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Crude extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum (Leguminoceae) were evaluated for in-vitro anthelmintic activity on the Indian adult earthworms Pheritima posthuma. The seed extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum had shown a dose dependant inhibition of spontaneous motility (Paralysis) of earthworms. It has been observed that alcoholic extract (60mg/ml) has shown anthelmintic activity, which was compared with albendazole as reference drug. Therefore the seeds could be categorized under anthelmintic herbal drugs and could become a potent key ingredient of such herbal formulation.
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... The levels of essential and non-essential metals in linseed samples collected from five different sites (Bale, East Gojam, Shoa, South Wello and Tigray) in Ethiopia were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The levels (mg kg -1 ) of metals determined were in the ranges Na (242-614), K (6,494-6,755), Mg (2,679-3,118), Ca (540-744), Cr (13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30), Mn (17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28), Fe (198-242), Co (23-42), Ni (12)(13)(14)(15)(16), Cu , Zn (29)(30)(31)(32)(33)(34)(35)(36)(37)(38)(39)(40), and Pb . Cd was not detected. ...
... The levels of essential and non-essential metals in linseed samples collected from five different sites (Bale, East Gojam, Shoa, South Wello and Tigray) in Ethiopia were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The levels (mg kg -1 ) of metals determined were in the ranges Na (242-614), K (6,494-6,755), Mg (2,679-3,118), Ca (540-744), Cr (13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30), Mn (17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28), Fe (198-242), Co (23-42), Ni (12)(13)(14)(15)(16), Cu , Zn (29)(30)(31)(32)(33)(34)(35)(36)(37)(38)(39)(40), and Pb . Cd was not detected. ...
... Albendazole was used as standard reference and distilled water as control. The anthelmintic assay was carried as per the method of C. D. Khadse and R.B. Kakde et., al. with minor modifications [10] .The assay was performed on adultIndian earthworm, Pheretima posthuma due to its anatomical and physiologicalresemblance with the intestinal roundwormparasite of human beings [11,12,13,14] .Because of easy availability, earthworms have been used widely for the initial [15,16,17,18,19] Indian adult earth-worms (Pheretima posthuma) collected from moist soil near B.Komarapalayam,Namakkal district, Tamil nadu and washed with normal saline to remove allfaecal matter and were used for the anthelmintic study. The earthworms of 3-5 cm in length and 0.1-0.2 ...
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Parasitic diseases cause severe morbidity by affecting population in endemic areas with major economic and social consequences. More than half of the population of the world suffers from various types of infection and majority of cattles suffer from worm infections. So there is a need to find new drugs to treat parasitic diseases. Alcohol extracts Dioscorea hispida (Dennst.) leaves were investigated for their anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma. Three concentrations (20, 40 and 60 mg/ml) of extracts were studied, which involved the determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the worm. It was found that the extracts exhibited significant anthelmintic activity. Albendazole in same concentration as that of extract was included as standard reference and distilled water as control. The anthelmintic activity of alcohol extracts of Dioscorea hispida (Dennst.) leaves has therefore been compared and demonstrated for the first time.
... Helminthes infections are being recognized as a cause of much acute as well as chronic illness among the various human beings as well as animals. Anthelmintic or antihelminthics are drugs that expel parasitic worms (helminths) from the body, by either stunning or killing them 1 . The majority of drugs available to treat these infections possess some common side effects like nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, expulsion of ascaris from mouth or nose, allergic reactions, loss of hair, urticaria, granulocytopenia, fall in blood pressure, sedation, fever, body ache etc 2 . ...
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The crude aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (Caesalpiniaceae) bark were evaluated for in-vitro anthelmintic activity on the Indian adult earthworms Pheretima posthuma. The various concentrations (10,25,50mg/ml) of extracts were tested in-vitro for anthelmintic potency by determination of time of paralysis and time of death of worm. The bark extracts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima exhibited a dose dependant inhibition of spontaneous motility (Paralysis) of earthworms. Albendazole(10mg/ml) is used as standard drug. Both the extracts were found to be more potent than albendazole. As compared to aqueous extract, hydroalcoholic extract took less time to cause paralysis & death of the earthworm. Thus the present study demonstrates that the bark of Caesalpinia pulcherrima could be categorized under anthelmintic herbal drugs and could be used as a potent key ingredient of herbal formulation.
... The anthelmintic assay was carried as per the method of C. D. Khadse and R.B. Kakde et., al. with minor modifications. [10] The assay was performed on adult Indian earthworm, Pheretima posthuma due to its anatomical and physiological resemblance with the intestinal roundworm parasite of human beings [11,12,13,14] . Because of easy availability, earthworms have been used widely for the initial evaluation of anthelmintic compounds in vitro. ...
Article
Full-text available
Parasitic diseases cause severe morbidity by affecting population in endemic areas with major economic and social consequences. More than half of the population of the world suffers from various types of infection and majority of cattles suffer from worm infections. So there is a need to find new drugs to treat parasitic diseases. Alcohol and aqueous extracts from the bark of Samanea saman (Merr) were investigated for their anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma. Three concentrations (20, 40 and 60 mg/ml) of each extracts were studied, which involved the determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the worm. It was found that both the extracts exhibited significant anthelmintic activity. Albendazole in same concentration as that of extract was included as standard reference and distilled water as control. The anthelmintic activity of alcohol and aqueous extracts of Samanea saman(Merr) has therefore been compared and demonstrated for the first time.
... Aqueous and alcoholic extracts have shown paralysis and death of earthworms and it was compared in the same concentration with albendazole as reference drug. Alcoholic extract in the concentration of 60 mg/ml has taken less time to cause paralysis, and little more time to cause death of earthworms as compared with same concentration of reference drug 59 . ...
Article
This laboratory study was carried out to explore the anthelmintic properties of (Mugwort) extracts aligned with Indian earthworms Alcoholic extract and Rice Gruel extract of leaves were used as test. Albendazole was incorporated as standard drug and normal saline as control. Observations were made for the time taken to paralyze and death of the earthworm. Three concentrations 30, 60, 100mg/ml of every extract and standard drug at the concentration of 30mg/ml were studied. The outcome of study indicated that rice gruel extract of exhibited anthelmintic activity significantly higher than standard and also in a dose dependent manner. For the ethanolic extract group the time of paralysis and death time was 3.38 minute and 13.82 minute, while rice gruel extract group showed shortest time of paralysis (P) at 2.12 minute and death (D) at 7.45 minute of earthworms at higher concentration 100mg/ml as compared to standard Albendazole (30mg/ml) paralysis 2.27 minute and death at 6.44 minute respectively. Rice gruel extract showed more pronounced effect than ethanolic extract. Whereas the control group worms were observed for full day and night and there was no paralysis or death was found during that period.
Experiment Findings
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Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) commonly known as Methi is an annual herb belonging to family Fabaceae. It is cultivated worldwide as a semiarid crop, and its seeds are a common ingredient in dishes from the Indian subcontinent. Its seeds are rich sources of protein dietary fiber, B vitamins, iron and several other dietary minerals. It has many potential medicinal applications in the health industry. It contains compounds which are bioactive such as galactomannan, diosgenin, 4-hydroxyisoleucene, 3-hydroxy-4, 5-dimethyl-2(5H) furanone (stolone), etc. Stolone is the flavor compound of fenugreek and it is now a day‟s commonly used in food industry for various purposes. Its shows antidiabetic, hypoglycemic, antiallergic and labor and lactation induction properties. It decreases the cholesterol level reduces the body weight by decreasing plasma triglycerides tri glycerides. Fenugreek is known to have hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant potency, digestive stimulant action, and hepatoprotective effect. It is anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, antibacterial agent, gastric stimulant, and anti-anorexia agent. Recent research revealed that fenugreek is a valuable medicinal plant of multipurpose uses and may be used for preparing various products such as steroidal hormones. This review presents the major medicinal and other beneficial uses of fenugreek discovered through last many years of research in animal and human subjects as well as in other experimental studies. In this review, we will summarize nutritional, nutraceutical, antioxidant and medicinal properties of fenugreek. Keywords: Fenugreek, bioactive compounds, medicinal and nutraceutical effects.
Chapter
Vegetables are the major protective food in our diet, and besides providing essential nutrients, they are also the reservoirs of bioactive compounds. Bioactive compounds are the secondary metabolites that have an effect on living organisms and impart many health benefits. Most prominent bioactive compounds present in vegetables are terpenoids, carotenoids, phenolics, phytosterols, and glucosinolates. Many of these bioactive compounds are reported to possess antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anti-osteoporotic, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, and anticancer properties, and are said to be effective as the reducers of cardiovascular complications. These bioactives can be extracted by various extraction techniques, and the extracted bioactives are evaluated using multiple in vitro and in vivo methods to ascertain their health benefits. This book chapter summarizes the literature available on bioactive compounds present in vegetables along with their health benefits, their extraction methods and effect of storage and processing on bioactive constituent retention.
Chapter
Fenugreek is an herb which has been used in traditional medicines for centuries in wound healing, as an aphrodisiac, for promotion of lactation, etc. The consumption of the seeds as a spice results in different medicinal effects such as hypocholesterolemic, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antibacterial, anthelmintic, anticancer, and galactogogue. Flavonoids, saponins, pyridine alkaloids, and steroidal sapogenins are some of the phytochemicals present in the plant. The plant is also embraced for its high content of important vitamins, minerals, protein and amino acids, and fibers making it a nutritious fodder for livestock. Extracts of the leaves and seeds of fenugreek are considered safe and are found to have potential therapeutic explicabilities in the treatment and/or management of diabetes, cancer, toxicities, cardiovascular diseases, physical injuries, and hormonal imbalances. The seeds and leaves of this plant are now being incorporated into animal, bird, and fish foods to increase feed intake, to promote weight gain, and to decrease the feed conversion ratio. The addition of fenugreek in the drinking water of poultry reduces stress, and this can be an important strategy to replace the use of antibiotics such as enrofloxacin as an anti-stress agent, and thus the issues of antibiotic residues in meat, as well as widely developing antibiotic resistance, would be less.
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Some of the oldest known medicinal systems of the world such as Ayurveda of the Indus civilization, Arabian medicine of Mesopotamia, Chinese and Tibetan medicine of the Yellow River civilization of China and Kempo of the Japanese are all based mostly on plants. Interestingly, Allopathy-today's most familiar medical system which is primarily based on synthetic chemicals for medication, has these days, shown greater interest in using chemicals derived from plants. This explains how important is, and will remain the medicinal use of plants for the mankind. The central Himalaya is a huge repository of such medicinal plants. Nepal for being located at this portion of the Himalaya, has always remained a place of great interest to the botanists and phytochemists involved in researching medicinal herbs. It would be a matter of great surprise for the readers to know that the first botanical exploration was done in Nepal in 1802/3 AD by a medicinal practitioner Mr. Buchanan Hamilton. This was followed by Mr. N. Wallich in 1820/2 1. Both of these had brief ethnobotanical notes, which were recorded by D. Don and Wallich himself. Since then workers from all around the world are actively involved in researching medicinal uses of plants from the Nepal Himalaya. Many drugs have been formulated, marketed, and patented. The Japanese are among those who have not only contributed to the medico-botany of Nepal, but also other areas of botanical science. Of the expected 7000 species of flowering plant in Nepal, 10 percent are reported to be medicinal. Proper documentation of this resource would mean a great contribution to Nepal's meteria medica. The present Hand Book is one such contribution. Amongst the four authors of this Handbook, Dr. Takashi Watanabe--the first author, had served the then Department of Medicinal Plants (now Department of Plant Resources) as a Japanese volunteer during the '80s. After completion of his Ph.D in Pharmacy from Kitasato University, Tokyo, he continued to work in medicinal plants of Nepal. With the help of two sincere and renowned botanists of the Department, namely Dr. K.K. Rajbhandary and Mr. K.J. Malla, along with an experienced phyto-chemist-Dr. S. Yahara (Associate Professor of Kumamoto University), Dr. Watanabe might have found medicinal plants a better topic for writing a book. This is undoubtedly a welcoming step.
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Background & Aims: Diabetes is a common endocrine disorder. Although the most common conventional treatment for diabetes is insulin, the diet therapy approach has many advantages in developing countries. Among many herbs, reported to possess antidiabetic activity, Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) is one of the best in terms of efficiency and safety. The effect of carbon tetrachloride extract of fenugreek on liver glycogen has not been investigated until now. This study was designed to investigate the effect of carbon tetrachloride fenugreek in extract comparison with insulin on liver glycogen. Materials and Methods: For this purpose we used 3 groups of rats, each containing 10 animals. Stereptozotocin was administered to induce diabetes. One group served as control group, receiving no treatment; in the 2nd group, NPH insulin was administered on 3 consecutive days. For the third group, carbon tetrachloride extract of fenugreek was administered orally for 3 days. Blood glucose was measured before and after intervention. Daily water intake and liver glycogen were assayed at the end of treatment. Results: The results showed that fenugreek extract, like insulin, caused a significant decrease in blood glucose and daily water intake (P
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The crude alcohol and aqueous extracts of the seeds of Cleome viscosa. Linn. (Capparidaceae) were investigated for their anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma. and Ascardia galli.. Various concentrations (10–100 mg/mL) of each extract were tested in the bioassay, which involved determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the worms. Both extracts exhibited considerable anthelmintic activity in a dose-dependent manner. The most significant activity was observed at the highest concentration of 100 mg/mL against both types of worms. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/mL) was included as standard reference and distilled water as control.
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Throughout the world but especially in the tropical and subtropical zones, there are succulent and non-succulent plants which harbor readily releasable mucilage in their tissues, on the surface of their seeds or in their bark. This mucilage may have diverse practical uses. Among these, it functions as a healing agent, casually or in the practice of traditional-folk or conventional medicine. The mucilage of some of these plants is well known to science and has been studied by pharmacologists and found to possess biologically active principles. However, they all have in common a beneficial effect on burns, wounds, ulcers, external and internal inflammations and irritations, diarrhea and dysentery. This paper presents examples of such plants belonging to 19 botanical families, with a view to calling attention to the similar uses of easily extracted plant mucilages and, particularly, their ability to provide protection from fire, a feature which has already been demonstrated in Australia.
Text book of Pharmacognosy, CBS Publication and Distributor New Delhi
  • T E Wallis
T.E.Wallis. Text book of Pharmacognosy, CBS Publication and Distributor New Delhi, 2005, pp. 224-225.
Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry partII. Career Publications Nashik
  • V D Rangari
V.D.Rangari. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry partII. Career Publications Nashik. 2003, 87-88