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New Insight into Organic Metal Polyaniline Morphology and Structure

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Polyaniline is known to be a true metal, though a nanometal. Previous experimental and theoretical evidence is reviewed. Two important structural features are presented, which have not publicly been discussed so far: (a) The formation of complexes between polyaniline and metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, In, etc.) which are crucial for most practical applications of the organic metal, polyaniline; and (b) a model for the polyaniline chain structure within the smallest morphological unit, the roughly 10 nm primary particle. accessible online here:
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Polymers 2010, 2, 786-798; doi:10.3390/polym2040786
ISSN 2073-4360
New Insight into Organic Metal Polyaniline Morphology
and Structure
Bernhard Wessling
Ormecon GmbH (a business of Enthone, Inc.), Ferdinand-Harten-Str. 7, D-22949 Ammersbek,
Germany; E-Mail:; Tel.: +49-40-604106-25;
Fax: +49-40-604106-51
Received: 11 October 2010; in revised form: 7 December 2010 / Accepted: 16 December 2010 /
Published: 17 December 2010
Abstract: Polyaniline is known to be a true metal, though a nanometal. Previous
experimental and theoretical evidence is reviewed. Two important structural features are
presented, which have not publicly been discussed so far: (a) The formation of complexes
between polyaniline and metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, In, etc.) which are crucial for most practical
applications of the organic metal, polyaniline; and (b) a model for the polyaniline chain
structure within the smallest morphological unit, the roughly 10 nm primary particle.
Keywords: polyaniline; organic metal; nanometal; metal complex; morphology; structure
1. Introduction
Conductive polymers are principally insoluble and infusible, which has been shown by numerous
experimental approaches and by thermodynamical considerations [1]. A ―solution‖ of a conductive
polymer would require a single chain having no interaction with a neighbor chain but only interactions
with the solvent, i.e., the chain would be completely surrounded by solvent molecules. Such systems
do not and cannot exist.
Therefore, they can only be processed by dispersion. ―Dispersion‖ is a process by which (in the case
of solids becoming dispersed in a liquid) agglomerated particles are separated from each other and a
new interface, between an inner surface of the liquid dispersion medium and the surface of the
particles to be dispersed, is generated. Dispersion is a much more complicated (and less well
understood) process than most people believe.
Polymers 2010, 2
In order to disperse conductive polymers, it must be ascertained what the smallest primary
morphological units are that can exhibit all the properties of the macroscopic material. It must also be
understood whether these are fibrils, or more or less globular particles? We must know whether they
are of micrometer size i.e., 100 nanometers or below?
In a review article [2], all relevant publications (including proprietary work) have been discussed,
for example, the discovery of globular primary particles (around 10 nm in size) which are the primary
morphological building unit of all conductive polymers, whether in powder, film or fibrilar form;
non-linear phenomena in dispersions (such as rheological properties and sudden conductivity increase
at a critical volume concentration); the formation of (so-called) dissipative structures in dispersions;
the fact that percolation theory cannot be applied to (polymer matrix based) dispersions of particles
having less than 1 µm in size; and, finally, the concise non-equilibrium thermodynamic theory for
heterogeneous polymer systems, published in two parts [3,4].
Surprisingly, with improved dispersion, not only the conductivity (in contrast to any naive
assumption) increased, but also the material crossed the insulator-to-metal boundary to the metallic
side [5]. While the transition from an insulator-type of electron transport to a metal-typehappening
during dispersionwas surprising, observations that conductive polymers could exhibit metallic
properties had already been published before. These various observations, partially also confirmed in
our laboratories, had been generalized by the ―granular metal concept‖ [6]. This basically describes the
metallic properties in polyaniline, which are understood to be fibrils with more or less straight chains,
as emerging in certain limited areas (―islands‖), where the chains exhibit a higher degree of order and
these ―islands‖ are linked together by less ordered chains, allowing the electrons to move from one
―island‖ to the next.
If this concept is correct, then any dispersion not only would not improve the conductivity, but
would in fact deteriorate it (by cutting the chains connecting the ―islands‖). However, our experiments
showed no such deterioration; and on the contrary even finally succeeded in changing from the
insulator to the metal side of the IM transition during dispersion. Therefore, the ―Organic Nanometal‖
concept was developed [1] (p. 513), inspired by the experimental and theoretical background on
―mesoscopic metals‖ (i.e., conventional metals like Cu, Ag, In, etc. in nanoscopic form) brought
forward by G. Nimtz and coworkers [7,8]; which we jointly have been able to show as being very
similar to the behavior of polyaniline [9,10]. We found the metallic core with a size of 8 nm (assuming
globular form), within a total porimary particle size of 9.6 nm, is well in accordance with former
conclusions from scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) evaluations in which we deducted a particle
size of around 10 nm.
The concept outlines in [7] that the transport mechanism is purely metallic within the metallic core
while the electrons move to the next particle via a barrier (at least 0.8 nm for one particle, in total at
least 1.6 nm thick) of a less conductive or even insulating shell around the metallic core, by a
mechanism called ―tunneling‖ (sometimes also referred to as ―hopping‖). Electrons which are
tunneling do not need a material type of pathway or file, nor a conductive polymer chain for tunneling
through even insulating or empty spaces. As Nimtz has shown later, moreover, electrons do not spend
any time within the barrier but arrive at the other side at the same time as they begin tunneling [11].
At the time the ―Organic Nanometal Concept‖ was conceived, we did not know anything about the
conductivity values within the metallic core. We had only been able to measure the macroscopic
conductivity which is around 5 S/cm for the raw polymer powder (in pressed pellet form) at the
Polymers 2010, 2
insulator side of the IM transition, and above 100 S/cm up to 600 S/cm for the metallic
polyaniline [12]. Later, in cooperation with two other research groups and using electron spin resonance
spectroscopy (EPR), we succeeded to find the intrinsic conductivity within the metallic core to be in the
order of 60,000 S/cm [13]. This is at least 100 times more than we can macroscopically measure.
Yet we still did not understand the structural basis for the conductivity, what structural changes
occurred during dispersion within the particle, within the metallic core, and which structural pattern is
responsible for higher conductivity compared to the lower (and non-metallic) one. There are numerous
papers in the scientific literature proposing structures for polyaniline derived from wide-angle x-ray
diffraction studies, for example an overview given in [14], including a proposal we have
contributed [1] (p. 522), but none have been helpful. The assumption (or ―hope‖) that there would be a
correlation between higher conductivity and higher crystallinity (i.e., better resolved wide angle x-ray
diffraction pattern) did not eventuate. On the contrary, it appears that the peaks’ bandwidths (anyway
looking more like spectra of amorphous materials) even get wider with increasing conductivity. The only
hint towards a possible mechanism was the finding that the volume of the elementary cell (although the
absolute values were, perhaps, not correct) decreases with increasing conductivity. However, at that time,
we only investigated a conductivity range over one order of magnitude.
A second indication of what may be happening, and in which direction we should look, came from
some first results of a small angle x-ray diffraction (SAXS) [15]. For the first time, we detected
a 3.5 nm small subunit (and confirmed the around 1015 nm primary particle size), which we assume
to represent the diameter of individual polyaniline chains within the primary particle; the chains not
being straight but somehow coiled.
The indication of a volume change along with conductivity increase, and the discovery of a 3.5 nm
subunit raised hope of discovering more insights. A better understanding of the structure/conductivity
relationship has quite important significance for the goal of increasing the conductivity of conductive
polymers and organic metals by one or two more orders of magnitude, towards the intrinsic conductivity.
For a better understanding, at least of polyaniline, also the existence of its complexes with metals needs
to be discerned (such metal complexes are, for instance, not possible for poly-ethylenedioxythiophene,
PEDOT). Such complexes have hitertho not been published, except as patents [16,17]. Here, we will
focus on complexes with ions derived from less noble metals than polyaniline (the polyaniline normal
potential is between that of Cu and Ag).
The complex with Ag has been discussed in [18]. This is a complex of a different kind, insofar as it
does not involve Ag ions, but Ag metal in nanoscopic form. It is used as a very powerful oxidation
prevention and solderability preserving nanolayer for copper pads in printed circuit board
manufacturing and assembly [19].
In the following, the most recent results will be reported and discussed regarding organic
metal/conventional metal complexes, their sub-nanoscopic structure and nanoscopic morphology [20].
2. Results and Discussion
2.1. Polyaniline-Metal complexes
Polyaniline can form complexes with many metal ions by reacting with the base metal, provided its
oxidation potential is lower than polyaniline’s potential [18,19]. Hence, complexes have been observed
forming with Cu
, Fe
, Zn
, In
and others.
Polymers 2010, 2
When looking too quickly at the reaction of polyaniline with the metal form of Cu, Fe, Zn, or In,
respectively, it could easily be concluded that a simple oxidation has taken place, and many
experimentalists may have concluded this. However, the result is completely different when simply
adding Cu
, Fe
, Zn
or In
ion salts to a water dispersion of polyaniline, compared to the result
when allowing a water dispersion of polyaniline to react with Cu, Fe, Zn, or In metal (in granule or
powder form), and hence the result of such reaction is much more interesting.
This can easily be seen when comparing the spectra: When mixing the respective metal ions (water
solution) with the polyaniline water dispersion, the UV spectra will not change at all, except for some
minor dilution effect. However, when following the reaction of polyaniline with the metal (which is a
relatively slow reaction taking several hours to complete), the UV spectra gradually change and will
ultimately be very different from the starting polyaniline spectrum, as can be seen in Figures 1 to 4.
Figure 1. UV-Vis spectra for polyaniline and its complexes with Cu, Fe and Zn.
Figure 2. UV-Vis spectrum evolving during the reaction of polyaniline with Cu metal.
Polymers 2010, 2
Figure 3. UV-Vis spectrum evolving during the reaction of polyaniline with Fe metal.
Figure 4. UV-Vis spectrum of polyaniline (pure) and polyanilne/In complex; the curve with
the lowest absorption around 800 nm representing the complex after reaction completed.
The general feature of all spectra is that the absorption strength around 800 nm decreases with
proceeding complex formation, also the absorption strength around 450 nm decreases, with an
isosbestic point appearing around 390 nm, and the absorption in the UV region increases. These effects
are the most impressive in the formation of the polyaniline-Cu complex. This is not so surprising as the
amount of Cu
in this complex is 1 per about 12 aniline units, while in the case of the other ions (Fe
, In
) the relation is roughly 1:24, as was found by elemental analysis.
These spectra clearly show that new compositions have been formed, true polyaniline/metal
ion complexes.
The conclusion that we have drawn (in the case of Cu) with Cu
comes from two different
experiments: In printed circuit board finishing with the immersion tin process ORMECON CSN,
where a water dispersion of polyaniline is used as a Cu surface preparation pretreatment called
―predip‖ (trade name OMP 7000), the Cu complex plays a key role. Here, in contrast to other
Polymers 2010, 2
immersion tin processes not using such an organic metal predip, the relation between Cu release and
Sn deposition is almost exactly 2:1 [21] which corresponds to a net reaction equation such as:
2Cu + Sn
Sn + 2Cu
For competitive tin deposition processes, a relation of roughly 1.5 to 1.0:1 has been observed which
indicates a mixture of Cu
and Cu
or, in extreme cases only, Cu
to be released.
In addition, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra of the Cu after treatment with the
organic metal (in comparison to untreated Cu) clearly show the Cu
oxidation stage [1] (p. 535).
The conclusion that in the case of iron the Fe(II) oxidation state is involved, has been drawn based
on earlier work in connection with studies of the reaction mechanism leading to the passivation of iron
and steel and its subsequent enhanced corrosion protection which was found to proceed via the Fe
ion [22].
For the polyaniline/indium complex, we additionally performed cyclovoltammetric studies [23].
While the pure polyaniline shows two oxidation and, correspondingly, two reduction peaks, the
polyaniline-In complex only shows one single oxidation peak (at a significantly higher voltage) and
one corresponding reduction peak (Figure 5).
Figure 5. Cyclovoltammogram of Polyaniline dispersions with and without indium. The
figure shows the 5th cyclovoltammogram (CV) scan on PAni layers (PAni with and
without In, respectively) deposited from dispersion onto Indium/Tin oxide (ITO); CVs
performed in propylenecarbonate/0.1 M TEABF
at 25 mV.
To conclude, it can be stated that polyaniline forms metal ion complexes via a reaction with the
base metal, however with a low coordination number (1:12 in the case of Cu
, 1:24 in the case of
). The exact structure of these complexes is not known. Three of these complexes are already
commercially used: The Cu complex in printed circuit board finishing; the Fe complex in corrosion
protection; and the In complex in hole injection layers for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs).
Polymers 2010, 2
2.2. X-Ray Diffraction Studies
For additional insight, we performed x-ray diffraction studies, but this time down to the range of
= . For this study, we used polyaniline taken from different stages of the multi-step dispersion
process. Figure 6 shows spectra of the raw (dry) polyaniline powder taken directly after polymerization
and samples from different stages of the first dispersion step (in total, for commercial products, three
subsequent dispersion steps are used [24]). The starting conductivity (raw powder) is 5 S/cm, the
maximum conductivity after the first dispersion step is 30 S/cm. Figure 7 shows spectra of two
samples taken from films which have been deposited after the third dispersion step.
As can be seen in Figures 6 and 7, the originally dominant peak around = 25° is weakening
(= lower degree of crystallinity) and shifted to higher angle values (= denser packing, as previously
observed and commented on in the introduction section), while the peak around = 20° slightly
increases in intensity and shifts to lower angle values.
With increasing conductivity, especially detectable in Figure 7, a peak at around = 3.5°
(originally very weak) emerges and becomes the most prominent one. This value represents a
diffraction plane distance of around 2.2 nm, hence smaller than the 3.5 nm subunits found in the SAXS
experiments. This means that within the 3.5 nm subunit, some order is emerging which is characterized
by a diffraction plane pattern with 2.2 nm distance.
Figure 6. X-ray diffraction of polyaniline starting with the raw powder (red curve),
following the progress of dispersion in the first dispersion step (from purple over green to
blue curve, the latter representing the final stage of the first dispersion step); the black curve
represents the same material as the blue curve after extracting all dispersion additives.
Polymers 2010, 2
Figure 7. X-ray diffraction of polyaniline films deposited after completed dispersion steps.
The blue curve represents a film having 50 S/cm, the red curve 100 S/cm conductivity.
2.3. A New Structure Model for the Organic Metal Polyaniline
Before developing the new structure model, a few more facts needed to be considered. First, some
older results should be mentioned concerning the estimated molecular weight. From MALDITOFF
experiments, we know that polyaniline (at least the one we are synthesizing) exhibits a chain length of
maximal 12 aniline units [17]. Second, some interesting results published by G. Wallace and
coworkers a few years ago helped us make the next step towards a structure model [25]: Polyaniline
can be synthesized in optically active form when using optically active dopants which is not so
surprising; but what is very surprising is that it retains its optical activity after removal of the optically
active dopants, although the neutral form, the so-called ―Emeraldine Base‖, no longer has asymmetric
carbon atoms. However, it can be optically active if the (relatively short, see above comment about
molecular weight) chain elements are not straight, but bent into a helical form.
It should also be noted that the strength of the optical activity is very high, which is indicated by the
circular dichroism effect being one order of magnitude larger than that of the optically active dopants
used. This means that the optical activity induced by the helical structure of the chains is very strong.
Table 1 shows a summary and an attempt to interpret the observed peaks and their changes with
increasing conductivity.
Polymers 2010, 2
Table 1. Summary of peaks and their changes in x-ray diffraction.
Peak at 2θ (and distance in Å)
vanishing, merging
merging with 27°
We need to add a final observation: While the primary particles of polyaniline (raw polymer
powder) are more or less globular in shape (cf. STM pictures as shown in [26]), the form of the
primary particles after all dispersion steps are completed and films exhibiting a conductivity of up
to 600 S/cm can be deposited, are not globular at all any more, rather ellipsoidal in form, see Figure 8.
Figure 8. STM picture of highly conductive organic metal, deposited from dispersion onto
highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG).
We are now ready to draft the new structure model and a model for understanding: (a) why
dispersion is capable of increasing the conductivity and transforming the insulator type of conductor to
a metallic type; (b) what structure features are responsible for higher conductivity.
The new model consists of the following elements:
- primary particle size of around 10 nm (globular form) before dispersion
- after completed dispersion, the form is ellipsoidal with a dimension of 13 (long diameter)
and 6 nm (short diameter)
- the primary particle contains a certain number of polyaniline molecules which attain an average
diameter of roughly 3.5 nm
- the chain thickness (including dopants) is about 1.2 nm
- the chain is coiled forming a (short) helix
Polymers 2010, 2
- before dispersion takes place, the short helical polyaniline chains are almost randomly oriented
within the mainly globular primary particle
- upon the strong force induced by the dispersion steps, the particles not only become denser, but
also the helical chains are orienting (at least partially) allowing correlation between the helix
turn distance (2.2 nm) of each of the now oriented helices (see Figures 9 and 10)
- the arrangement of the short helices after dispersion is (in optimal or ideal case) such that
effectively a longer helix is formed (see Figure 10)
- it is tempting to hypothesize that in the case of the Cu complex, one helix can complex one Cu
ion, and in case of the Fe (and other Me
complexes) two helices would complex one ion
- we do not know where the dopants are located—inside the helix, ―on top‖, or ―at the bottom‖ of
the helical chain? (―top‖ and ―bottom‖ referring to the helix direction)
Figure 9. Structure model for raw undispersed polyaniline.
Figure 10. Structure model for the primary particle after completed dispersion.
3. Experimental Section
Preparation of samples: polyaniline polymerization was carried out using the parameters described
in [27] with the modifications described in [28]. The dispersion and sample preparation was carried out
as described in [31].
UV-Vis spectra of diluted dispersions were recorded by an UV-Vis spectrophotometer Specord
S100 from Analytik Jena.
Polymers 2010, 2
Cyclic voltammograms were recorded in a three-electrode electrochemical cell with a
potentiostat/galvanostat PGSTAT 30 from Autolab. The OC test specimen served as working
electrodes; a platinum wire as counter electrode; and a silver/silver chloride (in 3 M KCl) reference
electrode was used.
X-ray diffractograms have been made at Avecia, Inc. [29]
Scanning tunneling microscopy was performed at University of Muenster [31] and [30].
4. Conclusions
It was possible to develop a new structure model for the organic metal polyaniline. This model fits
all of the available information related to the structure of polyaniline. Generally spoken, it describes
polyaniline as a material built from relatively short helically formed chains which assemble within
primary particles. These particles, about 10 nm in size, are globular for the raw polymer, and the
helices are relatively disordered. During dispersion, the conductivity increases and the conductive
polymer becomes an organic metal: The helices are more ordered, building some more elongated
helical structures, and the primary particle changes to be ellipsoidal.
Such long-term research would not be possible without many collaborators (first within Zipperling
Kessler, then within Ormecon) to whom I am very grateful. I would especially like to mention Joerg
Posdorfer, Holger Merkle, Melanie Rischka, Susanne Gleeson and Marco Thun who contributed to basic
research as well. Many more people have contributed to application development in printed circuit board
finishing, corrosion protection, OLEDs, electroluminescence, ITO replacement and others.
References and Notes
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Materials and Nanotechnology; Nalwa, H.S., Ed.; Academic Press: New York, NY, USA, 2000;
Volume 5, pp. 501-575.
2. Wessling, B. Dispersion as the Key to Processing Conductive Polymers. In Handbook of
Conducting Polymers, 2nd ed.; Skotheim, T., Elsenbaumer, R., Reynolds, J., Eds.; Marcel
Dekker, Inc.: New York, NY, USA, 1998, pp. 467-530.
3. Wessling, B. Dispersion Hypothesis and Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics: Key Elements for a
Materials Science of Conductive Polymers. Synth. Met. 1991, 45, 119-149.
4. Wessling, B. Critical Shear Rate-the Instability Reason for the Creation of Dissipative Structures
in Polymers. Z. Phys. Chem. 1995, 191, 119-135.
5. Srinivasan, D.; Rangarajan, G.; Mietzner, T.; Lennartz, W.; Wessling, B. Dispersion Induced
Insulator-to-Metal Transition in Polyaniline. Eur. Phys. J. 2000, E2, 207-210.
6. Wang, Z.; Li, C.; Scher, E.; MacDiarmid, A.; Epstein, A. The Granular Metal Concept for
Polyaniline. Phys. Rev. Lett. 1991, 66, 1745-1748.
7. Marquardt, P.; Nimtz, G.; hlschlegel, P. On the Quasi-Static Conductivity of Sub-Micrometer
Crystals. Solid State Commun. 1988, 65, 539-542.
Polymers 2010, 2
8. Nimtz, G.; Marquardt, P.; Gleiter, H. Size-Induced Metal-Insulator Transition in Metals and
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Sub-Micrometre Metal Particles. Similarities with Conducting Polymers? Synth. Met. 1991, 45,
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Mesoscopic Scale. Phys. Rev. B 1994, 49, 12718-12723.
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Polymers and Organic Metals. Synth. Met. 2005, 1-3, 5-8.
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15. Lennartz, W.; Mietzner, T.; Nimtz, G.; Wessling, B. Morphological Changes in PAni-PMMA
Blends during Dispersion Studied by SAXS. Synth. Met. 2001, 119, 425-426.
16. Wessling, B. Metal Complexes with Polyaniline and Process for Their Preparation. EP 1 002 322,
24 November 2004.
17. Wessling, B. Polyaniline Complex with Indium, Process for its Preparation and Use.
WO2007/020100, February 2007.
18. Posdorfer, J; Wessling, B. Passivation and Solderability Prevention of Copper by a
Polyaniline/Silver Nanoparticle. Presentation at the International Conference on Science and
Technology of Synthetic Metals (ICSM), Porto de Galinhas, Pernambuco, Brazil, August 2008;
Available online:
OMNanofinish_ICSM2008_final.pdf (accessed on 10 December 2010).
19. Wessling, B.; Thun, M.; Arribas-Sanchez, C.; Gleeson, S.; Posdorfer, J.; Rischka, M.;
Zeysing, B. An Organic Metal/Silver Nanopoarticle Finish on Copper for Efficient Passivation
and Solderability Preservation. Nano Express 2007, doi: 10.1007/s11671-007-9086-0; Available
online: (accessed on 10
December 2010).
20. Wessling, B. Ormecon’s Organic Metal TechnologyScience and Application. Presented at the
International Conference on Science and Technology of Synthetic Metals (ICSM), Kyoto, Japan, 6
July 2010; paper # 6B2-02.
21. Wessling, B. Metallic Properties due to Dispersion. In Handbook of Organic Conductive
Molecules and Polymers; Nalwa, H.S., Ed.; John Wiley & Sons: New York, NY, USA, 1997;
Volume 3, pp. 497-578.
22. Wessling, B.; Schröder, S.; Gleeson, S.; Merkle, H.; Schröder, S.; Baron, F. Reaction Scheme for
the Passivation of Metals by Polyaniline. Mater. Corros. 1996, 47, 439-445.
23. Posdorfer, J. Ormecon GmbH, Ammersbek, Germany. Personal communication.
Polymers 2010, 2
24. Wessling, B. Multistep Dispersion Process for Increasing Conductivity of Polyaniline.
WO2005/070972, DE 20 2005 010 364, 10 October 2008.
25. Pornputtkul, Y.; Kane-Maguire, L.A.P.; Innis, P.C.; Wallace, G.G. Asymmetric Proliferation with
Optically Active Polyanilines. Chem. Commun. 2005, 36, 4539-4541.
26. Wessling, B.; Hiesgen, R.; Meissner, D. STM Investigations on Primary Particle Morphology of
Polyaniline. Acta Polym. 1993, 44, 132-134.
27. Wessling, B. Process for the Polymerisation of Submicron Size Dispersible Particles of
Conductive Polymers. EP 0 700 573, 20 November 1996.
28. Wessling, B. Anisotropic Primary Particles of Conductive Polymers and Process for Their
Formation.WO 2006/09/2292, DE 10 2005 010 162, 14 June 2007.
29. Brown, B. Avecia Inc., Manchester, UK. Personal communication.
30. Chi, L. University of Muenster, Muenster, Germany. Personal communication.
© 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article
distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license
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... Polyaniline is the most studied intrinsically conductive polymer(ICP) because of its ease of synthesis, tunable conductivity, eco-friendly and better stability compared to other ICPs. Unlike most linear thermoplastics, polyaniline is principally insoluble and infusible, which has been proved by numerous experimental studies [4]. However, doping with dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid(DBSA) has been verified to improve PANI's processability significantly [2]. ...
Modern aircraft now consists of more than 50 wt% parts made of composite materials for their high specific strength. However, components made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics(CFRP) are vulnerable to lightning strikes, which statistically happens to an aircraft nearly once a year. This work presents a promising alternative to the currently used copper-based lightning strike protection(LSP) system. An all-polymeric conductive resin made of polyaniline(PANI) was utilized as the CF laminate matrix and showed a high electrical conductivity. Such a conductive laminate was evaluated by a simulated lightning strike test, and the damage behavior was investigated. Results indicate that the conductive CF laminate shows a self-protection ability against lightning strikes.
... Fig. 8b shows that the CV curve can sustain a good current density and proper PANI oxidation/reduction peaks in the optimal OPW. The CV curve of PANI-ITONPs-FTO//JAC-FTO HSC shows one oxidation peak at around 0.7 V and one corresponding reduction peak at around 0.5 V, consistent with oxidation and reduction of PANI (Wessling 2010). The two couples of redox peaks in the CV curves of PANI-ITONPs-FTO//JAC-FTO HSC could be attributed to the pernigraniline to emeraldine and leucoemeraldine to emeraldine transitions of PANI, revealing the pseudocapacitance behavior of the prepared PANI (Cong et al., 2013). ...
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In this study, hierarchical polyaniline (PANI) nanosheets were electrochemically deposited on indium tin oxide nanoparticles coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass (ITONPs-FTO) substrate from an aqueous solution containing 0.5 M aniline and 1 M H2SO4. The ITONPs provide efficient support with high electroactive surface area in the electrochemical deposition of PANI and produce excellent PANI films. The developed PANI film deposited on the ITONPs-FTO electrode was characterized via field-emission scanning-electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A hybrid supercapacitor (HSC) was fabricated using the developed PANI deposited ITONPs-FTO as a positrode and the jute sticks derived activated carbon nanosheets coated FTO (JAC-FTO) as a negatrode. Because of its high capacitive performance, unique structures of electrode materials, and optimum operating potential window, the fabricated PANI-ITONPs-FTO//JAC-FTO HSC performed excellently in 0.1 M HCl aqueous electrolyte, delivering a high areal capacitance of 318 mF/cm² at a 1.0 mA/cm² current density and exhibit a high energy density of 28 µWh/cm² at a high power density of 400 µW/cm². Moreover, the HSC exhibits excellent cyclic stability with ∼ 87% Coulombic efficiency and ∼ 91% capacitance retention after 1000 charge–discharge cycles.
... The structure of PANI may have several configurations, depending on the synthesis method. Small agglomerates of helicoidal chains can be formed in PANI which increases the transference of electric charges [15]. A representation of the chemical structure of aniline is shown in Fig. 1a, typical linear PANI is in Fig. 1b, and crosslinked PANI is in Fig. 1c. ...
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Abstract Stainless steel (SS) thin plates were covered with polyaniline (PANI) with consecu- tive electric glow discharges in H2O2 and in aniline vapors to sensitize the SS sur- face and to polymerize aniline on the plates. The objective was to form smooth poly- meric coatings attached to the metallic surface that resist saline fluids for several months. The coated samples were submerged during 2 months in static and dynamic Phosphate-Buffered Saline solutions with pH = 7.4 at 37 °C to partially simulate the chemical conditions of an implant in the circulatory system. The results indicated that in the static fluid, the PANI coating remained adhered to the SS surface with some slight cracks. In the dynamic fluids, 4.6 mL/s, the coatings showed partial detachment of the superficial layers; however, the interior layers remained attached. In both cases, the contact angles on the coating were in the limit between hydro- philic and hydrophobic surfaces. The chemical analysis suggested the formation of O bridges that could contribute to the chemical adhesion of PANI on the SS surface. In general, the results indicated a good potential to retain the polymeric coating on SS under long immersion in saline fluids. Keywords Polyaniline · Stainless steel · Adhesion · Wet conditions · XPS
The fabrication of highly conducting composites which can be seamlessly integrated into fabric substrates is exceedingly imperative for the development of versatile wearable electronics with long cycling stability and high specific capacitance. Previously, our group has reported the synthesis of poly( ortho ‐phenylenediamine‐co‐aniline) using microwave irradiation and we have evaluated the electrochemical properties of both the copolymer and its nanocomposite with acid functionalized carbon nanotubes as wearable electronics. Herein, we design a nanocomposite of zinc oxide decorated acid functionalized carbon nanotubes and the aforementioned copolymer with the aim to evaluate the simultaneous effects of pseudocapacitance and electrical double layer capacitance in the copolymer matrix. The samples were comprehensively characterized using various techniques. These materials were coated on fabric substrates to evaluate their applicability as wearable electronics. A high specific capacitance of 225.95 F g ⁻¹ at 0.50 A g ⁻¹ was obtained and 88 % of the initial capacitance was retained after 1000 cycles. The in vitro cytotoxicity studies for the nanocomposite showed lower cytotoxicity between the concentration ranges of 50–200 μg/mL. Combination of biocompatibility and enhanced electrochemical performance establishes the unprecedented application of these devices in the field of biocompatible wearable electronics.
The present chapter is devoted to the synthesis, properties, and applications of graphitic carbon nitrides in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is an organic semiconducting polymeric material that is analogous in structure to the two-dimensional sp2-hybridized graphene sheets. It is a metal-free polymer with a tunable bandgap of 1.8–2.7 eV. This makes it possible to absorb light in the visible spectrum of 460–698 nm thus converting 13 to 49% of solar energy to useful electrical energy. In PSCs, g-C3N4 acts as a photocatalyst embedded in the light-absorbing layer of the solar cell. Hence, g-C3N4 helps in improving the efficiency of PSCs by assisting in the charge absorption and generation at the light-absorbing layer. Due to their high photoabsorption and photoresponsiveness, semiconducting properties, high stability under physiological conditions, and good biocompatibility, graphitic carbon nitrides have won tremendous attention among researchers recently. Incorporation of g-C3N4 in perovskite absorber layers improves its crystallinity and passivates defects leading to reduced charge carrier recombination which ultimately results in higher power conversion efficiency of PSCs.
Supercapacitors are important storage devices that display high specific capacitance much faster than batteries. They are emerging class of technology that offer higher density than traditional capacitors. This chapter is based on the review of Polyaniline (PANI)-based nanocomposite as supercapacitor electrode materials. PANI is one of the widely studied candidates for supercapacitors for one decade simply because of its eco-friendly nature, high electrical conductivity, inherently electrochemical property, extraordinary specific capacitance, and low cycling stability. The main limitation of PANI as a supercapacitor is its low cycle life. Because of this limitation, there are recent developments in PANI-based nanocomposites with carbon, activated carbon, carbon nanotubes, metal oxide, transition metal oxides, etc. This chapter will focus on achieving the high performance of the newly cultivated PANI‐based supercapacitors with and without binder addition into the PANI network. In addition, the chapter includes a brief fundamental concept of the standard synthesis and the analysis of the electrochemical properties of PANI with and without binder-based supercapacitors. Moreover, many new interesting advanced PANI composites/nanocomposites supercapacitors have also been included in this chapter.
This work represents first attempt for potentiometric determination of the most recent antidiabetic; omarigliptin. Three sensors, employing potassium tetrakis (p‐chlorophenyl) borate as a lipophilic cation exchanger, were developed and compared. One liquid contact ion‐selective electrode and two carbon paste‐based solid contact ones, plain one and another one modified with polyaniline nanoparticles, were employed. Performances of fabricated sensors were assessed as per IUPAC recommendations. Incorporation of hydrophobic polyaniline nanoparticles as ion‐to‐electron transducer layer at solid contact/ion‐sensitive membrane interface enhanced sensitivity and stability of the third sensor showing LOD of 2.5×10−7 mol L‐1 and slope of 58.57 mV decade ‐1. The three sensors were applied for omarigliptin determination in presence of its degradation products, in dosage form and spiked human plasma.
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SEM investigation of polyaniline (PAni) layers showed that it is composed of around 10 nm small globular primary particles. This is in accordance with other earlier results.
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We report on the conductivity of submicrometre metal particles, which experience a size-induced metal-insulator transition (SIMIT). Also, their frequency behaviour and their dependence on temperature are quite different from bulk metal properties. Investigations of the conductivity of thin polyaniline layers have revealed that the two systems have some prominent properties in common; for instance both systems exhibit a pronounced relaxation process. A comparison and discussion of the similarities are presented.
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A review is given describing experimental and theoretical aspects of heterogeneous polymer systems (as example: conductive polymers as or carbon black as dispersed phase). Moreover, practical commercial applications are described.
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This chapter discusses the metallic character and the nanoparticle structure and dynamics, the precondition for these properties and for eventual nanotechnology, the principal insolubility of organic metals (or: conductive polymers), and some actual technical applications ultimately based on their nanocharacter and on dispersion and the macrotechnology, with dramatic effects in the nanoscale. Several potential applications are actually not seriously approached, even though their feasibility has been shown. It seems that industrial development groups refrain from working with PAni as long as they are conceptually and mentally biased toward either a direct polymerization approach or a "solution" technique. The development of electrochromic windows, sensors, and gas separation membranes would need a reproducible nanotechnology for applying PAni to the substrate. With two basically different and long-term industrial uses of polyaniline, in corrosion protection and in the manufacture of printed circuit boards, both based on and only feasible with dispersion technologies, the dispersion concept has shown its value and has allowed the first significant commercial application of conductive polymers. There will be many more industrial applications in the future, as soon as the new useful property combinations of organic metals, especially polyaniline, are broader known, and more confidence has been built up in the market based on the first pioneering applications.
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A review is presented summarizing the (at that time) available basic knowledge about conductive polymers / organic metals, experimental and theoretical results - dispersion, self-organisation, rheology, non-equilibrium thermodynamics, practical applications.
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The present knowledge regarding the reasons why solutions of conductive polymers (ICP) can not be made, and the most recent status of insight into feasibility and properties of dispersions is being reviewed. Dispersions are now available with conductivity values exceeding 200S/cm. New applications in the supercapacitor field and in printed circuit board manufacturing are becoming accessible.
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SAXS studies of polyaniline blends have been performed to investigate the mesoscopic morphology between 1 and 100 nm. It is concluded, that the molecules fold to crystals. These crystals are stacked to primary particles. At higher bulk conductivity the primary particles are more compact.
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Progress on the area of passivation of metallic materials by polyaniline is being presented. The redoxcatalytic reaction leading to the formation of a passivating oxide layer has been evaluated, and a reaction scheme is shown. Results of corrosion tests are described as well. Korrosionsschutz mit Hilfe eines organischen Metalls (Polyanilin): Oberflächenveredelung, Passivierung, Korrosionstest-Ergebnisse Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet der Passivierung von metallischen Werkstoffen mittels Polyanilin werden vorgestellt. Die redoxkatalytische Reaktion, die zur Ausbildung einer passivierenden Oxidschicht führt, wurde untersucht, ein Reaktionsschema konnte aufgestellt werden. Ergebnisse von Korrosionsprüfungen werden präsentiert.
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Using UV-VIS spectroscopy and elemental analysis following the reaction which occur between PAni and steel, it was possible to clarify the passivation reaction responsible for the amazing corrosion protection performance of PAni. A reaction scheme is presented. PAni is oxidizing iron to Fe2+ where it is itself reduced to Leucoemeraldine. Further oxidation of the iron ions leads to Fe2O3**, and oxygen is re-oxidizing the Leuco form of PAni to the emeraldine salt. This tells us that the full mechanism of the corrosion protection consists of - potential shift due to the noble metal properties of PAni * - and the redox catalytic properties of PAni leading to the passivating oxide layer.
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For the first time, a non-equilibrium theory of dispersion and multiphase systems is described. This article is part 1. Part 2 describes the critical parameter (turbulence) above which dispersion starts to occur and enters the non-equilibrium range. The article not only introduces into this new dispersion theory, but describes a whole scope of a materials science of conductive polymers, from theory over basic research to applications. This is part 1 of the new non-equilibrium thermodynamical dispersion theory. Part 2 can be found here: "Critical Shear rate ..."