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The composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Levisticum officinale Koch at different developmental stages (flower, immature fruit, green mature fruit and ripened fruit) is reported. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of air-dried samples and their antibacterial activities were tested against seven bacteria. The yield of oil (w/w %) in different stages was in the order: immature fruit (1.5 %) > green mature fruit (1.0 %) > ripened fruit (0.6 %) > flower (0.1 %). The essential oils were analyzed by GC and GC–MS. In total, 27, 31, 28 and 26 constituents were identified and quantified in the mentioned samples, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons were the main group of compounds in the green mature fruit (79.2 %), immature fruit (78.4 %), ripened fruit (75.2 %) and flower (44.0 %). The antibacterial activity of the oils was evaluated by the disk diffusion method using Müller–Hinton agar and determination of inhibition zones. The results of the bioassays showed some variations between the three tested oils in their inhibitory activity against the tested bacteria at a 10 µl disc–1 concentration. The oils from mature and ripened fruit exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 0.90 mg ml–1 in mature and ripened fruits.
J. Serb. Chem. Soc. 75 (12) 1661–1669 (2010) UDC Levisticum officinale:665.52:615.281–188
JSCS–4086 Original scientific paper
The composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil
of Levisticum officinale Koch flowers and fruits at different
developmental stages
1Medicinal Plants and Drugs Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C.,
Evin, Tehran and 2Department of Marine Biology, Faculty of Science, Hormozgan
University, Bandar Abbas, Iran
(Received 24 May, revised 9 July 2010)
Abstract: The composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Le-
visticum officinale Koch at different developmental stages (flower, immature
fruit, green mature fruit and ripened fruit) is reported. The essential oils were
obtained by hydrodistillation of air-dried samples and their antibacterial acti-
vities were tested against seven bacteria. The yield of oil (w/w %) in different
stages was in the order: immature fruit (1.5 %) > green mature fruit (1.0 %) >
> ripened fruit (0.6 %) > flower (0.1 %). The essential oils were analyzed by
GC and GC–MS. In total, 27, 31, 28 and 26 constituents were identified and
quantified in the mentioned samples, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons
were the main group of compounds in the green mature fruit (79.2 %), im-
mature fruit (78.4 %), ripened fruit (75.2 %) and flower (44.0 %). The anti-
bacterial activity of the oils was evaluated by the disk diffusion method using
Müller–Hinton agar and determination of inhibition zones. The results of the
bioassays showed some variations between the three tested oils in their inhi-
bitory activity against the tested bacteria at a 10 µl disc–1 concentration. The
oils from mature and ripened fruit exhibited potent antibacterial activity against
Bacillus subtilis, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 0.90
mg ml–1 in mature and ripened fruits.
Keywords: Levisticum officinale Koch; Apiaceae; essential oil; antibacterial
activity; reproductive stage.
Lovage (Levisticum officinale Koch) is a perennial herbaceous plant from
the Apiaceae family with origins in Iran and Afghanistan; it can now be found
throughout the world.1–4 The plant has been alternatively classified as Ligus-
* Corresponding author. E-mail:
doi: 10.2298/JSC100524126M
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1662 MIRJALILI et al.
ticum levisticum L., Hipposelinum levisticum Britt. and Angelica levisticum Bail-
lon.5 The essential oil of roots, seeds and leaves of lovage are used in a wide va-
riety of applications including food flavoring, medicinal preparations, aromathe-
rapy, perfumery and industrial fragrances.2,6,7 Moreover, the plant is used in
Iranian folk medicine for the treatment of several gastrointestinal, nervous and
rheumatic disorders.2,8 The essential oil composition of the plant was previously
studied in different countries and more than 190 compounds were reported in its
root, seed or leaf oil.9 It was found that the chemical compositions of the es-
sential oils distilled from separate botanical parts of this plant are rather diffe-
rent.10–12 The chemical constituents of lovage root oil are mainly phthalides in-
cluding n-butylidene phthalide and n-butyl-phthalide, sedanonic anhydride, ter-
penoids such as α-terpineol, carvacrol, phenylpropanoids such as eugenol and
volatile acids.5,13,14 Polyacetylenes as antimycobacterial compounds have also
been reported from the plant.15 The effect of harvesting time, plant age, cutting
frequency and the method of plantation establishment on the essential oil yield
and components in different parts of L. officinale was investigated previous-
ly.7,11,16,17 It was found that the flowers and seeds produced the highest yields of
the oil with β-phellandrene (40.8 and 61.5 %, respectively) as the main con-
stituent, while α-terpinyl acetate (70.0 %) was reported as the principal con-
stituent of the leaves and stems oils.7 In another study, the oil of lovage fruits
contained β-phellandrene (69.3 %),
-terpinenyl acetate (4.2 %) and α-terpineol
(2.1 %) as the major components.12 It was reported that the essential oil content
was similar in roots, stems, petioles, leaves and inflorescence, while the highest
content was found in seeds (1.9 %).18 Seasonal variations in the composition of
headspace volatiles were also determined,10 of which, β-phellandrene was the
most abundant component in all plant parts except for root. Samiee et al. reported
terpinyl acetate (40.5 %) and β-phellandrene (16.7 %) as the main constituents in
the essential oil and β-phellandrene (23.0 %), naphthalene (20.6 %) and γ-ter-
pinene (12.1 %) as the major components in the methanol extract of the plant
from Iran.19 Recently, (Z)-falcarinol, n-octanal, palmitic acid, (Z)-ligustilide, (Z)-
-3-butylidenephthalide, trans-β-farnesene have been reported as the main com-
pounds of the essential oil of hairy root cultures of L. officinale.20–22 Variations
in the essential oil composition of roots and leaves of L. officinale from different
European countries have also been studied. Ten compounds, including trans-p-
-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol, iso-thujyl alcohol, p-mentha-1,5-dien-8-ol, bicyclo[3.2.0]-
heptan-3-ol, 2-methylene-6,6-dimethyl, trans-carveol, perillaldehyde, sabinyl ace-
tate, perillyl alcohol, the methyl ester of methylpentadecanoic acid and methyl-
hexadecadienoic acid, were introduced for the first time.23 To the best of our
knowledge, there is no previous report on the essential oil analysis and antibac-
terial activity of L. officinale at different developmental stages. Thus, in this pa-
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ESSENTIAL OIL O F Levisticum officinale Koch 1663
per, the composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oils of this plant at
different stages of its development are reported.
Plant material
These experiments were conducted during 2007–2009 at the field of the Medicinal Plants
and Drugs Research Institute of Shahid Beheshti University, located in Evin (35°48’ N,
51°23’ E at an altitude of 1785 m) in the north of Tehran, Iran. The plant seeds were obtained
from the seed bank of the Medicinal Plants and Natural Products Research Institute, Iranian
Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research (ACECR) and were sown in a
greenhouse in the last week of February, 2007. Nine-week-old seedlings were transplanted at
50 cm row-to-row and 30 cm plant-to-plant spacing in the experimental field in May, 2007.
The sampling was realized from a 2-year-old cultivated population by the random collection
of 10 individuals for each developmental stage. For the collection of the flowers, all of them
on the inflorescence were opened. The samples at the fruiting stage were collected at three
different times of fruit maturation, i.e. immature (infructescence with young fruits 15 days
after flowering), mature (infructescence with solid and dark green colored fruit) and ripened
(infructescence with yellowish fruits just in the deciduous time). Voucher specimens (No.
200364-7) representative of each sample were deposited at the Medicinal Plants and Drugs
Research Institute Herbarium (MPH), Shahid Beheshti University of Tehran.
Essential oil isolation procedure
The essential oil of air-dried samples (100 g) of each stage was isolated by hydrodistil-
lation for 3 h, using a Clevenger-type apparatus according to the method recommended in
British Pharmacopoeia (1993).24 The isolated oils were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate
and stored in dark tightly closed vials at 4 °C until analysis.
Essential oil analysis procedure
GC analysis was conducted using a Varian CP-3800 instrument equipped with a DB-1
fused silica capillary column (25 m×0.25 mm i.d., film thickness 0.25 μm). Nitrogen was used
as the carrier gas at a constant flow rate of 1.1 ml min–1. The oven temperature was held at 60
°C for 1 min, then programmed to 250 °C at a rate of 4 °C min-1, and then held for 10 min.
The injector and detector (FID) temperatures were kept at 250 and 280 °C, respectively. GC/
/MS analysis was realized on a Thermoquest-Finnigan Trace GC/MS instrument equipped
with a DB-1 fused silica column (60 m×0.25 mm i.d., film thickness 0.25 μm). The oven tem-
perature was raised from 60 to 250 °C at a rate of 5 °C min-1 and then held at 250 °C for 10
min; the transfer line temperature was 250 °C. Helium was used as the carrier gas at a flow
rate of 1.1 ml min-1; the split ratio was 1/50. The quadrupole mass spectrometer was scanned
over the 45–465 amu range with an ionizing voltage of 70 eV and an ionization current of 150 μA.
Identification and quantification of the oil components
The constituents of the essential oils were identified by calculation of their retention
indices under temperature-programmed conditions for n-alkanes (C6–C24) and the oil on a
DB-1 column under the same chromatographic condition. Identification of individual com-
pounds was made by comparison of their mass spectra with those of the internal reference
mass spectra library or with authentic compounds and confirmed by comparison of their
retention indices with authentic compounds (purchased from Sigma-Aldrich and Merck) or
with those reported in the literature.25 For quantification purpose, the relative area percentages
obtained by FID were used without the use of correction factors.
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1664 MIRJALILI et al.
Antibacterial activity
The antibacterial activity of the oils was evaluated by the disk diffusion method using
Müller-Hinton agar26 and determination of the inhibition zones. The essential oils were tested
at a concentration of 10 μl per disk. The microorganisms used were as follows: Bacillus sub-
tilis ATCC 9372, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 15753, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923,
Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas ae-
ruginosa ATCC 27852, and Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 3583. For the determination of the
minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), a microdilution broth susceptibility assay was used,
as recommended by NCCLS.27 The technical data were described previously.28 Ampicillin
was used as the standard reference for the positive control.
Essential oil analysis
The essential oils had a light yellow color with distinct sharp odor. The yield
of the essential oils (w/w %) of the plant at different developmental stages were
in the order: immature fruit (1.5 %) > green mature fruit (1.0 %) > ripened fruit
(0.6 %) > flower (0.1 %). The qualitative and quantitative analytical results are
listed in Table I together with the retention indices of the identified compounds,
where all the constituents are arranged in order of their elution on the DB-1 co-
lumn. In total 27, 31, 28 and 26 constituents, respectively, were identified and
quantified in the studied samples representing 95.9, 99.9, 98.7 and 92.7 % of the
total oil, respectively. A comparison among the composition of the essential oils
revealed both quantitative and qualitative differences. The GC and GC–MS ana-
lyses showed that the distribution of saturated hydrocarbons of the oil from flo-
wer was remarkably different from that of the oils at the fruiting stage. The re-
sults revealed that the saturated hydrocarbons from the flower (12.3 %) were
present in higher amount than in the other samples. Heneicosane (6.0 %) and tri-
cosane (3.0 %) were found only in the oil of the flower. The major constituent of
the oil of the flower was β-pinene (17.7 %), but it was found that this compound
decreased gradually in subsequent developmental stages. The β-pinene and α-pi-
nene contents were highest in the essential oil of the first harvest and decreased
with progressive maturation of the fruit. On the contrary, β-phellandrene was
found as the principal component of the oil after fruit initiation, i.e., it constituted
11.7 % of the oil of the flower but increased remarkably in the fruit oils, con-
stituting 62.4, 60.5 and 56.4 % of the green mature, immature and ripened fruit
oils, respectively. β-Phellandrene has already been reported as the main consti-
tuent in the essential oil from the flowers and fruits in previous reports.7,10,12
β-Gurjunene (2.8 %), globulol (0.7 %) and geranyl acetate (3.3 %) were found
only in the oil of the flower. α-Phellandrene, δ-elemene and germacrene-D were
absent completely in the oil of flower but were present in trace or low amounts in
the other samples. The essential oil obtained from immature fruit contained the
highest contents of sabinene (2.3 %), isomenthol (5.6 %), cis-dihydrocarvon (0.6
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ESSENTIAL OIL O F Levisticum officinale Koch 1665
%), germacrene-D (0.6 %), elemol (0.5 %) and trans-nerolidol (1.6 %) compared
with the other samples.
TABLE I. Composition of the essential oil of Levisticum officinale at different developmental
a Compound From flowers
% In fruiting stages, % Identification
Immature Mature Ripened
0935 α-Pinene 5.3 4.6 4.3 2.9 RI, MS
, CoIc
0969 Sabinene 1.7 2.3 1.5 1.1 RI, MS
0976 β-Pinene 17.7 11.5 4.1 2.9 RI, MS, CoI
0982 Myrcene 1.3 t
t t RI, MS
1002 α-Phellandrene t t t RI, MS
1010 δ-3-Carene 3.0 2.8 5.7 6.8 RI, MS
1017 ortho-Cymene 1.4 t t t RI, MS
1026 β-Phellandrene 11.7 56.4 62.4 60.5 RI, MS
1038 cis-Ocimene 1.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 RI, MS
1083 Terpinolene 0.4 0.2 RI, MS, CoI
1111 cis-p-Menth-2-en-1-ol – 0.3 0.2 RI, MS
1162 Isomenthol 1.8 5.6 3.9 2.1 RI, MS
1166 4-Terpineol 0.5 0.6 RI, MS
1168 cis-Dihydrocarvone – 0.6 RI, MS
1217 Cuminyl aldehyde 0.5 t RI, MS
1265 p-Cymene-7-ol – 0.4 t RI, MS
1339 δ-Elemene – 0.4 0.3 0.3 RI, MS
1358 Geranyl acetate 3.3 RI, MS, CoI
1385 α-Copaene 1.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 RI, MS
1392 β-Elemene 1.0 1.2 1.3 1.3 RI, MS
1433 α-Humulene 0.9 0.4 0.3 0.2 RI, MS
1436 β-Gurjunene 2.8 RI, MS
1446 (Z)-β-Farnesene 4.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 RI, MS
1473 γ-Curcumene 8.0 0.2 0.2 0.3 RI, MS
1484 Germacrene-D 0.6 0.3 t RI, MS
1489 Zingiberene 0.8 0.5 0.8 t RI, MS
1500 Germacrene-B 0.8 1.6 t 1.2 RI, MS
1503 β-Bisabolene 1.6 0.8 1.8 RI, MS
1518 β-Sesquiphellandrene 2.1 1.2 2.4 5.1 RI, MS
1541 Elemol 0.5 RI, MS
1548 trans-Nerolidol 0.8 1.6 RI, MS
1562 γ-Elemene – 0.8 0.8 1.2 RI, MS
1574 Spathulenol 8.9 1.1 1.9 2.7 RI, MS
1593 Globulol 0.7 RI, MS
1601 Hexadecane 3.3 2.1 2.5 2.2 RI, MS
1691 3-iso-Thujopsanone – 2.5 0.3 RI, MS
2097 Heneicosane 6.0 – – – RI, MS
2301 Tricosane 3.0 RI, MS
hydrocarbons 44.0 78.4 79.2 75.3
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1666 MIRJALILI et al.
TABLE I. Continued
a Compound From flowers
% In fruiting stages, % Identification
Immature Mature Ripened
monoterpenes 8.9 8.0 3.5 2.3
hydrocarbons 20.3 9.0 9.1 10.7
sesquiterpenes 10.4 2.4 4.4 2.2
Other 12.3 2.1 2.5 2.2
Total identified 95.9 99.9 98.7 92.7
aRetention indices relative to C6–C24 n-alkanes on a DB-1 column; bmass spectroscopy; cco-injection with au-
thentic compounds; dtrace, less than 0.1 %
The classification of the identified compounds based on functional groups is
summarized at the end of Table I and shows that monoterpene hydrocarbons
were the main group of compounds in all samples. The monoterpene hydrocar-
bons content was the lowest in the flower and increased with subsequent harvest-
ing times to reach maximum in the mature fruit and then decreased in the ripened
fruit. In this study, the oil from green mature fruit contained β-phellandrene in
higher amount (62.4 %) than the oils from ripened fruit (60.5 %), immature fruit
(56.4 %) and flower (11.7 %). The other major monoterpene hydrocarbons which
were found in all samples were β-pinene, α-pinene and δ-3-carene, while in ano-
ther study,
-terpinenyl acetate, α-terpineol, limonene and myrcene were reported
as the major monoterpenes.12 Monoterpene hydrocarbons identified in the oil of
flower were present in lower amount than in the oil of other stages. On the other
hand, in the essential oil of flower, sesquiterpenes were one of the dominant frac-
tion with spathulenol (8.9 %) as the major compound and their percentage de-
creased with progressive fruit maturation.
Antibacterial activity
The disk diffusion method, used in preliminary screening of the antibacterial
activity, showed that the oils from the three different fruiting stages of L. offici-
nale were active against all the tested bacteria. Moreover, the oils proved to be
highly active against the tested Gram-positive bacteria, especially B. subtilis that
was more sensitive than others, and the Gram-negative bacterium, E. coli (Table
II). The oils were moderately active against K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa.
The antibacterial activities of the oils were also determined using the microtiter
96-well dilution method, by measuring the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)
against the tested bacteria (Table II). The essential oils of mature and ripened
fruits exhibited the highest activity against B. subtilis with an MIC value of 0.90
mg ml–1. In addition, the highest activity of the oil of mature fruit was observed
against S. epidermidis, with an MIC value of 0.90 mg ml–1. The oils showed the
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ESSENTIAL OIL O F Levisticum officinale Koch 1667
lowest activity against K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa, with the MIC values
ranging from 14.4 to 15.2 mg ml–1.
TABLE II. Antibacterial activity of L. officinale essential oil at different fruiting stages
Microorganism Essential oila Ampicillinb
Immature Mature Ripened
. subtilis 25.0±0.9 3.8 36.0±0.5 0.9 35.0±0.4 0.9 14.0±0.7
. faecalis 19.0±0.7 15.2 17.0±0.4 7.5 13.0±0.4 7.2 11.0±0.4
S. aureus 17.0±0.5 3.8 21.0±0.5 3.7 16.0±0.5 3.6 13.0±0.6
S. epidermidis 23.0±0.7 1.9 26.0±0.5 0.9 25.0±0.6 1.8 19.0±0.5
. coli 19.0±0.6 15.2 18.0±0.4 7.2 15.0±0.7 7.2 12.0±0.5
. pneumoniae 10.0±0.8 >15.2 10.0±0.7 >14.4 9.0±0.4 >14.4 –
. aeruginosa 11.0±0.7 >15.2 8.0±0.6 >14.4 9.0±0.5 >14.4 9.7±0.7
aTested at a concentration of 10 μl disc-1; btested at a concentration of 10 μg disc-1; cdiameter of inhibition zone
(mm) including disk diameter of 6 mm: inactive (–), moderately active (7–14) and highly active (>14); dmini-
mum inhibitory concentration, values as mg ml oil-1
The study of a plant as a source of aromatic and flavoring compounds re-
quires the analysis of not only the whole plant but also its individual parts at their
different developmental stages. While the best harvesting time of lovage to ob-
tain sharp odorant compounds such as α- and β-pinene is the flowering stage,
β-phellandrene as the main compound of the plant with a peppery-minty and
slightly citrusy odor was achieved at the fruiting stage. Chemical characterization
and antibacterial screening studies on the plant-based essential oils could also
lead to the discovery of new natural antibacterial agents. In addition to perfume
and tobacco products, the essential oil of lovage is used as a flavor agent in major
food products, such as beverages, frozen dairy desserts, candy, gelatins and pud-
ding, and meat and its products. Although the antimycobacterial activity of poly-
acetylenes, such as falcarinol and falcarindiol, from the plant has recently been
studied,15 the present study is the first report on the antibacterial activity of the
essential oil from fruits of L. officinale at different developmental stages. The oils
showed promising antibacterial activity against, B. subtilis and S. epidermidis.
The present results revealed that the essential oils tested represent an inexpensive
source of natural antibacterial substances for use in pathogenic systems to pre-
vent the growth of bacteria and extend the shelf life of processed food.
Acknowledgement. We are grateful to Shahid Beheshti University Research Council for
financial support of this work.
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1668 MIRJALILI et al.
1Medicinal Plants and Drugs Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University,G. C., Evin, Tehran и 2Department
of Marine Biology, Faculty of Science, Hormozgan University, Bandar Abbas, Iran
Одређиван је састав и антибактеријска активност етарског уља биљке Levisticum offici-
nale Koch у различитим развојним фазама: цвет, незрео плод, зелени зрео плод и потпуно
зрео плод. Етарско уље је добијено из сувих узорака дестилацијом воденом паром, а анти-
бактеријска активност је одређивана спрам седам врста бактерија. Принос уља (масени %) у
различитим фазама је био следећи: незрео плод (1,5 %) > зелени зрео плод (1,0 %) > потпуно
зрео плод (0,6 %) > цвет (0,1 %). Састав етарског уља је одређиван методама GC и GC–MS. У
ова четири узорка је идентификовано и квантификовано редом 27, 31, 28 и 26 састојака. Мо-
нотерпенски угљоводоници су чинили главну групу једињења: 79,2 % у зеленом зрелом пло-
ду, 78,4 % у незрелом плоду, 75,2 % у потпуно зрелом плоду и 44,0 % у цвету. Антибакте-
ријска активност уља је одређивана методом прстенасте дифузије у Милер-Хинтоновом ага-
ру мерећи зону инфибиције. Коришћено је 10×10 µl уља за инхибицију и резултати су били
различити за уља добијена из биљке у различитим развојним фазама. Најјача антибакте-
ријска активност је испољена спрам Bacillus subtilis. MIC вредност је била 0,90 mg ml-1 са
уљем потпуно зрелог плода.
(Примљено 24. маја, ревидирано 9. јула 2010)
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28. D. Azaz, F. Demirci, F. Satil, M. Kurkcuoglu, K. H. C. Baser, Z. Naturforsch. 57c (2002)
2010 Copyright (CC) SCS
Available online at
... L. officinale as a medicinal plant is used in the treatment of urinary tract infection and kidney stone (6). Its oil is used in medicinal preparation, food flavoring and aromatherapy (7). ...
... mg/ml against B. subtilis, S. epidermidis. Also the essential oils at these stages exhibited sensitivity against E. coli with MIC=7.2 mg/ml (7). ...
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Background and Objectives Essential oils are used for controlling and preventing human diseases and the application of those can often be quite safe and effective with no side effect. The essential oils have been found to have antiparasitic, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant and especially antibacterial activity including antibacterial activity against tuberculosis. In this study the chemical composition and anti-TB activity of essential oil extracted from Levisticum officinale has been evaluated. Materials and Methods The essential oil of L. officinale was obtained by the hydro distillation method and the oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS techniques. The antibacterial activity of essential oil was evaluated through Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) assay using micro broth dilution method against multidrug-resistant Maycobacterium tuberculosis. The molecular modeling of major compounds was evaluated through molecular docking using Auto Dock Vina against-2-trans-enoyl-ACP reductase (InhA) as key enzyme in M. tuberclosis cell wall biosynthesis. Results The hydrodistillation on aerial parts of L. officinale yielded 2.5% v/w of essential oil. The major compounds of essential oil were identified as α-terpinenyl acetate (52.85%), β- phellandrene (10.26%) and neocnidilide (10.12%). The essential oil showed relatively good anti-MDR M. tuberculosis with MIC = 252 μg/ml. The results of Molecular Docking showed that affinity of major compounds was comparable to isoniazid. Conclusion The essential oil of aerial parts extracted from L. officinale was relatively active against MDR M. tuberculosis, and molecular docking showed the major compounds had high affinity to inhibit 2-trans-enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (InhA) as an important enzyme in M. tuberculosis cell wall biosynthesis.
... The same EOs were shown to exhibit a repellency effect against Rhopalosiphum padi L. in a previous study and, hence, were considered promising for biological aphids' control [25]. Furthermore, the EOs of these plant species have shown various other activities [12,18,[26][27][28], including antimalarial activity [14], antifungal activity [29][30][31][32], and antibacterial activity [33,34]. ...
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In this study, we evaluated the allelopathic effects of essential oils (EOs) from six different plant species, namely, lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), English thyme (Thymus vulgaris), lovage (Levisticum officinale), costmary (Chrysanthemum balsamita), and cumin (Cuminum cyminum), on seed germination and seedling growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum). The main constituents of the EOs of L. angustifolia were 47.0% linalool acetate and 28.4% linalool; H. officinalis’ main constituents were 39.8% cis-pinocamphone, 9.8% trans-pinocamphone, 11.4% β-pinene, and 7.5% β-phellandrene; T. vulgaris’ were 38.2% para-cymene, 25.6% thymol, and 13.6% γ-terpinene; L. officinale’s were 64.8% α-terpinyl acetate and 14.7% β-phellandrene; C. balsamita’s were 43.7% camphor, 32.4% trans-thujone, and 11.6% camphene; C. cyminum’s were 49.6% cumin aldehyde, 10.4% para-cymene, 11.6% α-terpinen-7-al, and 9.1% β-pinene. All six EOs exhibited an allelopathic effect and suppressed the seed germination and seedling development of wheat and barley; however, the concentrations that exhibited a suppressing effect were different among the plants. C. cyminum EO completely suppressed both barley and wheat germination at 10-, 30-, and 90-µL application rates, making it the most effective treatment among the tested EOs. C. balsamita’s and H. officinalis’ EOs at 30 and 90 µL application rates completely suppressed barley and wheat radicles per seed, radicle length (mm), seedling height (mm), and germination (%). L. angustifolia’s EOs at 30- and 90-µL and T. vulgaris’ EO at 90 µL application rates also completely suppressed barley and wheat radicles per seed, radicle length (mm), seedling height (mm), and germination (%). C. balsamita’s, H. officinalis’, L. angustifolia’s, and T. vulgaris’ EOs at a 10 µL application rate reduced barley radicle length, seedling height, and % germination relative to the control. Wheat seed germination % was completely suppressed by the application of L. angustifolia’s and T. vulgaris’ EOs at 30 and 90 µL, while T. vulgaris’ EO at 10 µL rate reduced the germination relative to the control. Interestingly, C. balsamita and H. officinalis at 10 µL did not reduce wheat germination; however, they did reduce the number of radicles per seed, radicle length (mm), seedling height (mm), germination (%), and vigor index. Furthermore, L. officinale’s EO reduced the measured indices (radicles per seed, radicle length, seedling height, and vigor index) at the 10, 30, and 90 µL application rates relative to the non-treated control; however, none of the application rates of L. officinale’s EO had a suppression effect on wheat germination. This study demonstrated the allelopathic effects of the EOs of six different herbal plant species on seed germination of barley and winter wheat. The results can be utilized in the development of commercial products for controlling pre-harvest sprouting of wheat and barley. Further research is needed to verify the results under field conditions.
... Koné et al. studied the essential oils of leaves of Diphasia klaineana before and during flowering, and concluded that the yield of the leaves essential oil during flowering stage (1.53 %) was low compared to the yield obtained before flowering (1.65 %) [9] . Mirjalili et al. indicated that the yield of oil (w/w %) of Levisticum officinale Koch at different developmental stages was in the order: flower (0.1 %) < ripened fruit (0.6 %) < green mature fruit (1.0 %) < immature fruit (1.5 %) [17] . In another research, the unripe galbuli Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb was characterized by a lower essential oil content than the ripe samples [18] . ...
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The phytochemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oils of Diphasia klaineana at different developmental stages (pre-flowering and fruit set) were reported. The essential oils were extracted by continuous hydro distillation and their antibacterial activities were tested against Staphyloccocus aureus ATCC 25923. The yield of oil (w/w %) of stems in different stages was in the order: pre-flowering (0.21 %) > fruit set (0.07 %). GC and GC/MS were analyzed the essential oils composition. In total, 35 and 34 constituents were identified and quantified in the mentioned samples, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons were the main group of compounds in the stems during pre-flowering (42.40 %) and fruit set (56.15 %). Major compounds at pre-flowering were β-elemol, sabinene, guaiol and terpinen-4-ol. The antibacterial effect of essential oils was estimated by the disk diffusion method using Müller-Hinton agar and the measurement of diameters of inhibition zones. The bioassay results showed some variations between the two tested oils in their inhibitory activity against the tested bacteria at 10 µL. The essential oils from Diphasia klaineana stems at pre-flowering exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Staphyloccocus aureus ATCC 25923, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 25 mg/mL, while the stems essential oil at fruit set had no activity.
... So, finding new and strong antibacterial agents is essential for the treatment of emerging bacterial diseases, especially multiple-drug resistant infections. The potential antibacterial and antioxidant activities of various medicinal plant extracts and essential oils have been investigated in multiple studies (Cai et al., 2004;Nejad Ebrahimi et al., 2008Mirjalili et al., 2010Yildirim et al., 2017). ...
The first step in introducing a medicinal plant into farming systems and industrial pharmacology is the realization of its metabolic profile and biological features. In the present study, ten Verbascum species including V. cheirantifolium, V. erianthum, V. macrocarpum, V. punalense, V. sinuatum, V. songaricum, V. speciosum, V. stachidiforme, V. thapsus, and V. densiflorum were collected from Iran and their phytochemical characteristics and biological activities were studied. The powdered air-dried aerial flowering parts of the plants were extracted with methanol by maceration. The crude methanolic extracts were further fractionated by solvent-solvent partitioning to obtain various fractions using n-hexane and ethyl acetate. The total phenol and flavonoid, phenolics and iridoids contents and metabolic profiling of the obtained extracts and enriched-fractions were assessed using UV, HPLC–PDA, LC–MS and in silico methods, respectively. Antioxidant activity using DPPH and FRAP methods, and antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria were also studied. The highest contents of total phenol (51.94 ± 2.30 mg GAE/g DW) and total flavonoid (22.57 ± 1.73 mg QE/g DW) were found in V. sinuatum. The range of the highest content (mg/g DW) among the other compounds were found to be rutin (0.11–21.0), rosmarinic acid (0.33–12.16), p-coumaric acid (0.10–10.22), ferulic acid (0.11–7.82), gentisic acid (0.09–5.73), protocatechuic acid (0.09–4.74), salicylic acid (2.45–4.36), quercetin (0.13–3.21), and harpagoside (0.001−0.320) in the studied species. In addition, twenty-eight compounds were qualitatively identified in the plant extracts. The highest content of metabolites supported the observed highest antioxidant activity in V. speciosum and V. songaricum. Phenolic-enriched fraction of V. songaricum showed the highest antibacterial activity (MIC 0.12 mg/mL) against Staphylococcus aureus. Association analysis showed a significant positive correlation between biological properties and phenolic compounds. In conclusion, V. songaricum and V. sinuatum could be selected as adequate species for further exploitation in agricultural systems and pharmaceutical industry.
... Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch known as lovage is a perennial herbaceous plant that belongs to Apiaceae family growing wild in the Middle East, Mediterranean area and was cultivated in most of European countries 1,2 . The lovage leaves at flowering stage have been used for the preparation of soups, salad, and in an infusion form, they are also used for mouthwashes, sore throats, and fever 3 . The decoction extract from aerial plant parts has been used as an antiseptic to wounds 4 . ...
GC-FID and GC-MS analyzed the essential oil composition obtained by hydrodistillation from aerial parts and roots of Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch at flowering and fruiting stages. The oils obtained in yields 2.5-3.0 % (v/w). The analysis of data resulted in the identification of twenty-eight compounds. The major compounds of oil from the aerial parts at flowering and fruiting stages were pentyl cyclohexa-1,3- diene (22.7-28.1 %), Z-ligustilide (24.5-26 %), neocnidilide (15.9-23 %). the β-phellandrene was in high percentages in roots. The components of oil from root at flowering and fruiting stages were Z-β-ocimene (13-28.1 %), Zligustilide (0.8-5.8 %), neocnidilide (4.8-11.6 %), p-menth-1-en-8-ol acetate (21.1-42.1 %) and pentyl cyclohexa- 1,3-diene (2.2-2.4 %). The biological activity of essential oils was studied against two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Entrococcus faecium) and two Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) strains. The essential oil from the aerial parts at fruiting stage showed activity against S. aureus (MIC = 2.0 mg/ml), E. faecium (MIC = 8.0 mg/ml) and E. coli (MIC = 4.0 mg/ml).
... and lower than V. xanthophoeniceum and V. nigrum (Georgiev et al., 2011). Quantitative differences could be attributed to the plant origin and environmental conditions (Cheynier et al., 2013;Sarrou et al., 2017;Konieczynski et al., 2018), plant genotype (Boszormenyi et al., 2009), harvesting time (Mirjalili et al., 2010;Sarrou et al., 2016), extraction method (Baghdikian et al., 2016) and methods used in identification (Mehl et al., 2014). Although, devil's claw has been introduced as the main natural source of harpagoside, due to the low growth rate and herbal nature of the plant (Georgiev et al., 2013), finding alternative plant sources can be a major step to providing raw materials for pharmaceutical industries. ...
The Verbascum L. genus (Scrophulariaceae) is rich in phenols, flavonoids, and iridoid glycosides, which have been used extensively in traditional medicine. This study aimed to examine the association between genetics and metabolomics of V. songaricum populations (VSPs), collected from different geographical regions of Iran for further breeding and exploitation programs. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis showed a significant difference among the twelve studied VSPs, which were classified into five main groups based on an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic and principal coordinate analysis. Ninety-six bands were produced by fourteen ISSR primers, among which 92.7% of them were polymorphic at the species level. The essential oils were analyzed by means GC–FID and GC–MS and five main chemotypes, including docosane (I), methyl chavicol (II), methyl eugenol (III), β-damascenone (IV), and α-bisabolol (V) were characterized. HPLC–PDA–MS was further used to detect and to measure the phenolic compounds and harpagoside content in methanolic extract of VSPs. The main compounds identified in the VSPs extracts were rutin, quercetin, rosmarinic acid, salicylic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, 2, 5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3, 4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and harpagoside. Cluster analysis based on phytochemical data divided VSPs into nine groups. Subsequently, data were analyzed by multiple regression analysis to identify the correlation between genetic and metabolic diversity. The phytochemical data as the dependent variable showed significant association with bands obtained from molecular data. The high variation observed in essential oils, phenolics, and harpagoside among the VSPs establish a good potential to select the best genotype in breeding projects.
The Apiaceae Lindl. (=Umbelliferae Juss.), which includes several economical important vegetables, herbs, and spices, is one of the most numerous plant family. Umbelliferous crops (namely anise, fennel, carrot, coriander, parsley, etc.) are also valuable sources of botanical flavoring agents and fragrances. In addition, Apiaceae species yield a wide variety of distinctive specialized metabolites (i.e, volatile phenylpropanoids, furanocoumarins, sesquiterpene coumarins, polyacetylenes, and phthalides), some of them been described as uncommon natural phytochemicals exclusive of the family, which offers a great potential for bioprospection. Numerous studies have pointed out the outstanding biological activity of extracts and several classes of phytochemicals from Apiaceae species. Emphasis has been given to essential oils (EOs) and their constituents activities, most likely because this type of plant added value product benefits from a larger acceptance and application potential in integrated pest management (IPM) and integrated vector management (IVM) programs. Several species of the family offer a variety of unique compounds with great potential as biopesticidal and/or synergizing agents. Investigations covering their activity toward agricultural pests and phytopathogens have increased in the last years, nevertheless the interest remains strongly focus on arthropod species, predominantly those acting as vectors of human diseases. From our survey, it is patent the gap of knowledge concerning the potential molluscicidal properties of Apiaceae extracts/phytochemicals, as well as their herbicidal activities against invasive plant species. In this review, we propose to highlight the potential of Apiaceae species as suitable sources of bioactive phytochemicals with great relevance within the frame of plant-based pesticides R&D, and will discuss their applicability in real-world scenarios considering the recent developments regarding the design of stable formulations incorporating Apiaceae bioactive products. We expect that this review will encourage researchers to consider undervalued Apiaceae species as alternative sources of bioactive compounds and will give a contribute to the field by suggesting new research topics.
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The control and standardization process of herbal products is a critical point in preparation of those medicaments. In Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) literature, out of all the different pharmaceutical dosage forms, Jawarish is a semisolid gastrointestinal dosage form with positive related effects. Jawarish-e-Khuzi, including Zataria multiflora, Lepidium sativum, Trachyspermum ammi, Terminalia chebula, ferrous sulfate, and also honey is one of the popular mentioned traditional oral formulations. However, there have been no noticeable and proven control and standardization for this formulation. In this study, Jawarish-e-Khuzi was prepared based on one of the pharmaceutical textbooks of Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM). Using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), the volatile composition of this formulation was analyzed. Subsequently, Gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) and High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) techniques were employed to determine the main component. The GC/MS results showed thymol as the main constituent. In the content determination process via GC/FID, thymol was proved to be 0.02% of the whole preparation. The outcome of HPTLC method also corresponded with that of GC/FID. Based on the method validation parameters, both GC/FID and HPTLC methods are useful for the volatile content determination of semisolid dosage forms.
زمینه و هدف: از دیرباز استفاده از گیاهان دارویی برای درمان بیماری­ها رایج بوده است. مطالعه حاضر به بررسی فعالیت­های ضدمیکروبی، آنتی­اکسیدانی و اندازه­گیری ترکیبات فنولی و فلاونوئیدی کل سه عصاره­ی متانولی، اتانولی و آبی پنج گونه مختلف گیاهان دارویی: Withania somnifera L. Dunal، Salvia rhytidea Bent، Levisticum officinale L.، Seidlitzia rosmarinus L. و Achillea wilhelmsii L. می­پردازد. مواد و روش­ها: پس از تهیه عصاره­ها به روش ماسراسیون، فعالیت­های آنتی­اکسیدانی با دو روش DPPH و FRAP و ضدمیکروبی علیه باکتری­های استافیلوکوکوس اورئوس، باسیلوس سرئوس، اشرشیا کلی و قارچ­های آسپرژیلوس نایجر و کاندیدا آلبیکنس به روش دیسک دیفیوژن و محتوای فنولی و فلاونوئیدی کل به ترتیب با روش­های معرف فولین-سیوکالتیو و رنگ­سنجی کلرید آلومینیوم، سنجیده شده است. نتایج: نتایج نشان دادند عصاره متانولی گونه­ی پنیرباد دارای بیشترین میزان ترکیبات فنولی (mgGAE/gExtract 64/4±45/41) و فلاونوئیدی (mgQUE/gExtract 54/2±21/35) و فعالیت آنتی­اکسیدانی (µg/ml 36/1±12/8 IC50= و mMFe2+/mgExtract 68/1±19/58) و فعالیت ضدمیکروبی علیه باکتری استافیلوکوکوس اورئوس و قارچ کاندیدا آلبیکنس با قطر هاله عدم رشد به ترتیب 06/1±29 و 00/1±27 میلی­متر بوده است. در مقابل عصاره­ی آبی گونه­ی انجدان رومی دارای کمترین میزان ترکیبات فنولی (mg GAE/gSample 93/1±12/17) و فلاونوئیدی (mg QUE/gExtract 06/2±61/12) و فعالیت آنتی­اکسیدانی (µg/ml 36/3±43/121 IC50= و mM Fe2+/mgExtract 52/2±74/13) و فعالیت ضدمیکروبی علیه باکتری باسیلوس سرئوس و قارچ آسپرژیلوس نایجر با قطر هاله عدم رشد به ترتیب 57/0±4 و 00/1±5 میلی­متر بوده است. نتیجه‌گیری: به‌طورکلی بر اساس نتایج به‌دست‌آمده، گیاهان مورد مطالعه می­توانند کاندیدای خوبی جهت درمان بیماری­های ناشی از استرس­های اکسیداتیوی و بیماری­های ناشی از میکروب­های بیماری­زا قرار گیرند.
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SSZEFOGLALÁS A szerzők jelen kutatás során növényi főzetek antibakteriális hatását vizsgálták Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis és Pseudomonas aeruginosa-val szemben. Kontrollként staphylococcusok esetén penicillint, P. aeruginosa ellen gentamicint alkalmaztak. S. aureus-ra legerősebb gátló hatást a tajgagyökér (Eleutherococcus senticosus), a japán tüskefa (E. sieboldianus) és a kislevelű fikusz (Ficus benjamina); S. epidermidis-re pedig a gránátalma (Punica granatum) mutatott. P. aeruginosa növekedését több főzet gátolta, legerősebbnek itt is a gránátalma bizonyult. A vizs-gált növények használhatóak lehetnek az említett baktériumok polirezisztens törzsei által okozott fertőzéseben, mivel hatásuk erősebb volt a kontroll antibiotikumoknál. SUMMARY The objective of the study was to determine the antibacterial action of herbal infusions against reference strains of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 14990 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 27/99 in vitro. The antibacterial activity of herbal infusions was determined using the agar diffusion test. From the culture of reference strains of S. aureus, S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa, we prepared a suspension of 1.5×10 8 CFU to match 0.5 McFar-land turbidity standard, defined with a densitometer. The obtained suspension was sieved onto Mueller-Hinton agar (Himedia), followed by further cultivation over 24 hours. The inoculations were covered with discs, which were impregnated with corresponding herbal infusions. For positive control, benzylpenicil-lin sodium salt was used against staphylococci, while in case of P. aeruginosa, gentamicin sulfate was used. S. aureus was most strongly inhibited by Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus, 1.46 times stronger compared to the control), Fiveleaf Aralia (E. sieboldianus, 1.61) and weeping fig (Ficus benjamina, 1.35). In case of S. epidermidis, pomegranate (Punica granatum) showed antibacterial activity (3.53), while P. aeruginosa was inhibited by common yucca (Yucca fila-mentosa, 1.10), alpenrose (Rhododendron ferrugineum, 1.00), carob (Ceratonia sili-qua, 1.21), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum, 0.97), pomegranate (5.46) and Norway spruce (Picea abies, 1.51). These herbal extracts could be recommended for use against polyresistant strains of the abovementioned microorganisms. The present study showed that the abovementioned species of plants affect polyresistant bacteria strains more intensively than benzylpenicillin sodium salt.
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Variations in the essential oil composition of Leviticum officinale W.D.J. Koch from different European countries were determined using capillary GC and GC/MS methods. The oils were obtained in yields of 0.11–1.80% from dried cut roots and 0.09% from leaves. A total of 48 components were identified, representing over 87% of the total yield of oil. Ten compounds not earlier reported: trans-p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol, iso-thujyl alcohol, p-mentha-1,5-dien-8-ol, bicyclo[3.2.0]heptan-3-ol, 2-methylene-6,6-dimethyl, trans-carveol, perillaldehyde, sabinyl acetate, perillyl alcohol, methyl ester of methylpentadecate acid, and methyl hexadecadienate acid. The principal components in the oils of L. officinale roots were β-phellandrene (0.1–48.9%), pentylcyclohexadiene (0–12.3%), trans-sabinyl acetate (0–12.1%), α-terpinyl acetate (0–26.1%), (Z)-3-butylidene phthalide (0.1–31.2%), and (Z)-ligustilide (0.2–70.9%). Phthalide isomers were predominant (73.2–82.6%) in the oils from Estonia, France, and Belgium. The roots oil of L. officinale from Scotland was rich in β-phellandrene (48.9%) and phenylacetaldehyde (17.2%). Maximum content of trans-sabinyl and α-terpinyl acetates (total 38.2%) was found in the oil from Holland. Estonian L. officinale root oil contained in high quantities (E)-ligustilide (52.4–70.9%) and pentylcyclohexadiene (12.3%). The L. officinale leaf oil cultivated in Estonia contained in high amounts α-terpinyl acetate (55.8%) and β-phellandrene (11.3%). The content of (Z)-ligustilide (17.0%) in the leaf oil was smaller compared with the root oil.
The influence of a different frequency of herb cuttings on yield, growth and quality parameters have been investigated on lovage (Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch) in field plot experiments in two locations on deep loess soil. The highest cumulated leaf drug yields in the three years lasting cultivation period were achieved by cutting the herb four or six times per year with 159.7 and 106.0 dt/ha respectively. The root drug yield amounted to 20.0-49.7 dt/ha at the end of three years of cultivation where no statistically significant dependence on the cutting frequency could be detected. Numerous harvesting up to eight cuts per year resulted in a decrease of the leaf drug yield in the average of the experimental years by about 20 per cent in comparison to four cuts per year. Particular frequent cuts per year resulted only on one experimental location in a considerable decrease of the root drug yield. From the analysis of the yield of the individual cuts it can be concluded that the amount of the annual cumulative yield results mainly from the first two cuts. The following cuts - especially from the fifth to the eighth harvest - realised only very low herb yields however with an extremely high leaf ratio of about 70-80 per cent whereas the average values in the experiment ranged between 60 and 70%. The regression analysis revealed that high leaf drug yields per cut (1015 dt/ha) can only be obtained when the growth height amounts to about 70-80 cm which occurs mostly only on the first two to four cuts. No systematic influence of the cutting frequency on the content of the essential oil (0,16-0,66%) and its composition (β-phellandrene 3.0-18.5%, a-terpinylacetate 40.8-65.7%, cis- and trans-butylidenphthalide 1.37-8.87% und cis- und trans-ligustilide 10.9-34.1 %) could be detected. But there is evidence to suggest that as a result of frequent cuttings the ratio of a-terpinylacetate decreases and the ratio of ligustilide increases. As a result of the investigations, up to four cuttings of the herb per year with final root harvest at the end of all cultivation years can be recommended.
Lovage (. Levisticum officinale) is a perennial spice crop which belongs to the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) family and the plant order Apiales. This chapter deals with the origin, botanical characteristics and chemical composition of lovage, as well as cultivation and production of the plant. Biotechnological approaches for the production of the plant essential oil compounds have been reviewed, such as falcarinol, (. Z)-ligustilide, (. Z)-3-butylidenephthalide, trans-β-farnesene, β-phellandrene, n-octanal, γ-elemene and palmitic acid. The application of the plant in food is also discussed, including the description of some European recipes for dishes where lovage appears as an important ingredient. Finally, health benefits of the plant have also been discussed.
The essential oils from different botanical parts (leaves, stems, flowers, and seeds) of lovage (Levisticum officinale Koch.) were analyzed at various phases of plant growth. The seasonal changes in leaves were less considerable than in the stems. Seeds and flowers possessed the highest yield of oil. α-Terpinyl acetate was found to be the dominating compound in leaves and stems (up to 70%), β-phellandrene in seeds and flowers (61.50% and 40.80%, respectively); Z-ligustilide was confirmed as a major lovage phthalide constituting from 4.40% to 11.70% in leaves and from 4.80% to 13.80% in the stem's essential oils depending on the harvesting time. Keywords: Levisticum officinale Koch.; Apiaceae; lovage; volatile constituents; essential oil; leaves; stems; roots; blossoms; harvesting time
The volatiles obtained by hydrodistillation and methanol extraction of the aerial parts of Ferulago carduchorum Boiss. et Hausskn. and Levisticum officinale Koch., two Umbelliferae species of Iran, were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The oil and extract obtained by hydrodistillation and extraction of F. carduchorum were characterized by a high amount of monoterpene hydrocarbons (93.8% and 70%, respectively). The main components of the oil and extract were (Z)-β-ocimene (21.2% and 20.0%), terpinolene (13.1% and 6.0%), α-phellandrene (12.7% and 8.3%) and β-phellandrene (10.9% and 8.8%), respectively. The water distilled oil and methanol extract of the air-dried Levisticum officinale were also both rich in monoterpenes (85.8% and 52.9%, respectively). In the oil α-terpinyl acetate (40.5%) and β-phellandrene (16.7%) were the main constituents, whereas in the extract β-phellandrene (23.0%), naphtalene (20.6%) and γ-terpinene (12.1%) were the major components.
Transformed root cultures of Levisticum officinale (lovage) were established by inoculation of aseptically grown seedlings with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4 carrying plasmid pRiA4::70GUS. Hairy roots growth in four different types of liquid culture media was determined by the dissimilation method and by measuring the fresh and dry weight of the roots. The composition of the essential oils from the hairy roots and from lovage plant roots was analysed by GC and GC-MS. The main components of the oil samples from the hairy roots were falcarinol, (Z)-ligustilide, (Z)-3-butylidenephthalide, trans-beta-farnesene, beta-phellandrene, n-octanal, gamma-elemene and n-heptanal, in varying amounts depending on the culture media tested. The hairy roots essential oil yields ranged from 0.006 to 0.018% (v/fr. wt.). The main components of the oil from the lovage plant roots were (Z)-ligustilide, beta-pinene, pentylcyclohexadiene and alpha-pinene. The yield of the oil front the lovage plant roots was 0.16% (v/fr. wt.). (c) 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
As the editors say in the preface, microbiology continues to expand in this era of new infectious agents and difficult to manage infections. Since the first few editions, this book has established itself as a principal reference for clinical microbiologists. In its eighth edition, it is still a storehouse of much valuable information for the physician.The book has four main sections. The first part deals with organization and functions. It contains information on epidemiology useful for those interested in infection control. The second part is devoted to the collection, transport, and processing of specimens. With regard to processing, both conventional and rapid, nontraditional methods are discussed. Very new techniques that were not in use several years ago, such as liposome-enhanced latex agglutination or genetic probes, introduce the reader to a new diagnostic philosophy that embodies the most recent findings of physics, chemistry, and immunology. The information presented on collection
The effect of various fluid CO2 parameters on the extraction process of separate flavor compounds and essential oil of lovage was investigated in the present study. Model systems and lovage leaves, stems and seeds were used for this purpose. It was found that the solubility of α-terpinyl acetate depends on the CO2 pressure and extraction temperature. This compound was more soluble at pressures of 200–350 bar as compared with pressures of 80–150 bar. The solubility of 3-n-propylidene phthalide was more dependent on the CO2 pressure and extraction temperature than the solubility of α-terpinyl acetate. 3-n-Propylidene phthalide was almost insoluble in CO2 at 80 bar and 50°C, and finite solubility of this compound was obtained only after increasing the pressure up to 150 bar. This investigation showed that the extraction process from the model matrix is rather complex and cannot be predicted from the solubility data for each separate constituent. The percentage content of the main constituents in the extracts varied over a wide range depending on their ratio in the initial mixture. By using a solvent circulating system with two separators operating at different parameters, it was possible to obtain a phthalide enriched fraction both from the model matrix (prepared on celite) and raw plant material (leaves+stems and seeds).
The effect of pressure alterations on the yield of CO2 extracts from different anatomical parts of lovage (Levisticum officinale Koch.) and celery (Apium graveolens L.) was studied. It was found that by applying frequent pressure changes in the extraction vessel it is possible to increase the rate of the isolation of CO2 soluble materials from lovage seeds and leaves, lovage and celery roots. However, after passing a sufficient amount of the supercritical solvent, the yields were similar both for constant and pulsing extraction pressures. The composition of the extracts was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry and it was found that the phthalides were very important constituents in the extracts from all the anatomical parts of lovage, while linoleic acid was the most abundant component in the celery root extracts.