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Germination and vigor of lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa L.) pelleted with homeopathic preparations Alumina and Calcarea carbonica subjected to toxic levels of aluminum.

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Background: aluminum toxicity is the most important factor limiting the growth of plants in acid soils, whereas current treatments are unfeasible. For this reason, alternatives are sought for, among which homeopathic treatment. Aims: this study aimed at evaluating the influence of homeopathic preparations Alumina 6cH, Alumina 12cH, Calcarea carbonica 6cH and Calcarea carbonica 12cH on the germination and vigor of lettuce seeds subjected to toxic levels of aluminum in paper-solution. At the same time, it was sought to develop a new procedure to apply homeopathic preparations in plants (pelleting). Methods: the statistical design was entirely randomized (CRD) with 6 treatments and 4 repetitions. Treatments included: 1) pelleted seeds/talc + Alum 6 cH; 2) pelleted seeds/talc + Alum 12cH; 3) pelleted seed/talc + Calc 6cH; 4) pelleted seeds/talc + Calc 12cH; 5) pelleted seeds/talc + distilled water; 6) non pelleted seeds (control). Variables evaluated were: germination percentage (GP), germination speed index (GSI) and radicle length (RL). Results: there was significant difference in GSI and RL – variables that reflect the vigor of seeds - between the samples treated with homeopathic preparations and the controls Conclusions: homeopathic preparations Alumina 6cH and 12cH and Calcarea carbonica 6cH and 12cH had significant effect on the vigor of lettuce seeds subjected to stress conditions.
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Int J High Dilution Res 2010; 9(33): 138-146
138
Original Article
Germination and vigor of lettuce seeds (Lactuca
sativa L.) pelleted with homeopathic preparations
Alumina and Calcarea carbonica subjected to toxic
levels of aluminum.
Filipe Pereira Giardini Bonfim1, Rosana Gonçalves Rodrigues das Dores2,
Ernane Ronie Martins3, Vicente Wagner Dias Casali1
(1) Federal University of Viçosa, MG, Brazil
(2) Federal University of Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil
(3) Federal University of Minas Gerais, Montes Claros, MG, Brazil
ABSTRACT
Background: aluminum toxicity is the most important factor limiting the growth of plants in
acid soils, whereas current treatments are unfeasible. For this reason, alternatives are sought for,
among which homeopathic treatment. Aims: this study aimed at evaluating the influence of
homeopathic preparations Alumina 6cH, Alumina 12cH, Calcarea carbonica 6cH and Calcarea
carbonica 12cH on the germination and vigor of lettuce seeds subjected to toxic levels of
aluminum in paper-solution. At the same time, it was sought to develop a new procedure to apply
homeopathic preparations in plants (pelleting). Methods: the statistical design was entirely
randomized (CRD) with 6 treatments and 4 repetitions. Treatments included: 1) pelleted
seeds/talc + Alum 6 cH; 2) pelleted seeds/talc + Alum 12cH; 3) pelleted seed/talc + Calc 6cH; 4)
pelleted seeds/talc + Calc 12cH; 5) pelleted seeds/talc + distilled water; 6) non pelleted seeds
(control). Variables evaluated were: germination percentage (GP), germination speed index (GSI)
and radicle length (RL). Results: there was significant difference in GSI and RL variables that
reflect the vigor of seeds - between the samples treated with homeopathic preparations and the
controls Conclusions: homeopathic preparations Alumina 6cH and 12cH and Calcarea carbonica
6cH and 12cH had significant effect on the vigor of lettuce seeds subjected to stress conditions.
Keywords: Aluminum toxicity; Homeopathic preparations; Lettuce; Germination; Vigor; Pelleted
seeds
Introduction
Aluminum toxicity is the most important limiting factor for the growth of plants in acid soils [1]. It is held
that the main effect of toxic levels of aluminum is a reduction in the rate of radicular growth of sensitive
plants, since they affect the lengthening and division of cells [2]. This restriction decreases the plant’s ability
to take water and nutrients from the subsoil due to superficial rooting; in this way, it becomes less productive
and more susceptible to drought.
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139
To attempt to decrease this toxic effect in such soils correctives (calcareous compounds) and fertilizers are
added in-depth. Nevertheless, the techniques currently available for this goal are unfeasible, partly because
there is not yet a method to control the exchangeable aluminum at the sub-superficial level of soils, partly due
to the cost of correctives and finally, and partly due to the large areas of soils presenting significant degrees of
damaging acidity [3]; furthermore, these resources are not renewable, thus, they can be exhausted. For these
reasons, new technologies are sought for.
Homeopathy is one among such technologies; it was approved in Brazil by the Ministry of Agriculture and
Supply in 2008 [4]. The use of diluted and agitated substances in agriculture, especially in plants, is
spreading fast. Notions and methods proper to homeopathy are used in several aspects of agriculture,
including the quality of seedlings [5], germination [6], plagues control, [7] plants’ diseases [8], increase of
active principles [9], metal detoxification [10], and plant metabolism [11].
Homeopathy has potential to contribute to sustainable agriculture, this is the management of resources in
order to satisfy the ever-changing human needs and at the same time keep or improve the quality of the
environment and conserve the natural resources [12]. Through self-regulation, plants respond with high
intensity to homeopathy when employed in stress conditions [13].
Despite positive results, both in the academic and practical levels, not too much is known regarding the
physiological mechanisms of action of homeopathic preparations in plants, nor about the methods to employ
them.
This study seeks to contribute to the development of a technology to facilitate the germination of plants in
poorly favorable environments, as well as to the introduction of an innovative method to employ homeopathic
preparations, such as seeds pelleting. In this context, it was sought to evaluate the influence of homeopathic
preparations Alumina and Calcarea carbonica as seed pellets on the germination and vigor of seeds of lettuce
subjected to toxic levels of aluminum in paper solution.
Materials and Methods
Choice of the homeopathic preparations
Homeopathic preparations Alum 6cH, Alum 12cH, Calc 6cH and Calc 12cH were selected according their
indications in plants [14]. Alumina is indicated in slow-growing plants; growth interrupted due to excessive
absorption of aluminum; culture in soils rich in aluminum leading to the accumulation of toxic levels; culture
in acid soils. Calcarea carbonica: indicated in plants sensitive to adverse conditions; slow production of roots;
slow growth with late sprouting, slow germination, smaller seeds and higher rate of sterility.
Preparation of the homeopathic dilutions
Agitated dilutions of Alumina and Calcarea carbonica were prepared from homeopathic matrixes in dilution
5cH (Schraiber) obtained at a homeopathic pharmacy in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil in October, 2009;
further dilutions were prepared at the Homeopathic Laboratory of the Department of Phytotechnics at
Federal University of Viçosa (DFT/UFV) according to the guidelines in the Brazilian Homeopathic
Pharmacopoeia [15]. Succussion was carried out through a “mechanic-arm” device model DENISE 10-50
(UTIC). Homeopathic solutions Alum 6cH and 12cH, and Calc 6cH and 12cH were prepared immediately
before the pelleting of seeds.
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Seeds
For this study it was used naked lettuce seeds brand Isla ® type “Regina de Verão”, batch #22419 proceeding
from Chile; germination percentage 91%; purity: 99.4%.
Pelleting of seeds
To pellet the seeds we used our own method of impregnation, observing the weight/volume ratio, as 1 gram of
powder per ml of adhesive. Powder was Synth® inert pharmaceutical talc (Mg3Si4O10(OH); and adhesive
corresponded to homeopathic preparations Alum 6cH, Alum 12cH, Calc 6cH, Calc 12cH and distilled water.
The latter were made impregnate the talc in a Petri dish diving rise to a semi-pasty, integral and white
powder, which was later used to coat the seeds.
Determination of the toxic dose of aluminum
A pretest was carried out to establish the concentration of Al3+ that best made patent its toxic effect on seeds
of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) through the method of paper-solution [16]. In this sense, the best behavior was
observed with a concentration twice the tolerable levels of lettuce cultures, which bears about 3.0 cmmolc/dm3
of Al3+ [17]. Consequently, it was used a solution corresponding to 540 mg/ l-1 of AlCl3.6H2O.
Experimental Design
The study was carried out at the Ultradilutions Laboratory of DFT/UFV, geographic coordinates 42° 52’W and
42° 50’W (longitude), and 20° 44’S and 20° 47’S (latitude). The statistical designed was entirely randomized
(CRD), with 6 treatments and 4 repetitions; each experimental unit comprised 25 seeds. Treatments were: 1)
pelleted seeds/talc + Alum 6cH; 2) pelleted seeds/talc + Alum 12cH; 3) pelleted seeds/talc + Calc 6cH; pelleted
seeds/talc + Calc 12cH; pelleted seeds/talc + distilled water (control 1); non-pelleted seeds (control 2).
All seeds were placed in a germination chamber Tecnal® model TE-401in gerbox boxes with germitest paper
previously moistened by 8 ml of aluminum solution (540 mg/ l-1 of AlCl3.6H2O), kept at 20ºC, photoperiod 16
hours light and 8 hours dark, for 7 days. The tests of germination and vigor followed the guidelines and
criteria established by the Ministry of Agriculture [18]. The experiment was carried out in a double-blind
design, using symbols to name each treatment in order to avoid potential interferences.
Evaluated variables
Variables assessed included: germination percentage (GP), radical length (RL); germination speed index
(GSI). Data were subjected to variance analyses and means were compared through Tukey’s test with 5%
probability with software SAEG. GP was established on the 7th day after seeding, counting the total number
of seeds in each lot; GP data were transformed into  
. RL was measured at the end of the study
with a digital paquimeter, and the results were expressed in millimeters (mm). GSI was carried out following
Maguire [19], as the addition of the ratio between the number of germinated seeds each day and the day of
evaluation: IVG = G1/N1 + G2/N2 + G3/N3 + ... + Gn/Nn, where G1, G2, G3, ... , Gn = number of germinated seeds
in the day of observation, and N1, N2, N3, ... , Nn = the number of days after seeding.
Results and Discussion
There were significant differences among treatments regarding the variables related to the vigor of seeds (GSI
and RL), whereas there was no difference regarding GP, as shown in Table 1.
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Table 1. Summary of variance analysis of germination percentage (GP), germination speed index
(GSI) and radicle length (RL) in seeds of lettuce non-pelleted (control) and pelleted (with
homeopathic preparations Alumina and Calcarea carbonica) subjected to toxic levels of
aluminum.
Variation source
Degree of
freedom
Mean squares
GP
GSI
RL
Treatments
5
65,86ns
17,01**
445,32**
Residues
18
88
0,83
4,69
Total
23
Variation coefficient (%)
10,99
8,29
11,65
(**) Significant at 1% probability respectively with f-test.
(ns) Non significant at 5% probability with f-test.
Treatment 5 (control 1) did not differ from non-pelleted Treatment 6 (control 2) in all 3 evaluated variables
(Tables 2, 3) showing thus that the impregnating substance (pharmaceutical talc) had no interference effects
between both controls and, thus, that the pelleting of seeds by itself, without homeopathic preparations,
produces no benefit.
Figures 1 and 2 illustrate the germination and vigor of lettuce seeds on the fourth day and seven days
respectively after the mounting of the experiment.
Figure 1 Lettuce seeds, paper solution with toxic levels of aluminum (4th day): A) Treatment 3
(pelleted seeds/talc+Calc 6cH); B) Treatment 4 (pelleted seeds/talc+Calc 12cH); 6) Treatment 6
control 2 (non-pelleted seeds); D) Treatment 1 (pelleted seeds/talc+Alum 6cH); E) Treatment 2
(pelleted seeds/talc+Alum 12cH); F) Treatment 5- control 1 (pelleted seeds/talc+distilled water).
Int J High Dilution Res 2010; 9(33): 138-146
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Regarding RL, Table 2 shows the significantly higher means of Treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4 by comparison with
both control treatments, therefore, the effectiveness of low dilutions of Alumina and Calcarea carbonica on
the physiological aspects of the seeds of lettuce. These results corroborate previously obtained ones [20],
where it was observed an increase in the weight of the dry mass of lettuce treated with homeopathic
preparation Arnica montana in dilutions 6cH and 12cH, which was not found with dilution 30cH.
Figure 2 Small plants resulting from this study, fnal evaluation (7th day). A) Treatment 3
(pelleted seeds/talc+Calc 6cH); B) Treatment 4 (pelleted seeds/talc+Calc 12cH); 6) Treatment 6
control 2 (non-pelleted seeds); D) Treatment 1 (pelleted seeds/talc+Alum 6cH); E) Treatment 2
(pelleted seeds/talc+Alum 12cH); F) Treatment 5- control 1 (pelleted seeds/talc+distilled water).
Table 2 Mean values of radicle length (RL) of lettuce seeds both non-pelleted and pelleted with
homeopathic preparations of Alumina and Calcarea carbonica subjected to toxic levels of
aluminum.
Treatments
1. Pelleted seeds / Talc + Alum 6cH
2. Pelleted seeds / Talc + Alum 12cH
3. Pelleted seeds/ Talc + Calc 6cH
4. Pelleted seeds / Talc + Calc 12cH
5. Pelleted seeds / Talc + distilled water (control 1)
6. Non-pelleted seeds (control 2)
Means followed by at least one small-case letter in the line do not differ significantly between them in Tukey’s
test at 1% probability.
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Regarding the germination speed index (GSI), Table 3 shows that the response of Treatments 1, 2, 3, 4 was
similar to RL: all four differed from both controls; Alum 6cH and Calc 6cH obtained the highest means. This
shows a positive effect of these homeopathic preparations on seeds exposed to unfavorable conditions. A
similar behavior was seen in plants of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil) intoxicated with copper sulfate; following
treatment with Cuprum metallicum 30cH drastically reduced the effect of the intoxication on the development
of the plants.
Table 3 Mean values of germination speed index (GSI) of lettuce seeds both non-pelleted and
pelleted with homeopathic preparations of Alumina and Calcarea carbonica subjected to toxic
levels of aluminum
Treatments
GSI
1. Pelleted seeds / Talc + Alum 6cH
12.38 a
2. Pelleted seeds / Talc + Alum 12cH
11.82 a
3. Pelleted seeds / Talc + Calc carb 6cH
13.05 a
4. Pelleted seeds / Talc + Calc carb 12cH
11.85 a
5. Pelleted seeds / Talc + distilled water (control 1)
8.17 b
6. Non-pelleted seeds (control 2)
8.60 b
Means followed by at least one small-case letter in the line do not differ significantly between them in Tukey’s
test at 1% probability.
Conclusions
This study showed that elleting, or the process of coating seeds, with homeopathic preparations represents an
effective alternative means to employ such dilutions in plants.
Homeopathic preparations Alumina 6cH and 12cH, and Calcarea carbonica 6cH and 12cH had significant
positive effects on the seeds of lettuce exposed to toxic levels of aluminum.
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Int J High Dilution Res 2010; 9(33): 138-146
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Germinação e vigor de sementes de alface (lactuca sativa l.) Peletizadas com as
preparações homeopáticas alumina e calcarea carbonica expostas a níveis
tóxicos de alumínio.
RESUMO
Introdução: a toxicidade por alumínio é o principal fator que limita o crescimento das plantas
em solos ácido; no entanto, os tratamentos disponíveis não são praticáveis. Por esse motivo, são
procuradas alternativas, entre as quais, encontra-se a homeopatia. Objetivos: avaliar a
influência das preparações homeopáticas Alumina 6cH e 12cH, e Calcarea carbonica 6cH e 12cH
na germinação e vigor de sementes de alface expostas a níveis tóxicos de alumínio em papel-
solução. Ao mesmo tempo, procurou-se desenvolver um novo método de aplicação de preparações
homeopáticas nas plantas (peletização). Métodos: o desenho estatístico foi totalmente
casualizado, com 6 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Os tratamentos incluíram: 1) sementes
peletizadas/talco + Alum 6cH; 2) sementes peletizadas/talco + Alum cH12; 3) sementes
peletizadas/talco + Calc 12cH; 4) sementes peletizadas/talco + Calc 12cH; 5) sementes
peletizadas/talco + água destilada (controle 1) e 6) sementes não peletizadas. As variáveis
avaliadas foram: porcentagem de germinação; índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG); e
crescimento radicular (CR). Resultados: houve diferença significativa nas variáveis que refletem o
vigor das sementes (IVG e CR) entre as amostradas tratadas com preparações homeopáticas e os
controles. Conclusões: as preparações homeopáticas Alumina 6cH e 12cH, e Calcarea carbonica
6cH e 12cH apresentaram efeito significativamente positivo no vigor de sementes de alface
expostas a condições de estresse.
Palavras-chave: Toxicidade por alumínio; Homeopatia; Alface; Germinação; Vigor; Sementes
peletizadas
Germinación y vigor de semillas de lechuga (lactuca sativa L.) peletizadas con los
preparados homeopáticos Alumina y Calcarea carbonica expuestas a niveles
tóxicos de aluminio
RESUMEN
Introducción: la toxicidad por aluminio es el factor más importante que limita el crecimiento de
las plantas en suelos ácidos, mientras que los tratamientos disponibles son impracticables. Por
eso, se buscan alternativas, entre ellas, la homeopatía. Objetivos: evaluar la influencia de los
preparados homeopáticos Alumina 6cH y 12cH, y Calcarea carbonica 6cH y 12cH en la
germinación y vigor de semillas de lechuga expuestas a niveles tóxicos de aluminio en papel-
solución. Al mismo tiempo, se buscó desarrollar un nuevo método para aplicar preparados
homeopáticos en plantas (peletización). Métodos: o diseño estadístico fue completamente
casualizado, con 6 tratamientos y 4 repeticiones. Los tratamientos fueron: 1) semillas
peletizadas/talco + Alum 6cH; 2) semillas peletizadas/talco + Alum cH12; 3) semillas
peletizadas/talco + Calc 12cH; 4) semillas peletizadas/talco + Calc 12cH; 5) semillas
peletizadas/talco + agua destilada (controle 1) e 6) semillas no peletizadas. Las variables
evaluadas fueron: porcentaje de germinación (PG); índice de velocidad de germinación (IVG); y
longitud de las radículas (LR). Resultados: hubo diferencia significativa en el IVG y LR que
reflejan el vigor de las semillas entre las semillas tratadas con preparados homeopáticos y los
controles. Conclusión: los preparados homeopáticos Alumina 6cH y 12cH, y Calcarea carbonica
6cH y 12cH manifestaron efectos estadísticamente significativos en el vigor de semillas de
lechuga expuestas a condiciones de stress.
Palabras-llave: Toxicidad por aluminio; Preparados homeopáticos; Lechuga; Germinación;
Vigor; Semillas peletizadas.
Int J High Dilution Res 2010; 9(33): 138-146
146
Licensed to GIRI
Support: CNPq
Conflict of interest: authors declare there is no conflict of interest
Received: 16 August 2010; Revised: 05 December 2010; Published: 20 December 2010.
Correspondence author: Filipe Pereira Giardini Bonfim, filipegiardini@yahoo.com.br , Departamento de Fitotecnia da
Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Av. PH. Rolfs, s/n. Campus Universitário. Viçosa. MG. Brasil. CEP: 36571000.
How to cite this article: Bonfim FPG, das Dores RGR, Martins ER , Casali VWD. Germination and vigor of lettuce seeds
(Lactuca sativa L.) pelleted with homeopathic preparations Alumina and Calcarea carbonica subjected to toxic levels of
aluminum. Int J High Dilution Res [online]. 2010 [cited YYYY Month dd]; 9(33): 138-146. Available from:
http://www.feg.unesp.br/~ojs/index.php/ijhdr/article/view/412/450 .
... Alguns trabalhos comprovam a eficiência do uso de medicamentos homeopáticos sobre o crescimento e produtividade vegetal (Grisa et al., 2007;Baumgartner et al., 2008;Ferreira et al., 2009) e no controle de pragas e doenças (Betti et al., 2003;Rossi et al., 2007;Carneiro et al., 2011), mas apenas alguns trabalhos observam o efeito desses medicamentos em sementes (Binder et al., 2005;Marques et al., 2008;Bonfim et al., 2010), ou abordam apenas espécie de cultivo anuais, sendo escassos estudos com espécies florestais. Com isso, este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes preparados homeopáticos na germinação de sementes de ipê amarelo para verificar se estes afetam sementes sadias. ...
... Brizzi et al. (2000), avaliando homeopatia de arsênico em sementes de trigo, e Marques et al. (2008), em trabalho com homeopatia de citronela em Sida rhombifolia, também observaram efeitos distintos em relação às diferentes dinamizações, podendo induzir ou inibir a germinação e influenciar o índice de velocidade de germinação. Efeitos positivos em sementes de alface expostas a níveis tóxicos de alumínio foram observados por Bonfim et al. (2010), com o medicamento Calcarea carbonica nas dinamizações 12CH e 6CH, mas também verificaram diferenças em relação as dinamizações. ...
... Devido à grande biodiversidade vegetal e diferentes processos fisiológicos das espécies, bem como diferentes preparos homeopáticos e dinamizações que podem ser utilizados, são necessários estudos com diferentes medicamentos, dinamizações e espécies vegetais nas diferentes fases de desenvolvimento para orientar o uso dessa prática nos sistemas de produção vegetal. Em geral os testes com medicamentos homeopáticos são realizados em sementes que apresentem algum fator de estresse (Brizzi et al., 2000;Hamman et al., 2003;Bonfim et al., 2010). Assim, os resultados de ineficiência do uso de tratamentos homeopáticos na germinação das sementes de ipê amarelo podem estar relacionados às boas condições da semente e ao elevado potencial germinativo dessa espécie (Lorenzi, 2008;Oliveira, 2012), não havendo necessidade de estímulos externos para promover uma melhoria no padrão de germinação. ...
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Studies with homeopathie on seed germination of native forest species are scarce, regardless of its potential as low impact technology. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the use of homeopathic medications in different dynamizations in the seed germination of yellow ipe. The experimental design was completely randomized with three replications, in a factorial scheme with the three medicines in five dynamizations, totaling 16 treatments with the control consisting of distilled water. The medications used were Calcarea carbonica , Carbo vegetabilis and Silicea . The mediations were applied in of 6, 12, 30, 100 and 200 centesimals hahnemanianas (CH) dynamizations. Regarding germination percentage and speed of germination index the medicament Silicea in 12CH dynamization was less efficient when compared to others medications and dynamizations. The use of homeopathic preparations does not benefit the pattern of yellow ipe seeds germination.
... A homeopathic medication used by farmers in cases of detoxification is Nux vomica, widely used in the treatment of humans for its medicinal effects cover a large number of symptoms and, by analogy, has been applied in agricultural homeopathy, because it has demonstrated efficacy in various life forms where the life force is suffering interference of intoxicating agents (Bonfim et al., 2010). ...
... As the homeopathic medicine acts on the vital energy and thus seeks to make the system homeostatic, being the metals Cd and Pb agents of toxicity in the system soil/plant, makes the Nux vomica with similarity of symptoms and perform homeopathic action to this situation of imbalance, corroborating the work of Bonfim et al. (2010) which found that homeopathic Alumina and Calcarea carbonica at 6 and 12 CH have significant effect on the lettuce seed vigor subjected to stress conditions caused by contamination by aluminum. ...
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the homeopathic medicine Nux vomica in the remediation of soils contaminated with cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) and the bioavailability of these metals in soybean plants. To this end the soil was contaminated prior to sowing, using CdCl2H2O and PbCl2 salts in three rates, based on the resolution of the research values of resolution No. 420 of CONAMA, resulting in 0.0, 3.0 and 9.0 mg kg-1 for Cd and 89.0, 180.0 and 540.0 mg kg-1 for Pb. The homeopathic remedy Nux vomica was used in dynamizations 12, 24, 48, 96, 200 and 400 CH (Centesimal Hanhemannian), being the witness with distilled water. Medicines were applied to the soil seven days before sowing and after sowing, every 14 days applied in the plant until complete the cycle. During cultivation were evaluated development, gas exchange, nutrient composition, component production and bioavailability of metals in the plant. The results demonstrate that Nux vomica medicine interfered in height and stem diameter and CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance and transpiration of soybean plants, but did not affect the bioavailability of metals to plants.
... Talcum, used as filler due to improved water holding capacity, promote early and rapid imbibition which was correlated with early completion of the lag phase of germination hence early germination was improved (Bonfim et al., 2010). Bentonite conveyed high water holding limits of 184 and 173%, respectively, is related to rapid imbibition and helps for faster completion of the lag phase leading to improved germination (Nuyttens et al., 2013). ...
... Bonfim et al. (2008) also found that Arnica montana dilutions 3CH and 6CH provided an increase in the length of the roots of Rosmarinus officinalis and Lippia alba. In other research, Bonfim et al. (2010) observed an increase of the root length of seedlings of lettuce treated with Calcarea anhydrase or Alumina with 6CH and 12CH. The increased length can occur because the plants respond with a lot of intensity by means of self-regulation that will mobilize your secondary or even primary metabolism, however are unknown the modes of action by which the vital force keeps alive the organic constituents and promotes the integr ity of the living organism (Casali et al., 2006;Majewski et al. 2009). ...
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(Homeopathic treatments and their effect on the initial development of cucumber plants grown in cow manure contaminated by auxinic herbicide). Homeopathy has been studied worldwide and its beneficial effects have been reported in animals and, more recently, in the healing of plants affected by various diseases, such as the treatment of plants grown on substrates contaminated with herbicide residues. However, information on the response of plants to homeopathic treatment is scarce. This work aimed to evaluate the neutralizing potential of homeopathic preparations on chemical residues of picloram + 2,4-D in bovine manure. After the herbicide contamination of manure, it was applied with each homeopathic treatment every 7 days, for a period of 10 weeks. The treatments consisted of the combination of three homeopathic preparations (Nux vomica, Carbo vegetabilis and Arsenicum album) and five dynamizations (6CH, 12CH, 18CH, 24CH and 30CH) and two controls = bovine manure without contamination and without homeopathic treatment; TH = contaminated bovine manure without homeopathic treatment). Samples were taken from each treatment for cucumber cultivation. On the 10th day after sowing, germination, emergence speed index, phytointoxication, aerial and root length and dry mass of the plants were evaluated. All homeopathic preparations worked positively to reduce the toxic effects of 2,4-D + picloram. However, they did not completely neutralize the action of the herbicide on early development of cucumber plants. Thus, it can be concluded that there is no differential response between homeopathic preparations and dynamizations between 6CH and 30CH in the expression of the toxic effect on young cucumber plants grown in manure contaminated with 2,4-D + picloram herbicide.
... . O fato de o medicamento Phosphorus ter sido igual ao controle, pode em parte ser explicado, pelo uso do preparado homeopático em dinamizações inadequadas para a cultura, visto que existem diferentes efeitos para o mesmo medicamento quando usado em concentrações distintas.Alguns autores identificaram em seu trabalho, a necessidade de se realizar novas pesquisas, para verificar o comportamento das plantas sob as mesmas homeopatias aplicadas, porém em dinamizações diferentes(BRIGHENTI et al , 2011;SODRÉ et al, 2018).Além disso, as culturas apresentam diferenças quanto às exigências nutricionais, e principalmente ao longo do ciclo vegetativo, o que torna necessário, identificar qual escala Centesimal é adequado para preparo dos medicamentos homeopáticos.Ivenção (2016) observou em seu trabalho, que a Calcarea fluorica 6CH em casa de vegetação, apresentou potencial no estímulo e no desenvolvimento vegetativo inicial das plantas de tomate cereja. O autor sugere que novas pesquisas sejam realizadas testando a Calcarea fluorica 6CH, dado seu potencial no crescimento inicial e na qualidade de mudas de tomate cereja.Em sua pesquisaBonfim et al. (2010), estudaram o efeito de medicamentos homeopáticos (Alumina 6CH e 12CH; e Calcarea carbonica 6CH e 12CH) na germinação e no vigor de sementes de alface submetidas a níveis tóxicos de alumínio. Os autores avaliaram a porcentagem de germinação; índice de velocidade de germinação e; comprimento da radícula. ...
... GSI, G, SW and SVI were calculated by using Equation 1-4 (Bonfim et al., 2010;Kharkale et al., 2011): ...
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Technologies that can increase crop production while maintaining low pollution are essential for sustainable agriculture. This study compares the germination performance of Durum wheat seeds (Triticum durum Desf.) which were coated with synthetic coatings [polyacrylamide (PA)] and novel natural coatings [mixtures of agar/ι-carrageenan (AC)] at different moisture levels. A number of germination performance indicators were measured for each of the categories of coatings. These included: (i) % germination, (ii) radicle emergence, (iii) speed of germination, (iv) seedling length, (v) fresh seed weight and (vi) seed vigour index. Results showed that both the synthetic and natural coatings improved germination performance in the Durum wheat seeds versus the untreated seeds when non-drought (80% moisture) conditions were used. However, when 40% moisture levels were used, the natural coated seeds showed a 6% improvement in germination performance over the synthetic PA coated seeds. This improved germination performance under drought stress along with the fact that these novel AC coatings used are completely natural and environmentally friendly suggests that these novel coatings have a big future in seed coatings, especially in countries which experience drought conditions and are dependent on natural irrigation. © 2016 Maya Hotta, James Kennedy, Clement Higginbotham and Noreen Morris.
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Objectives Homoeopathic dilutions are used to increase active principles in medicinal plants, detoxify plants, increase plant growth rate and fruit production, improve plant metabolism and control diseases. This controlled experimental prospective study was conducted to evaluate the effect of homoeopathic medicines Zincum metallicum 6CH and Z. metallicum 12CH on plant growth of Abelmoschus esculentus L. in a natural environment. This study helps assess and establish the role of homoeopathy in propagating plant growth. Materials and Methods A. esculentus seeds were cultivated in a designated area of the Homoeopathy University campus. Among these, 30 received Zincum 6CH (20 drops in 1 litre water), while 30 received Zincum 12CH (20 drops in 1 L water) and 30 received normal water. After 60 days, the entire plant was measured for height, pod length and productivity. Results After 60 days, the number of fruits (plant productivity) in the groups receiving Zincum 6CH and 12CH was 335 and 267, respectively; in the group receiving normal water, the number of fruits was 159. The heights of plants receiving Zincum 6CH (M = 48.4 cm, SD = 2.65) and 12CH (M = 40.1 cm, SD = 2.39) were comparatively more than in plants receiving normal water (M = 31.6 cm SD = 2.26). The length of pods in plants receiving Zincum 6CH (M=13.3 cm, SD = 0.96) and 12CH (M = 10.3 cm, SD = 0.97) was comparatively more than in plants receiving normal water (M = 8.9 cm SD = 0.62). Conclusion The application of potentised homoeopathic medicines Zincum 6CH and 12CH on A. esculentus demonstrated a beneficial result, as observed through significant differences in plant productivity, mean plant height and mean pod length among the experimental and control groups. Zincum 6CH showed more efficacy than 12CH in all aspects of growth.
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O medicamento Arsenicum album é um policresto de ação ampla na agrohomeopatia. Influi de maneira importante nos processos de germinação, sobre a circulação da seiva e perturba a circulação periférica. Incide sobre a nutrição das plantas. Nesse contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho é verificar a influência da aplicação do medicamento homeopática Arsenicum album na germinação de sementes de trigo. O estudo foi conduzido em uma propriedade rural, no munícipio de Lages – Santa Catarina. Foram selecionados 400 sementes de trigo para cada tratamento, que foram distribuídas em um delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com 100 sementes por parcela. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro diferentes dinamizações: 6CH, 9CH, 12CH, 15CH e o tratamento controle, com a pulverização de água. O medicamento homeopático foi pulverizado nas sementes de trigo através de pulverizador manual, sendo utilizado 50 ml do medicamento homeopática para cada tratamento. Para a avaliação do experimento, fez-se a contagem de plântulas emergidas em um intervalo de 7 dias. Os resultados foram comparadas através de análise estatística, através de análise de variância, e quanto detectados diferenças, estas foram submetidas ao teste de médias Tukey a um nível mínimo de significância de 5%. Não foram observados diferenças estatisticamente significativas na germinação de sementes de trigos submetidas a diferentes CH do medicamento homeopático Arsenicum álbum, bem como não foram observadas diferenças significativas na altura média de plântulas de trigo.
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A Bracatinga apresenta dormência causada pela impermeabilidade do tegumento, que resulta em dificuldade de germinação, mesmo em condições ideais de temperatura e umidade. Embora existam trabalhos indicam a eficiência de diversos métodos de superação de dormência das sementes de Bracatinga, a busca por novas técnicas que possam proporcionar maior porcentagem de germinação, a baixo custo faz-se necessária dentro desta proposta, uma das soluções para a germinação da espécie seria a utilização de preparados homeopáticos. Diante da necessidade de avaliar diferentes preparados homeopáticos em diferente dinamizações, tem-se como objetivo deste trabalho foi o de verificar a influência da aplicação do medicamento homeopática Arsenicum album, em diferentes dinamizações na germinação de sementes da espécie florestal Bracatinga, em Canoinhas/SC. O estudo foi conduzido na Casa de Vegetação do Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Canoinhas, no munícipio de Canoinhas – Santa Catarina Foram selecionados 200 sementes para cada tratamento, que foram distribuídas em um delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com quatro blocos, 50 sementes por parcela. Foram preparados 30 ml de cada dinamização. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro diferentes dinamizações: 6 CH, 12 CH, 18 CH, 24 CH, 30 CH e o tratamento controle, com a imersão das sementes em água destilada, avaliando a porcentagem de germinação para cada tratamento. Conclui-se que o preparado homeopático Arsenicum album apresenta efeito da germinação de sementes de Bracatinga. A dinamização de Arsenicum album 24 CH apresentou o melhor índice de germinação, sendo portanto, o mais indicado para a germinação das sementes de Bracatinga.
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The use of homeopathy in agriculture is still incipient, although several studies showed the effects of the application in the growth and development of plants, as well as in the control of pests and diseases. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of several homeopathic preparations on seed vigor and on the development of bean seedlings. The preparations used were Penicillium, Phosphorus and Arsenicum in different dilutions. The evaluations took place through the following parameters: percentage of germination, shoot length and root, dry and fresh biomass weight. The treatment of bean seeds with pre-germinated homeopathic preparations showed that Penicillium CH 7 and Phosphorus CH 15 improved seed germination and vigor, while Penicillium CH 24 and CH 200 and Phosphorus CH 15 improved the growth of bean seedlings, without, however, affecting the production of dry matter. Further research, more in-depth and detailed, should be performed using other procedures for seed treatment with homeopathic preparations as well as mixing the preparations.
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A toxidez de alumínio (Al3+) afeta o crescimento vegetal através de sua ação nas regiões meristemáticas da raiz e pela diminuição da absorção de água e nutrientes. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos do Al3+ no crescimento de plântulas de grápia (Apuleia leiocarpa Vog. Macbride). Em condições de câmara climatizada, as plantas foram cultivadas por 11 dias em minirizotrons contendo substrato geleificado (7g L-1 de ágar) e quatro concentrações de Al3+ (0,0; 2,5; 5,0 e 10,0mg L-1). Em intervalos de 24h, avaliaram-se as taxas de elongação absoluta e relativa da raiz principal e o aparecimento das raízes secundárias. Além disso, aos 7 e 11 dias de cultivo, foram analisados o pH da rizosfera, a altura da planta, comprimento da raiz principal, comprimento total das raízes, número e comprimento de raízes secundárias, massa seca de raízes e da parte aérea, bem como a relação entre a massa seca de raízes e da parte aérea. Plantas jovens de grápia são tolerantes à presença de Al3+ no substrato de cultivo até a concentração de 10,0mg L-1. As taxas de elongação absoluta e relativa da raiz principal de plântulas de grápia na presença de Al3+ a 10,0mg L-1 indicam a existência de um período de adaptação ao Al3+ de aproximadamente 48 h. A tolerância ao Al3+ depende da elevação do pH da rizosfera.
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The potentisation process by which homeopathic preparations are produced raises the concern that these medicines have placebo effects only, since they theoretically no longer contain active molecules of the diluted substance. Plant models offer a method of examining the efficacy of homeopathically prepared solutions. This study examined the effects of homeopathically prepared gibberellic acid (HGA3) on the germination performance of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds. The effect of HGA3 (4-200 cH) on seed germination rate and seedling development was compared to that of the most commonly used form of gibberellic acid (GA3), 0.5 g l(-1), and control (distilled water). The extent and type of response was dependent on the vigour level of the seedlot. Treating seeds from three vigour groups in HGA3 consistently resulted in larger seedlings. High-vigour seeds treated with HGA3 4, 30 and 200 cH germinated faster, and roots of medium-vigour seedlots treated in HGA3 15 cH were longer. Biphasic effects of HGA3 were also demonstrated. As a plant model, germinating barley seeds successfully demonstrated the ability of HGA3 to produce a biological response.
Instrução Normativa n° 64, de 18 de dezembro de 2008 Aprova o Regulamento Técnico para os Sistemas Orgânicos de Produção Animal e Vegetal Diário Oficial [da] República Federativa do Brasil, Brasília, DF, 19 de dezembro de
  • Brasil
  • Ministério
  • Agricultura
  • Pecuária
Brasil. Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. Instrução Normativa n° 64, de 18 de dezembro de 2008. Aprova o Regulamento Técnico para os Sistemas Orgânicos de Produção Animal e Vegetal. Diário Oficial [da] República Federativa do Brasil, Brasília, DF, 19 de dezembro de 2008, Seção 1, p. 21. rInt J High Dilution Res 2010; 9(33): 138-146 144
Nova visão dos organismos vivos e o equilíbrio pela homeopatia
  • Sp Lisboa
  • Mc Cupertino
  • Vm Arruda
  • Casali
Lisboa SP, Cupertino MC, Arruda VM, Casali VWD. Nova visão dos organismos vivos e o equilíbrio pela homeopatia. Viçosa(Brazil):UFV; 2005. [portuguese].