the observed effects on the health and body homeostasis. We focus on the safety of the clinoptilolite material and the positive medical effects related to detoxification, immune response, and the general health status.
... Its regular administration reduced the content of Cr, As and Ni and increased the content of Mg and Ca in the tissues, bringing it closer to the mineral content in healthy children tissues. Oral administration of clinoptilolite led to a significant increase of urinary excretion of Al, Sb, As, Bi, Cd, Pb, Hg, Ni and Sn in two groups of healthy male volunteers (each consisting of 11 individuals, aged 35-71 years, group 1 administered for 7 days and group 2 for 30 days) compared to the placebo control group [81]. A negative impact on electrolyte profiles was absent. ...
... Importantly, pectin enterosorption did not affect the level of essential elements such as Mg and Ca, which could be related to the different affinity between the chelator and metal ions [93,95]. Nevertheless, no mechanism was proposed to explain the enhanced urinary excretion and the analysis of faeces which were likely to contain most of the excreted HM [81,95]. In [98], 20 patients with chronic pancreatitis living in a HM contaminated area were administered citrus pectin, at 10 g daily dose for 10 days. ...
Article
Enterosorption is a cost-effective and efficient approach to reducing the impact of chronic exposure to heavy metals and radionuclides. As an auxiliary method to medical treatment, it can protect population chronically exposed to the intake of heavy metals or radioactivity due to industrial activities or in the aftermath of technogenic or natural accidents. This paper assesses the current state of the art in the treatment of acute and chronic heavy metal poisoning.
... Yapılan klinik çalışmalarında Conclusion: We may think that clinoptilolite reduces the potential toxic effects of DMH by decreasing cell proliferation. amonyak, üre, nitrik oksit gibi metabolizma sonucu üretilen toksik maddelerin insan vücudundan uzaklaştırılması ve insanlarda toksik ağır metallerin vücuttan atılmasını kolaylaştırmak için kullanılabileceği tespit edilmiştir (20,21). Ayrıca klinoptilolit Küba'da ishal tedavisinde anti-diaretik ilaç olarak kullanılmıştır (22). ...
... Antimikrobiyal özelliği nedeniyle geleneksel tıpta yara iyileştirici olarak kullanılmakta, antikanser ve immun sistemi güçlendirici özelliklerinden söz edilmektedir (19). Yapılan klinik çalışmalarında amonyak, üre, nitrik oksit gibi metabolizma sonucu üretilen toksik maddelerin insan vücudundan uzaklaştırılması ve insanlarda toksik ağır metallerin vücuttan atılmasını kolaylaştırmak için kullanılabileceği tespit edilmiştir (20,21). Ayrıca klinoptilolit Küba'da ishal tedavisinde anti-diaretik ilaç olarak kullanılmıştır (22). ...
... High affinity of zeolite and mineral clay to heavy metal ions is well documented (Mumpton, 1999;Serwicka and Bahranowski, 2004) based on the use of aluminosilicates for treatment of wastewater and soil fertilizer. Although many studies have reported dietary supplement aluminosilicates without effects on normal physiological and biochemical parameters, there is limited information about the inhibitory effects of aluminosilicates as dietary supplement on heavy metal toxicity Flowers et al., 2009;Papaioannou et al., 2005). Table 3 Effect of lead acetate (Pb) exposure alone and in combination with ATN on the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in the duodenum of broilers SE -standard error a,b Values without the same superscripts within each row differ significantly (p< 0.05). ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dietary supplements of lead acetate and aluminosilicates on oxidative status in brain, kidney and duodenum of broiler chickens. In this regard, activity of antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPx), pyrogallol peroxidase (PPx) and lipid peroxidation was determined in examined organs. The experiment was performed with eighty-four broiler chickens of both sexes randomly allotted to four diets including the control group, the Pb group containing 500 mg lead acetate/kg diet, the ATN (Antitoxic nutrient) group with 5 g mixture of aluminosilicates (zeolite and montmorillonite)/kg diet and the Pb + ATN group containing 500 mg lead acetate and 5 g mixture of aluminosilicates/kg diet, in a 3-week feeding experiment. Each of these groups consisted of seven replications with 3 chickens per replication. Results suggest that aluminosilicates alone did not provoke any adverse effects and did not disturb normal biochemical and physiological homeostasis in the broilers. The dietary intake of lead acetate induced oxidative stress and promoted increase in level of malondialdehid (MDA), a lipid peroxidation marker, in all examined organs. The lead intake induced increase in CAT activity in all organs, while it decreased the activity of GPx and PPx in the brain and duodenum but did not affect that in the kidneys. The activity of SOD increased in the kidneys and duodenum but did not significantly change in the brain. The combined data showed that the chickens fed aluminosilicates received significant protection against the effects of lead acetate for most parameters measured which remained at control level.
... En este aspecto, se presta atención a diversos minerales y aditivos como suplementos a la dieta en regiones donde hay yacimientos de minerales como es el caso de la zeolita natural tanto de origen volcánico y sedimentario. Las zeolitas son aluminosilicatos cristalinos hidratados de cationes alcalinos y alcalinotérreos, con marcos tetraédricas de SiO4 4 y AlO4 5 interrelacionados (Papaioannou et al 2005), que confiere al mineral una carga neta negativa, que se equilibra mediante un catión intercambiable, normalmente sodio (Na + ), potasio (K + ) o calcio (Ca ++ ) (Flowers et al 2009). Se presentan como un adsorbente versátil, con propiedades de intercambio de cationes, deshidratación y rehidratación ( . ...
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The objective was to evaluate the effect of natural zeolite in dairy cows for 105 days which included the pre­partum (60 days) and post­partum (45 days) period, on the return of ovarian activity (ROA), uterine involution (UI), uterine health (UH), and body score condition (BSC). Fifty Holstein Friessian grazing cows were used, with ≥ 3.5 BSC at drying off, between 2 and 5 calving, clinically healthy, with similar sanitary and management conditions. The cows were randomly divided in two groups: control (CG; n1 = 25) fed basal diet; and experimental (EG: n2 = 25) with basal diet + zeolite (2%) of dry matter intake (DMI), equivalent to 180 and 270 g/cow/day, for dry and lactation period, respectively. The ROA was determined by transrectal ultrasonography at 15, 22, 35 and 45 days by the presence of follicles ≥ 10 mm diameter; UI by rectal palpation at 22 and 45 ppd evaluated by uterus position with respect to the pelvis (UP) and symmetry of the uterine horns (SUH); UH by cytobrush at 35 days; and BSC at 15 days pre­partum, at calving and 45 days post­partum, were evaluated. The zeolite effect was assessed by “U Mann Whitney and Kruscall Wallis” test. The results obtained of the ovarian and uterine variables and BSC were better (P < 0.001) for EG than CG; higher percentage of cows with ROA to 35 days for EG than CG, 52.0 % of CG cows and 4% of EG did not return their post­partum ovarian activity; higher percentage of cows that involved her uterus at 45 days regarding UP and SUH; better UH at 35 days expressed by PMN (%); and better BSC at 15 bpd, birth and 45 ppd. Finally, a significant correlation (P < 0.001) between the BSC at 45 days with the percentage of cows that returned their post­partum ovarian activity, UH at 35 days and UI at 45 days. In conclusion, the addition of natural zeolite in the basal diet of grazing dairy cows, before and after calving, was effective in stimulating the return of ovarian activity, improving involution and uterine health, and body score condition, recommending its use in the dairy herds.
... One study [35] found that clinoptilolite (the same zeolite used in our study) was inert in the rat lung at 360 days. Others have shown that clinoptilolite has no known carcinogenic effect [15]; and only very high doses (300 mg/kg) of clinoptilolite cause a focal storage type reaction in lung tissue [36]. This concentration (300 mg/kg) is ten times the amount used in our study. ...
Article
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For centuries zeolites have been used for their utility in binding metals, they feature in a multitude of agricultural and industrial applications in which the honeycombed zeolite structures form ideal ion‐exchangers, catalysts, and binding agents. Zeolites are currently in a transition period, moving towards implementation in human ailments and diseases. Here, we postulated that zeolites may be able to counter the effects of excess iron, and conducted a mouse model trial to gauge the utility of this notion. We used the transgenic mouse strain MexTAg299 for a thirty week pilot trial in which iron polymaltose and/or the zeolite clinoptilolite were injected into the peritoneum twice weekly. Mice were sacrificed at the end of the trial period and examined by post‐mortem and histology for significant physiological differences between mouse subgroups. In this study, we demonstrated that a common zeolite, clinoptilolite, is able to maintain the general health and wellbeing of mice and prevent iron‐induced deleterious effects following iron overload. When zeolites are given with iron biweekly as intraperitoneal injections, mice showed far less macroscopic visual organ discoloration, along with near normal histology, under iron overload conditions when compared to mice injected with iron only. The purpose of the present pilot study was to examine potential alternatives to current iron chelation treatments, and the results indicate an advantage to using zeolites in conditions of iron excess. Zeolites may have translational potential for use in cases of human iron overload.
... [14][15][16] However, findings of some studies have shown beneficial effects of dietary supplementation of zeolite on health, growth and reproduction performance in animals. [17][18][19][20] According to the ion-exchange properties of zeolites, they are particularly suitable for removing heavy metal ions 21 and also can reduce the harmful effects of ingested toxins. 22 A hypocholesterolemic effect has also been reported for zeolite 23,24 Clinoptilolite is a natural zeolite. ...
Article
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Purpose: To determine the effect of natural clinoptilolite (CLN) and nano-sized clinoptilolite (NCLN) on lipid profile, food intakes (FI) and weight changes in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 36 rats were randomly divided into two groups: diabetic group which was injected STZ (60 mg/kg BW), and a non-diabetic group. Three days after diabetes induction, each of these groups was randomly divided into 3 subgroups of 6 animals ((1) control, (2) 1%/food CLN, (3) 1%/food NCLN). The animals were supplemented for 28 days, starting three days after STZ administration. At the end of the study, blood was drawn for biochemical assays. The weights and FIs of the rats were measured at the beginning and end of each week. Results: Our findings revealed that there was no significant change in lipid profile, 28 days after administration of STZ in diabetic rats. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) was increased slightly in diabetic rats treated with NCLN without any significant changes in other lipid profile parameters in the other groups. Weight was reduced significantly in diabetic rats. Administration of CLN and NCLN prevented further weight loss in diabetic rats. All groups treated with STZ had higher food intake during the study. Conclusion: Lack of beneficial changes in lipid profile may be attributed to short study duration, insufficient for appearance of lipid abnormalities. Given the partial improvement in weight status and lack of undesirable effects of clinoptilolite supplementation, further research is recommended in subjects with typ1 diabetes mellitus.
... This process may occur in exchange with contaminants, such as lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), or arsenic (As), due to their affinity toward the crystal framework of zeolite. This property was exploited not only in several industrial applications but also for detoxification effects in vivo, as presented previously in the scientific literature (6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11). Due to this well-documented ion-exchange property, questions arose on the potential effect of clinoptilolite on physiologically relevant minerals in the in vivo applications. ...
Article
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The natural clinoptilolite material is an inorganic crystal mineral called zeolite. It has been extensively studied and used in industrial applications and veterinary and human medicine due to positive effects on health. Limited data is available in the scientific literature about its effects on the levels of physiologically relevant minerals in the human organism. Accordingly, we performed a comprehensive and controlled monitoring of the relevant mineral and contaminants levels in human subjects supplemented with a certified clinoptilolite material within three clinical trials with different supplementation regimens. Effects of a registered and certified clinoptilolite material PMA-zeolite on selected mineral and metal levels were determined by standard biochemical methods and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the blood of subjects enrolled in three clinical trials: short-term (28 days, Mineral Metabolism and selected Blood Parameters study MMBP), medium-term (12 weeks, Morbus Crohn study), and long-term (4 years, Osteoporosis TOP study) supplementation. Lower concentrations were observed for copper (Cu) in patients with osteoporosis, which normalized again in the long-term supplementation trial, whereas sodium (Na) and calcium (Ca) levels diminished below the reference values in patients with osteoporosis. In the short- and long-term supplementation trials, increased levels of lead (Pb) were observed in PMA-zeolite-supplemented subjects, which decreased in the continued long-term supplementation trial. Increased levels of aluminum (Al) or Pb attributable to eventual leakage from the material into the bloodstream were not detected 1 h after intake in the short-term supplementation trial. Nickel (Ni) and Al were statistically significantly decreased upon long-term 4-year supplementation within the long-term supplementation trial, and arsenic (As) was statistically significantly decreased upon 12-weeks supplementation in the medium-term trial. Alterations in the measured levels for Na and Ca, as well as for Pb, in the long-term trial are probably attributable to the bone remodeling process. Checking the balance of the minerals Cu, Ca, and Na after 1 year of supplementation might be prescribed for PMA-supplemented patients with osteoporosis. Clinical Trial Registration [ https://clinicaltrials.gov ], identifiers [NCT03901989, NCT05178719, NCT04370535, NCT04607018].
... In one dietary study in humans, NCL promoted the excretion of heavy metals in urine without removing vital electrolytes, and only very high doses (300 mg/kg) caused a focal storage type reaction in lung tissue. 37 The apparent safety of zeolites compared with asbestos, despite both being silicate minerals, may be related to their physical structure. Whereas asbestos is a fibrous material, most zeolites have orthorhombic crystalline structures with accessible open channels for water and large ions. ...
Article
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Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an almost invariably fatal cancer caused by asbestos exposure. The toxicity of asbestos fibers is related to their physicochemical properties and the generation of free radicals. We set up a pilot study to investigate the potential of the zeolite clinoptilolite to counteract the asbestos carcinogenesis by preventing the generation of reactive nitrogen and oxygen radicals. In cell culture experiments, clinoptilolite prevented asbestos-induced cell death, reactive oxygen species production, DNA degradation, and overexpression of genes known to be up-regulated by asbestos. In an asbestos-induced transgenic mouse model of MM, mice were injected intraperitoneal injections with blue asbestos, with or without clinoptilolite, and monitored for 30 weeks. By the end of the trial all 13 mice injected with asbestos alone had reached humane end points, whereas only 7 of 29 mice receiving crocidolite and clinoptilolite reached a similar stage of disease. Post-mortem examination revealed pinpoint mesothelioma-like tumors in affected mice, and the absence of tumor formation in surviving mice. Interestingly, the macrophage clearance system, which was largely suppressed in asbestos-treated mice, exhibited evidence of increased phagocytosis in mice treated with asbestos and clinoptilolite. Our study suggests that inhibiting the asbestos-induced generation of reactive oxygen species and stimulating the macrophage system may represent a pathway to amelioration of asbestos-induced toxicity. Additional studies are warranted to explore the underlying mechanisms responsible for our observations.
... It was demonstrated that the regular use of zeolite was efficient in elimination of toxic heavy metals from the body through urine. 175 Zhakov et al performed other clinical study about the detoxifying effect of zeolite to remove the heavy metal-poisoned 102 men after 1 month. Reduction in heavy metal (Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Ni) content was a consequence of the zeolite detoxification performance and possible renewal of the body mineral metabolism homeostasis. ...
Article
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Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine follow a multidisciplinary attitude to the expansion and application of new materials for the treatment of different tissue defects. Typically, proper tissue regeneration is accomplished through concurrent biocompatibility and positive cellular activity. This can be resulted by the smart selection of platforms among bewildering arrays of structural possibilities with various porosity properties (ie, pore size, pore connectivity, etc). Among diverse porous structures, zeolite is known as a microporous tectosilicate that can potentially provide a biological microenvironment in tissue engineering applications. In addition, zeolite has been particularly appeared promising in wound dressing and bone‐ and tooth‐oriented scaffolds. The wide range of composition and hierarchical pore structure renders the zeolitic materials a unique character, particularly, for tissue engineering purposes. Despite such unique features, research on zeolitic platforms for tissue engineering has not been classically presented. In this review, we overview, classify, and categorize zeolitic platforms employed in biological and tissue engineering applications.
... In both animals and humans, no substantial changes in relevant trace elements or vitamins were observed even after long-term administration. 148,152,153 Many studies have been reported in agriculture and veterinary medicine, and these have been extensively reviewed. 6,149,154−156 Nitrites and trace element removal from water and animal feed could be ameliorated with dietary clinoptilolite. ...
Article
Asbestos and zeolites are silicate-based minerals, linked inextricably via paradoxical similarities and differences which have emanated from different geological epochs. Both have been employed in the service of humanity through millennia: asbestos, for its "inextinguishable" quality of being an insulator against heat and fire; zeolite, a "boiling stone" with its volcanic and marine sedimentary rock origins, for its propensity to adsorb water and remove metals and toxins. Serious adverse health effects observed in asbestos miners as long ago as the 1st Century AD did not halt the rising popularity of asbestos. As the miracle material of the 1900s, asbestos production and consumption exploded, culminating in its ubiquity in ships, vehicles, homes, commercial buildings, and over 3000 different industrial and household products. Through the 1940s and 1950s, epidemiological studies concluded that asbestos was a likely cause of asbestosis, lung cancer, and malignant mesothelioma, and it is now banned in many but far from all countries. The long latency between exposure to asbestos and the occurrence of cancer has obscured the deadly consequences of asbestos exposure for centuries. Even today, a considerable part of the world population is insufficiently aware of the dangers of asbestos, and millions of tons of this carcinogen continue to be mined and used worldwide. Zeolites, both natural and synthetic, are microporous aluminosilicate minerals commonly used in a myriad of processes, in the petrochemical industry, in domestic appliances and cleaning agents, as commercial adsorbents and exchangers for toxins and pollutants, and as catalysts. Zeolites are found in agriculture, veterinary science, and human health. More recently, new materials such as carbon nanotubes are being employed in materials requiring durability and thermal and electrical conductivity, yet nanotubes are now joining the ranks of more established particulates such as asbestos and silica, in causing human disease. In this review, we compare and contrast the similarities and differences of these two groups of silicate minerals and their waxing and waning use in the employ of humanity.
... Panel 5 (a-c): normal histological structure in tissues from fish fed a normal diet with no zeolite inclusion muscle. This significant reduction may be due to the low initial levels detected which have made the effect of zeolite in removing Pb from the muscle, probably to be excreted through the liver and kidney, more pronounced (Flowers et al., 2009). Concerning gills and livers, a significant decrease in Pb residue level was observed in all zeolite treated groups for the gills while the decrease was only significant for 1% and 3% zeolite treated groups in the liver. ...
Article
The applications of natural products in aquaculture to improve fish production and modulate toxic undesired effects of heavy metals represent a global environmental demand. In this study, fish diets supplemented with natural zeolite (Clinoptilolite) were evaluated for their ability to improve growth and alleviate the deleterious effects of lead acetate in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Four main experimental groups were used: one control group that fed on diets supplemented with 0% zeolite and three treatment groups received 1%, 3% and 5% zeolite. After 45 days of feeding, zeolite treatments resulted in a positive effect on weight gain (WG) with a significant reduction in water ammonia levels. Following feeding experiment, the control group was divided into two groups. All zeolite-treated groups and one of the control groups (Control +ve) were subjected to lead (Pb) toxicity for additional 21 days, while the other control received no Pb (Control –ve). Exposure to Pb significantly decreased protein and albumin on one hand and increased glucose, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) on the other. Elevation of hepatic catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were also detected. In contrast, zeolite feeding before and during Pb exposure showed an increase in protein and albumin levels, and a decrease in glucose, cholesterol, ALT, AST, CAT, SOD and TAC levels. Moreover, zeolite decreased Pb residues in muscles and increased it in kidneys. All in all, the data presented indicate that zeolite can improve the growth performance in Nile tilapia and increases fish resistance to undesired effects associated with Pb toxicity.
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The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of zeolite (clinoptilolite) added in the basal diet of dairy cows for 105 days, 60 days pre-partum (dap) and 45 days post-partum (dpp), and it’s influence on return of ovarian activity (AO), involution (IU ) and uterine health (SU), and body condition (CC). The project was conducted in three herds in the community of Soldados of the Cuenca - Azuay in fifty dry cows, with CC ≥ 3.5, between 2-5 births, clinically healthy and all in the same health and management conditions; were divided into a control group (n1 = 25), fed with basal diet and experimental (n2 = 25), with basal diet + 2% Zeolite of dry matter intake (DMI). Return of AO was evaluated considering follicles ≥ 10 mm of diameter at 15, 22, 35 and 45 dpp by transrectal ultrasonography, SU (> 10 PMN) at 35 dpp for cytobrush, IU considering position of the uterus relative to the pelvis (PU), symmetry of the horns (SCU) and diameter of the cervix (DC) at 22 and 45 dpp by rectal palpation, and finally CC to 15 dap, at calving and 45 dpp. The experimental design was completely random (DCA) and the results were analyzed with SPSS version 22.0, they were subsequently applied statisticians "Mann Whitney and Kruscall Wallis". I have obtained effectiveness in GE the highest percentage of cows returning their AO (GC and GE respectively were: 35 dpp vs.70,4% 29.6%; 44.4% vs. 45 dpp 55.6%; p <0.05). The IU was at 45 dpp, the values obtained for GC and GE were respectively 40.0% vs. PU 76.0%, 32.0% vs. SCU 76.0% and 28.0% vs. DC 68.0% (p <0.05). And YOUR also showed effectiveness in getting GE vs. 3.4% 22.2% of PMN compared to GC, (p <0.05). Finally, significant differences (p <0.05) was found in DC childbirth and 45 dpp effectively attributed to GE. In conclusion, the addition of zeolite 2% in the basal diet showed efficacy in involution and uterine health, return of ovarian activity and body condition in cows in transition, recommending its use in dairy herds.
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Aim of this work was the preparation, starting from a clinoptilolite-rich rock, of a material suitable for the development of pharmaceuticals. In particular, the purpose was to obtain a reproducible product that maximizes zeolite properties and minimizes any kind of interference chemical, mineralogical and microbiological. In evaluating the material for the planned use, the recommendations and procedures of European, US and Japanese Pharmacopoeias were taken as benchmark to the largest extent possible. A set of technological properties was also determined. The prepared material, containing 90 wt.% of Na-clinoptilolite, was obtained through a replicable process, and do not contains fibrous minerals classified as carcinogenic by the IARC. Chemical analyses evidenced contents of trace metals below the more restrictive limits established by Eur Ph., USP and JP for "bentonite" - taken as reference due to the similarities between smectites and zeolites, and because of the lack of a Monograph on clinoptilolite. The oral bioaccessibility of potential harmful elements, tested simulating the transit in the gastrointestinal tract according to Eur Ph., was three to six orders of magnitude lower than the permissible daily exposure established by USP. The microbiological quality of the material complied with the acceptance criteria of Eur Ph. The clinoptilolite structure was not significantly affected by sterilization process nor by simulated gastric juices. As concerns the characteristics determined, the prepared material is suitable for the development of systems exploiting clinoptilolite's properties as pharmaceutical excipient.
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In this study the degradation and ion/zeolite release processes of in vitro aged zeolite loaded polyurethane composites were evaluated. Two in vitro artificial aging solutions were used; artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF) and Gamble´s solution and the total exposure time was 12 weeks. Periodically, SEM micrographs were taken of the surface of polyester type polyurethane-zeolite composites. After exposure to ALF solution the samples showed round holes and a rougher surface in general over time. Micrographs of the samples immersed in Gamble’s solution exhibited different signs of degradation with damage features on the surfaces, understood as black holes and a rougher surface pattern. In addition varying amount of salt was also observed on the surfaces that might influence the ion/zeolite release. Furthermore, the zeolite filler caused remarkable changes in mechanical properties after the aging process, which could not be discerned.
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The preparation and modelling of single, binary and ternary ion exchanged zeolites that express antimicrobial efficiency is discussed. As experimental material A type zeolite was used and different variations of Ag, Cu and Zn ions were incorporated into the crystal structure. Antimicrobial efficiency is based on the ion concentration and ion release of the zeolite, therefore the maximum cation-exchange capacities (CEC) were determined for each of the single ions. After the determination of CEC the preparation of binary and ternary ion-exchanged zeolite samples were prepared by the mixture of silver, copper and zinc nitrate solutions and the composition of the samples was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). To verify the bioactive effect, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of single, binary and ternary ion-exchanged zeolite A was determined for bacteria strains.
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The work reported herein involves the characterization of natural zeolites from two different mines (San Andrés and Tasajeras; Cuba) using XRD, SEM, TG-DTA, ICP and surface area measurements. In addition, the chemical composition of zeolites, the heavy metal and environmental organic toxins content, the ion exchange rates, stability under biological conditions using simulated body fluids as well as the binding capacity for histamine have been investigated with a view to using them as medical products. The investigated zeolites contain clinoptilolite and mordenite as major phases. Furthermore, the samples are apparently free from fibrous materials according to SEM observations. In particular, the San Andrés zeolite binds remarkable amounts of histamine which are nearly irreversible under acidic (pH = 1; 12.4 mg/g) and neutral conditions (pH = 7; 15.7 mg/g), respectively. Thus, the San Andrés sample may well be applied as a medical product due to its excellent binding capacity for histamine along with its remaining optimum physico-chemical characteristics.
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Health hazards caused by heavy metals have become a great concern to the population. Lead and arsenic are one of the most important current global environmental toxicants. Their toxic manifestations are being considered caused primarily due to the imbalance between pro-oxidant and antioxidant homeostasis and also due to a high affinity of these metals for thiol groups on functional proteins. They also interfere with a number of other body functions and are known to affect central nervous system (CNS), hematopoietic system, liver and kidneys and produce serious disorders. They produce both acute and chronic poisoning, of which chronic poisoning is more dangerous as its very difficult to revert back to normal condition after chronic exposure to these insidious metals present in our life. Despite many years of research, we are still far from an effective treatment of chronic plumbism and arsenicosis. Current approved treatment lies in the administration of chelating agents that forms an insoluble complex with the metal and removes it. They have been used clinically as antidotes for treating acute and chronic poisoning. The most widely used chelating agents are calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid (CaNa2EDTA), D-penicillamine and British anti-lewisite (BAL). Meso 2,3 dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), an analogue of BAL, has been tried successfully in animals as well as in humans. But it is unable to remove the metal from intracellular sites. Effective chelation therapy for intoxication by heavy metals depends on whether the chelating agents are able to reach the intracellular site where the heavy metal is firmly bound. One of the important approaches has been the use of combination therapy. This includes use of structurally different chelators or a combination of an adjuvant/ antioxidant/ herbal extracts and a chelator to provide better clinical/ biochemical recovery. A number of other strategies have been suggested to minimize the numerous problems. This article presents the recent development made in this area with possible directions for future research.
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4A and P zeolites were thermally treated to dehydrate them to different extents. The residual water content and calcium exchange capacity (CEC) values of the treated zeolites were evaluated. The study revealed that the CEC of the zeolites depended upon the zeolitic water level. Anhydrous zeolites are devoid of exchange capacity. Mixed zeolites demonstrated mineralisation effect and an additional peak in the thermal studies.
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The study was conducted to evaluate, under field conditions, the effect of the long-term dietary use of a natural zeolite (clinoptilolite, CLI) and antibacterials (chlortetracycline, CTC) on the concentrations of certain vitamins (vitamin A and vitamin E) and minerals (K, Na, P, Ca, Mg, Cu and Zn) in blood and body tissues of the sow. Twenty-four sows were assigned to two main experimental groups and four subgroups, depending on the presence or absence of CLI and CTC in their feed, respectively. CLI was provided to the sows from weaning, during the service, gestation and lactation periods and up to the date of the next service, while CTC was administered for a 2-week period post-service, as well as for a 2-week period following the allocation of the sows in the farrowing house, around 5 days prior to the expected parturition. Blood samples were collected on the starting day of the trial, on the 30th and the 90th day of each pregnancy, on the day of each parturition and on the day of each weaning. Furthermore, 20 sows were similarly distributed in the same experimental groups and subgroups and at the end of the trial they were slaughtered and liver and kidney samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Neither CLI nor CTC supplementation of the diets had any significant effect on vitamins' and minerals' uptake and their distribution in the body, since there was no alteration in their blood serum and liver/kidney concentrations. Furthermore, no CLI x CTC interaction was noticed.
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In situ immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated soils is a technique to improve soil quality. Synthetic zeolites are potentially useful additives to bind heavy metals. This study selected the most effective zeolite in cadmium and zinc binding out of six synthetic zeolites (mordenite-type, faujasite-type, zeolite X, zeolite P, and two zeolites A) and one natural zeolite (clinoptilolite). Zeolite A appeared to have the highest binding capacity between pH 5 and 6.5 and was stable above pH 5.5. The second objective of this study was to investigate the effects of zeolite addition on the dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentration. Since zeolites increase soil pH and bind Ca, their application might lead to dispersion of organic matter. In a batch experiment, the DOM concentration increased by a factor of 5 when the pH increased from 6 to 8 as a result of zeolite A addition. A strong increase in DOM was also found in the leachate of soil columns, particularly in the beginning of the experiment. This resulted in higher metal leaching caused by metal-DOM complexes. In contrast, the free ionic concentration of Cd and Zn strongly decreased after the addition of zeolites, which might explain the reduction in metal uptake observed in plant growth experiments. Pretreatment of zeolites with acid (to prevent a pH increase) or Ca (to coagulate organic matter) suppressed the dispersion of organic matter, but also decreased the metal binding capacity of the zeolites due to competition of protons or Ca.
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Effective chelation treatment of metal intoxications requires that the pharmacokinetics of the administered chelator in fact leads to chelation of the toxic metal, preferably forming a less toxic species which is effectively excreted. This depends on physical and chemical characteristics of metals and chelators as e.g. ionic diameter, ring size and deformability, hardness/softness of electron donors and acceptors, administration route, bioavailability, metabolism, organ and intra/extra cellular compartmentalization, and excretion. In vivo chelation is unlikely to reach equilibrium determined by the standard stability constant, as rate effects and ligand exchange reactions as well as the pharmacokinetics of the chelator considerably influence complex formation. Hydrophilic chelators enhance renal metal excretion, but mainly their extracellular distribution limit their effect to mainly extracellular metal pools. Lipophilic chelators can decrease intracellular stores, but may redistribute toxic metals to e.g. the brain. In chronic metal induced disease, necessitating life-long chelation, toxicity and side effects of the chelator may limit the treatment. The metal selectivity of chelators is important, due to the risk of essential metals depletion. Dimercaptosuccinic acid and dimercaptopropionic sulfonate are presently gaining increased acceptance among clinicians, undoubtedly improving the management of human metal intoxications including lead, arsenic and mercury compounds. Still, development of new safer chelators suited for long-term oral administration for chelation of metal deposits, mainly iron, is an important challenge to the future research.
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Acute arsenic toxicity is a multisystemic disease with pleural and pericardial effusions, gastrointestinal symptoms and pancytopenia. The most frequent neurological complication of inorganic arsenic intoxication is a distal symmetrical polyneuropathy. We report here a patient who developed a systemic illness followed with severe acute polyneuropathy. Electrophysiological findings suggested a Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Finally an acute encephalopathy appeared which led to reconsideration of the diagnosis. A 24-hour heavy metal urine, nail and hair analysis was performed. A diagnosis of arsenic toxicity was made. Instead of chelating therapy patient died due to respiratory failure. A misdiagnosis of GBS in inorganic arsenic polyneuropathy is not infrequent. Atypical progression compels to rule out arsenic or heavy metal intoxication. In our case the appearance of the encephalopathy was the key to the diagnosis. It has been suggested that axonal degeneration and segmental demyelination might be equally prominent pathological features of the neuropathy, depending on the dosage and the length of time of exposure to arsenic. The exact pathophysiology of arsenic polyneuropathy remains unclear and a interference with pyruvate oxidation has been postulated.
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The possibility of using zeolites to reduce the levels of heavy metals present in motorway stormwater has been investigated. Currently, the primary pollutant removal mechanism used in treating stormwater is retaining the large volume of stormwater in detention ponds to allow time for the contaminants (mainly those associated with particulate matter) to separate out. There is also a need to reduce the levels of heavy metals in the dissolved phase, possibly by introducing some kind of ion exchange material into the treatment facility. Batch experiments have been conducted on two zeolites (synthetic MAP and natural mordenite) to test their ability to remove dissolved heavy metals from simulated and spiked motorway stormwater. Synthetic zeolite MAP showed almost complete removal (>91%) of the studied heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd) from both solutions. However, the use of such synthetic zeolites could have serious environmental implications as it was found to increase sodium levels to 295 mg/l, remove calcium and increase the pH of the spiked motorway stormwater to 8.5. Mordenite was less effective at reducing the levels of heavy metals (42-89% in synthetic solution, 6-44% in motorway stormwater) and exhibited a preference for Pb>Cu>Zn approximately Cd. It is proposed that the uptake of heavy metals is partially inhibited by the other dissolved contaminants present in motorway stormwater.
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A recent approach to the problem of contamination of agricultural products by aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) is to add non-nutritional adsorbents to animal diets in order to sequester ingested aflatoxins. We conducted in vitro experiments to develop a rapid and cheap model using ruminal fluid to assess the ability of sorbent materials to bind AFB(1). Seven sorbents (hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate; clinoptilolite; zeolite; two types of bentonite; sepiolite; and PHIL 75), commonly added to bovine diets were incubated in water and ruminal fluid in the presence of AFB(1). Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate, sepiolite and one of the bentonites bound 100% of the AFB(1) in the presence of both ruminal fluid and water; clinoptilolite bound about 80% of AFB(1) in both liquids; whereas the affinities for the mycotoxin of zeolite (50%) and the other sample of bentonite (60%) in water seem to be increased by about 40% in ruminal fluid incubations. PHIL 75 had the poorest binding ability: about 30% in water and 45% in ruminal fluid. In view of the differences in toxin binding in water and ruminal fluid, it is preferable to use the ruminal fluid model for the in vitro pre-screening of sorbent materials potentially useful as adjuvants to ruminant feeds.
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Using a staining technique developed in 2004, we examined hippocampal tissue from autopsy-confirmed cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and controls. The stain disclosed aluminum in cells and subcellular structure. All pyramidal neurons in these aged specimens appeared to exhibit at least some degree of aluminum staining. Many displayed visible aluminum only in their nucleolus. At the other extreme were neurons that stained for aluminum throughout their nucleus and cytoplasm. The remainder exhibited intermediate degrees of staining. On the basis of their aluminum staining patterns, all pyramidal neurons could be classified into stages that indicated two distinct neuropathological processes, either (1) progressive increase of nuclear aluminum (often accompanied by granulovacuolar degeneration with granules that stain for aluminum) or (2) formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in regions of aluminum-rich cytoplasm, especially in AD brain tissue. In the latter process, intraneuronal NFTs appeared to displace nuclei and then enucleate the affected neurons during the course of their transformation into extracellular NFTs. Given that the NFTs we observed in human neurons always developed in conjunction with cytoplasmic aluminum, we hypothesize that aluminum plays an important role in their formation and should therefore be reconsidered as a causative factor for AD.
Article
The study was carried out on the sorption of heavy metals (Ni2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, and Cd2+) under static conditions from single- and multicomponent aqueous solutions by raw and pretreated clinoptilolite. The sorption has an ion-exchange nature and consists of three stages, i.e., the adsorption on the surface of microcrystals, the inversion stage, and the moderate adsorption in the interior of the microcrystal. The finer clinoptilolite fractions sorb higher amounts of the metals due to relative enriching by the zeolite proper and higher cleavage. The slight difference between adsorption capacity of the clinoptilolite toward lead, copper, and cadmium from single- and multicomponent solutions may testify to individual sorption centers of the zeolite for each metal. The decrease of nickel adsorption from multicomponent solutions is probably caused by the propinquity of its sorption forms to the other metals and by competition. The maximum sorption capacity toward Cd2+ is determined as 4.22 mg/g at an initial concentration of 80 mg/L and toward Pb2+, Cu2+, and Ni2+ as 27.7, 25.76, and 13.03 mg/g at 800 mg/L. The sorption results fit well to the Langmuir and the Freundlich models. The second one is better for adsorption modeling at high metal concentrations.
Article
Since the late 1960s, investigators have assessed the risks associated with exposure to a variety of potentially harmful agents used in dental practice. This paper provides a brief overview of the epidemiologic literature examining the associations between occupational exposures to elemental mercury and anesthetic gases and reproductive outcomes, such as spontaneous abortion, congenital abnormalities and reduced fertility. Most of the epidemiologic evidence points to a significant relationship between exposure to nitrous oxide and both spontaneous abortion and reduced fertility. There is also evidence for an association between exposure to ethylene oxide and spontaneous abortion, but on the basis of the limited research available, this relationship does not appear to be statistically significant. At this time, evidence of a relationship between exposure to elemental mercury and spontaneous abortion, congenital abnormalities and reduced fertility is limited. Good mercury hygiene by dental personnel and the use of scavenging equipment on nitrous oxide systems and exhaust systems on ethylene oxide sterilizers may reduce the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes.
Effects of natural zeoite-clinoptilolite on process of removal of Cs-137 from the rat body Pond Wg, Yen JT, Varel VH. Response of growing swine to dietary copper and clinoptilolite
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