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EAT PINEAPPLE A DAY TO KEEP DEPRESSION AT BAY

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Abstract

Pineapple, a juicy and tasty fruit, belonging to family Bromeliaceae is scientifically known as Ananas cosmosus. The Pineapples are traditionally used as a blood purifier, to aid digestion, for gastro-intestinal disorders, diseases of the larynx and pharynx, as a mild antiseptic and to treat diabetes. There are no reports in literature pertaining to CNS actions of Ananas cosmosus fruit. In the light of above, the present study was undertaken to test the antidepressant potential of Ananas cosmosus fruit juice. Ananas cosmosus juice (ACJ) was administered at various concentrations ranging from 5% to 20% v/v to Swiss albino mice for 15 days and wistar rats for 8 successive days. The antidepressant activity was measured using forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and reserpine induced hypothermia. The efficacy of Pineapple juice was compared with standard anti-depressant agents viz: fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) and imipramine (15 mg/kg). The results showed that Pineapple juice significantly decreased immobility time in both FST and TST models. It also reversed the hypothermia induced by reserpine. The efficacy of Pineapple juice was found to be comparable to fluoxetine and imipramine. Prazosin, sulpiride, baclofen and p-CPA antagonized the antidepressant effect of Pineapple juice in tail suspension test. Furthermore, Ananas cosmosus juice inhibited the monoamine oxidase MAO-A and MAO-B activity and reduced significantly malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. These findings reveal the anti-depressant potential of Pineapple.
Parle M et al / IJRAP 2010, 1 (2) 439-448
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda & Pharmacy, 1(2), Nov-Dec 2010 439-448
Research Article Available online through
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EAT PINEAPPLE A DAY TO KEEP DEPRESSION AT BAY
Parle Milind* and Goel Pooja
Dept. Pharm. Sciences, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar 125001
Haryana, India
Received: 05-11-2010; Revised: 26-11-2010; Accepted: 03-12-2010
ABSTRACT
Pineapple, a juicy and tasty fruit, belonging to family Bromeliaceae is scientifically known as Ananas
cosmosus. The Pineapples are traditionally used as a blood purifier, to aid digestion, for gastro-intestinal
disorders, diseases of the larynx and pharynx, as a mild antiseptic and to treat diabetes. There are no
reports in literature pertaining to CNS actions of Ananas cosmosus fruit. In the light of above, the present
study was undertaken to test the antidepressant potential of Ananas cosmosus fruit juice. Ananas
cosmosus juice (ACJ) was administered at various concentrations ranging from 5% to 20% v/v to Swiss
albino mice for 15 days and wistar rats for 8 successive days. The antidepressant activity was measured
using forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and reserpine induced hypothermia. The efficacy
of Pineapple juice was compared with standard anti-depressant agents viz: fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) and
imipramine (15 mg/kg). The results showed that Pineapple juice significantly decreased immobility time
in both FST and TST models. It also reversed the hypothermia induced by reserpine. The efficacy of
Pineapple juice was found to be comparable to fluoxetine and imipramine. Prazosin, sulpiride, baclofen
and p-CPA antagonized the antidepressant effect of Pineapple juice in tail suspension test.
Furthermore, Ananas cosmosus juice inhibited the monoamine oxidase MAO-A and MAO-B activity and
reduced significantly malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. These findings reveal the anti-depressant potential
of Pineapple.
KEY WORDS: Ananas cosmosus, Anti-depressant, Despair, Immobility
* Author for Correspondence
Milind Parle
Pharmacology Division,
Dept. Pharm. Sciences (Accredited by NBA),
Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology
HISAR 125001 Haryana, India
E-mail: mparle@rediffmail.com
Parle M et al / IJRAP 2010, 1 (2) 439-448
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda & Pharmacy, 1(2), Nov-Dec 2010 439-448
INTRODUCTION
Mental depression is a complex disorder of unknown etiology, which is manifested by low mood,
anhedonia, low energy levels, pessimism, guilty feeling and suicidal tendencies. It may range from a very
mild condition, bordering on normality, to severe depressionsometimes called ‘‘psychotic depression’’
accompanied by hallucinations and delusions. Patients with major depression have symptoms that reflect
changes in brain monoamine neurotransmitters, specifically norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine.1
However, most of the marketed anti-depressant drugs exhibit serious side-effects. Therefore, the use of
alternative medicines is increasing worldwide. Various herbal drugs (e.g. St. Johns wort) have shown
promising results in treating experimental as well as clinical depression and many of these herbal drugs
appear to be quite safe.2
Ananas cosmosus Linn (Bromeliaceae) is commonly known as Pineapple. Pineapple contains
several pharmacologically active phytochemicals such as ananasate, beta-sitosterol, chlorogenic acid,
rutin, naringenin3, bromelain4, glycosides, flavonoids5 and neurotransmitters such as serotonin6,
dopamine, adrenaline and noradrenaline.7 Ananas cosmosus is reported to possess several medicinal
properties such as anti-diabetic8, anti-tumor9, anti-oxidant10, anti-inflammatory4, immuno-modulatory11,
hepato-protective12, platelet aggregation activity13 and anthelmintic activity.14 However, there is no
scientific evidence for the therapeutic potential of Pineapple in neuropsychiatric disorders. Since
serotonin and noradrenaline levels fall considerably in depression, we were interested to investigate the
usefulness of Pineapple in depression, since Pineapple is reported to contain high amounts of serotonin
and fair amounts of adrenaline and noradrenaline.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Objectives
The present study was undertaken to explore the anti-depressant potential of Ananas cosmosus juice
(ACJ) using forced swim test, tail suspension test and reserpine induced hypothermia model. An attempt
has also been made to determine the underlying mechanism of action of ACJ by co-administration of
agents modulating noradrenaline and serotonin.
Plant material
The fresh Pineapples (Ananas cosmosus) were purchased from local market of Hisar and got
authenticated from Raw Materials Herbarium and Museum, National Institute of Science Communication
and Information Resources, New Delhi. Different concentrations of Ananas cosmosus juice (5, 10, 20%,
v/v, p.o.) were administered daily for a duration of 8 days to rats and 15 days to mice.
Animals
A total of 204 Swiss mice divided in 34 groups & 36 Wistar rats divided in 06 groups were
employed in the present study. Each group comprised of a minimum of 6 animals. Adult (3-4 months old)
mice weighing around 20-25 g and adult rats weighing around 80-100 g were procured from the Disease-
Free Small Animal House of C.C.S. Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar. The experimental protocol
was approved by the Institutional Animals Ethics Committee and the care of laboratory animals was taken
as per the guidelines of CPCSEA, Ministry of Forests and Environment, Government of India
(Registration number 0436).
Drug protocol
Mice belonging to group I were employed for preliminary studies carried out to determine the effective
concentrations of Ananas cosmosus Juice (ACJ). Mice belonging to groups II to XV were subjected to
Tail suspension test (TST). Mice belonging to groups XVI to XXI were subjected to Forced Swim Test
(FST). Mice belonging to groups XXII to XXX were used for biochemical estimations. Mice belonging to
groups XXXI to XXXIV were exposed to Photoactometer for assessing the locomotor activity. Rats
belonging to groups XXXV to XL were employed in Reserpine induced hypothermia model.
Parle M et al / IJRAP 2010, 1 (2) 439-448
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda & Pharmacy, 1(2), Nov-Dec 2010 439-448
Ananas cosmosus Juice (ACJ) was administered in different concentrations (1% to 40 % v/v, p.o.) in
preliminary studies to determine sub maximal effective concentrations of ACJ for further studies.
Distilled water (vehicle, p.o.), Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, p.o.), Imipramine (15 mg/kg, p.o.), Phenelzine (20
mg/kg, p.o.), Prazosin (62.5 mg/kg, i.p.), p-CPA (100 mg/kg, i.p.), Baclofen (10 mg/kg, i.p) , Sulpiride
(50 mg/kg, i.p) and ACJ in different concentrations (5%, 10% and 20%, v/v), were administered orally
for 15 successive days. At 60 min after administration of the drugs/ distilled water/ ACJ on 15th day,
duration of immobility was recorded in mice in TST, FST and biochemical studies. Effect on locomotor
activity of mice was studied using a photoactometer. Similarly, distilled water (vehicle), Fluoxetine (20
mg/kg), Imipramine (15 mg/kg) and ACJ in different concentrations (5%, 10% and 20%, v/v), were
administered orally for 8 successive days to rats for hypothermia studies. The rectal temperature was
recorded on days, 0, 6, 7 and 8. Rectal temperature was measured immediately before and 18h after
administration of reserpine, in reserpine induced hypothermia model.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
Tail Suspension Test
Tail suspension test (TST) is a commonly employed model to evaluate new anti-depressant medicines.15
Immobility reflects a state of helplessness, which can be reversed by drugs such as imipramine and
fluoxetine, effective clinically in human depression. The index of depression in this experimental model
is taken as the immobility duration over a specific period of time. The increase in immobility period
indicates the depressed state of mind. Whereas, the reduction in immobility period exhibits a depression-
free state of mind. Mice were suspended on the edge of a table 50 cm above the floor by the adhesive
tape placed approximately one cm from the tip of the tail. Immobility time was recorded during a 6 min
period.16 Animal was considered to be immobile, when it did not show any movement of body and
hanged passively.
Forced Swim Test
Forced swim test (FST) was proposed as another model to test antidepressant activity.17 In this model,
mice are forced to swim in a restricted space from which they cannot escape. This induces a state of
behavioral despair in mice as reflected by increased immobility period, which is similar to human
depression.18 The index of depression in this experimental model is taken as the immobility duration over
a specific period of time. Mice were forced to swim individually in a glass jar (25 cm x 12 cm x 25 cm)
containing 15 cm deep fresh water and maintained at 250C (±30C). After an initial 2 min period of
vigorous activity, each animal assumed a typical immobile posture. A mouse was considered to be
immobile, when it remained floating in the water without struggling, making only minimum movements
of its limbs necessary to keep its head above water. The total duration of immobility was recorded during
the next 4 min of total 6 min test. The changes in immobility duration were studied after administering
drugs in separate groups of animals. Each animal was used only once.
Reserpine Induced Hypothermia Model
Reserpine induced hypothermia model is commonly employed to evaluate new anti-depressant
medicines.3 Depletion of biogenic amines (noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine, dopamine) in the brain
induces hypothermia in rodents. The decrease in the body temperature indicates hypothermia, the state of
depression. Whereas, the increase in the body temperature indicates hyperthermia, a depression- free state
of mind.19 On 6th day, animals were injected with reserpine (2 mg/kg, s.c.), 60 minutes after feeding
orally ACJ in different concentrations (5%, 10% and 20%, v/v) to separate groups of rats.
Simultaneously, distilled water/ imipramine/ fluoxetine were administered for 8 days to parallel groups of
rats. The rectal temperature was determined by insertion of rectal thermometer to a constant depth of 2
cm after eighteen hours of reserpine injection.
Statistical analysis
All the results were expressed as mean ± Standard Error (SEM). Data were analyzed by one-way
ANOVA followed by Dunnetts t-test.
Parle M et al / IJRAP 2010, 1 (2) 439-448
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda & Pharmacy, 1(2), Nov-Dec 2010 439-448
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In Tail Suspension Test, immobility reflects a state of helplessness, which can be reversed by drugs such
as imipramine and fluoxetine, effective clinically in human depression. The index of depression in this
experimental model is taken as the immobility duration over a specific period of time. The increase in
immobility period indicates the depressed state of mind. Whereas,the reduction in immobility period
exhibits a depression-free state of mind. ACJ in different concentrations (5, 10 and 20%, v/v, p.o.), when
administered for 15 successive days to mice, decreased the duration of immobility significantly. The
antidepressant efficacy of ACJ was found to be comparable to that of fluoxetine (5-HT reuptake inhibitor)
and imipramine (Tricyclic anti-depressant) (Fig. 1).
In Tail Suspension Test, ACJ in different concentrations (5, 10 and 20%, v/v, p.o.) per se diminished the
duration of immobility significantly. On the other hand, prazosin (62.5 mg/kg i.p.), p-CPA (100 mg/kg,
i.p.), baclofen (10 mg/kg, i.p) and sulpiride (50 mg/kg, i.p) per se increased significantly the immobility
period of mice. Prazosin/p-CPA /baclofen and sulpiride, when administered on day 15, 45 min after the
oral feeding of ACJ 10% v/v reversed the diminished immobility time observed with ACJ (Fig.7).
In Forced Swim Test, mice are forced to swim in a restricted space from which they cannot escape. This
induces a state of behavioral despair in mice as reflected by increased immobility, which is similar to
human depression. The index of depression in this experimental model is taken as the immobility duration
over a specific period of time. ACJ in different concentrations (5, 10 and 20%, v/v, p.o.), when
administered for 15 successive days to mice, decreased the duration of immobility significantly. The
antidepressant efficacy of ACJ was found to be comparable to that of fluoxetine (5-HT reuptake inhibitor)
and imipramine (Tricyclic anti-depressant) (Fig. 2).
Hypothermia was induced with the help of reserpine (2 mg/kg, s.c.) in rats. ACJ in different
concentrations (10 and 20%, v/v, p.o.), when administered for 8 successive days to rats, reversed the
hypothermia induced by reserpine. This effect of ACJ was found to be similar to that of fluoxetine (5-HT
reuptake inhibitor) and imipramine (Tricyclic anti-depressant) (Fig. 3).
Ananas cosmosus Juice (10% v/v) administered to mice for 15 successive days, significantly reduced the
brain MAO-A (55.74 ± 4.23 nmol/mg protein) and MAO-B (57.7 ± 4.2 nmol/mg protein) activity as
compared to the control group. Furthermore, ACJ (Fig.4, 5 & 6) produced a significant decrease in brain
MDA levels (77.7 ± 4.2 nmol/mg tissue) as compared to the control group of mice (105.5 ± 8.8 nmol/ mg
tissue).
Anti-depressant potential of Ananas cosmosus juice (ACJ) was tested in mice employing three standard
experimental models viz: Forced swim test (FST), Tail suspension test (TST) and Reserpine induced
hypothermia. It has been reported that TST is less stressful and has higher pharmacological sensitivity
than FST.20 The index of depression in FST and TST models is taken as the immobility duration over a
specific period of time. This immobility reflects helplessness or despair behaviour of animal equivalent to
depression in human beings. The increase in immobility period indicates the depressed state of mind.
Whereas, the reduction in immobility period reflects a depression-free state of mind. In the present study,
different concentrations of Ananas cosmosus juice, when administered for 15 successive days to mice
decreased significantly the immobility duration in both (TST and FST) the experimental models. These
experimental models are precise and effective in predicting the anti-depressant potential of different
categories new drugs.17 Hypothermia or decreased body temperature is associated with the state of
depression. Whereas, the increase in the body temperature or hyperthermia, is linked with a depression-
free state of mind.20 Depletion of biogenic amines (noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine, dopamine) in the
brain induces hypothermia in rodents. Reserpine is an established pharmacological tool widely employed
to deplete catecholamines and serotonin. The subcutaneous administration of reserpine leads to a decrease
in rectal temperature of rats within 18 h of its administration. The hypothermia produced by reserpine was
antagonized by classical anti-depressants.21 ACJ, when administered for 8 successive days to rats (another
species), reversed the hypothermia induced by reserpine. This effect of ACJ was comparable to marketed
anti-depressants viz imipramine (Tricyclic anti-depressant) and fluoxetine (5-HT reuptake inhibitor).
These findings highlight the fact that Ananas cosmosus juice possessed useful anti-depressant activity.
Noradrenaline and serotonin levels are diminished considerably in patients suffering from
depression.22 Since, Pineapple contains high amounts of serotonin6 and fair amounts of noradrenaline7,
Parle M et al / IJRAP 2010, 1 (2) 439-448
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda & Pharmacy, 1(2), Nov-Dec 2010 439-448
there is a possibility that the low levels of both, noradrenaline and serotonin observed in depressed
patients could be replenished by Pineapple juice. Prazosin (α-1 adrenoceptor antagonist)/sulpiride
(selective D2-receptor antagonist)/p-CPA (serotonin antagonist), when administered on day 15, after the
oral feeding of ACJ antagonized the effect of AC Juice in TST model on immobility duration of mice.
This observation suggests that the anti-depressant effect of Pineapple juice is mediated via either α-1
adrenoceptors, dopamine D2 receptors or serotonergic receptors. MAO regulates the metabolic
degradation of catecholamines, serotonin and other endogenous amines in CNS.23 Since, noradrenaline
and serotonin are metabolized by MAO-A and MAO-B enzymes, inhibition of MAO enzyme (MAO-A as
well as MAO-B) would lead to enhanced levels of both noradrenaline and serotonin, thereby rectifying
the deficiency of these amines responsible for producing depression. Both, Ananas cosmosus juice and
phenelzine (standard MAO inhibitors), uniformly reduced significantly the brain MAO-A and MAO-B
activity as compared to the control group. Therefore, Ananas cosmosus juice may be exploited clinically
for the management of depressive disorders. Free radicals are responsible for producing neuronal damage
in the body. The generation of free radicals is usually increased during stressful situations and illness.
Malinoaldehyde (MDA) levels are taken as an index of free radical generation. Pro-oxidant/antioxidant
balance is crucial in neurodegenerative processes, including cell death, motor neuron disease and axonal
injury.24 Increased MDA levels correspond to increased generation of free radicals leading to brain
damage, whereas, decreased MDA levels reflect reduced free radical generation leading to neuro-
protection. In the present study, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly reduced by Ananas
cosmosus juice, thereby indicating reduced generation of free radicals in the brain and producing
ultimately neuro-protective effect.
CONCLUSION
The Pineapple juice produced powerful and consistent anti-depressant effects in all the
experimental models viz tail suspension test, forced swim test and reserpine induced hypothermia in the
present study. It is remarkable to note that Pineapple juice contains high amounts of neurotransmitter
serotonin and fair amounts of neurotransmitter noradrenaline, which play an important role in the
pathology of depression. Furthermore, MAO inhibitory property and anti-oxidant activity possessed by
Pineapple might be contributing favorably to the anti-depressant potential. Thus, it is worthwhile to
investigate clinically the usefulness of Pineapple in managing depressive disorders.
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International Journal of Research in Ayurveda & Pharmacy, 1(2), Nov-Dec 2010 439-448
Figure 1: Effect of various concentrations of Ananas cosmosus Juice (ACJ 5, 10 & 20% v/v)
administered orally for 15 successive days on Immobility Period in mice subjected to Tail
Suspension Test
Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, p.o.) and Imipramine (15 mg/kg, p.o.) were used as standard drugs.
Values are in Mean ± SEM. (n=6).
denotes p<0.01 as compared to control group ACJ = Ananas
cosmosus juice One way ANOVA followed
by Dunnetts t-test.
Figure 2: Effect of various concentrations of Ananas cosmosus Juice (ACJ 5, 10 & 20% v/v)
administered orally for 15 successive days on Immobility Period in mice subjected to Forced Swim
Test
Parle M et al / IJRAP 2010, 1 (2) 439-448
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda & Pharmacy, 1(2), Nov-Dec 2010 439-448
Figure 3: Effect of various concentrations of Ananas cosmosus Juice (ACJ 5, 10 & 20% v/v)
administered orally for 8 successive days on body temperature in rats subjected to Reserpine
induced hypothermia Test
Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, p.o.) and Imipramine (15 mg/kg, p.o.) were used as standard drugs.
Values are in Mean ± SEM. (n=6).
One way ANOVA followed by Dunnetts t-test.
Figure 4: Effect of Ananas cosmosus Juice (ACJ 10% v/v) administered orally for 15 successive days
on MAO-A activity in mice
Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, p.o.), Imipramine (15 mg/kg, p.o.) and Phenelzine (20 mg/kg, p.o.) were used as standard drugs.
Values are in Mean ± SEM. (n=6).
* denotes p<0.05 & denotes p<0.01, when compared to control group.
ACJ = Ananas cosmosus juice
One way ANOVA followed by Dunnetts t-test
Parle M et al / IJRAP 2010, 1 (2) 439-448
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda & Pharmacy, 1(2), Nov-Dec 2010 439-448
Figure 5: Effect of Ananas cosmosus Juice (ACJ 5, 10 & 20% v/v) administered orally for 15
successive days on MAO-B activity in mice
Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, p.o.), Imipramine (15 mg/kg, p.o.) and Phenelzine (20 mg/kg, p.o.) were used as standard drugs.
Values are in Mean ± SEM. (n=6).
* denotes p<0.05 & denotes p<0.01, when compared to control group.
ACJ = Ananas cosmosus juice
One way ANOVA followed by Dunnetts t-test
Figure 6: Effect of Ananas cosmosus Juice (ACJ 5, 10 & 20% v/v) administered orally for 15
successive days on MDA levels in mice .
Parle M et al / IJRAP 2010, 1 (2) 439-448
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda & Pharmacy, 1(2), Nov-Dec 2010 439-448
Figure 7: Effect of combination of Ananas cosmosus Juice (ACJ 10% v/v, p.o.) with prazosin/p-
CPA/baclofen/sulpiride administered orally for 15 successive days on immobility period in mice
subjected to Tail Suspension Test.
Prazosin (62.5 mg/kg, i.p.), p-CPA (100 mg/kg, i.p.), baclofen (10 mg/kg, i.p) and sulpiride (50 mg/kg, i.p) were used as
standard drugs.
Values are in Mean ± SEM. (n=6).
* denotes p<0.05 and **denotes p < 0.01, when compared to control group
# denotes p < 0.01, when compared to ACJ alone.
ACJ = Ananas cosmosus juice, PRZ= Prazosin , p-CPA= para chlorophenyl Alanine,
BAC= Baclofen and SULP= Sulpiride
One way ANOVA followed by Dunnetts t-test.
Source of support: Nil, Conflict of interest: None Declared
... In this study, pretreatment of mice with baclofen reversed the antidepressant-like effect of MSAD ( Figure 2 Panel K) suggesting that GABA B receptor neurotransmission may be involved in the antidepressant effect of MSAD in TST. Previous studies have shown that antidepressant-like effects of medicinal plant extracts were abolished by baclofen (a GABA B receptor agonist) in TST suggesting the involvement of GABA B receptor in the antidepressant-like effect of these extracts [52,53] since GABA B receptor antagonism may serve as a basis for the generation of novel antidepressants [54]. This study is in conformity with earlier reports of the involvement of GABA B receptor neurotransmission in the antidepressant effect of medicinal plants [52,53]. ...
... Previous studies have shown that antidepressant-like effects of medicinal plant extracts were abolished by baclofen (a GABA B receptor agonist) in TST suggesting the involvement of GABA B receptor in the antidepressant-like effect of these extracts [52,53] since GABA B receptor antagonism may serve as a basis for the generation of novel antidepressants [54]. This study is in conformity with earlier reports of the involvement of GABA B receptor neurotransmission in the antidepressant effect of medicinal plants [52,53]. ...
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Aim: An earlier study has demonstrated the in-vivo antidepressant effect of methanol stem bark extract of Adansonia digitata, using soxhlet extraction protocol, but there is a lack of scientific data on its neurobehavioural mechanism of action. This study, therefore, investigated its antidepressant potentials, using cold maceration method, and determined the probable neurobehavioural mechanism of its antidepressant-like effect. Methodology: The antidepressant-like effect of the extract was evaluated in tail suspension test, at graded doses in mice. Subsequently, the probable neurobehavioural mechanism of the antidepressant-like effect of the extract was investigated by intraperitoneal pretreatment with adrenergic, serotonergic, dopaminergic, and muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonists; GABA agonist; nitric oxide precursor and inhibitors; and using a putative neuromodulator at NMDA receptors prior to the extract administration. Results and discussion: The extract at all the doses used, significantly (p<0.05) and dose-dependently decreased the immobility time in tail suspension test without significant (p>0.05) alteration on locomotor behaviour in mice. However, the anti-immobility potential of the extract was significantly (p<0.05) reversed by prazosin, yohimbine, sulpiride, methylene blue, L-arginine and baclofen, suggesting the involvement of adrenergic, dopaminergic, GABAerargic and nitergic pathways. Conclusion: This study, therefore, concluded that the extract may possess antidepressant effect and its mechanism may involve multiple pathways.
... Ananas comosus Linn peel is already reported for its bioactive components like flavonoids and Vit-C in considerable amounts [16]. Present study focuses on utilization of AC peel in neuropsychiatric conditions characterized by of deprived Serotonin and Norepinephrine, like depression and anxiety, as Ananas comosus Linn plant is thought to be rich in serotonin and nor epinephrine [17]. ...
... It not only alters the serotonergic pathways but also the catecholamine transmission. This can be linked with its multi phytochemical state as well as presence of serotonin and catecholamine [17]. Likewise in TST, MeACP and IMP produced a marked decreased in immobility time at all three doses same like as FST, marked decrease in immobility time statistically more significant than IMP. ...
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Background: Ananas comosus Linn is famous in traditional medicine f o r i t s abortificant and anti inflammatory effects. Its peel is already e valuated and established as a remarkable antioxidant agent. Despite its intensive use in number of conditions, its neuropharmacological studies are still missing. So this study was performed (1) to analyze the qualitative phytochemical composition of methanolic extract of Ananas comosus Linn peel, and (2) To evaluate the antidepressant-like effects at different doses. Methodology: Phytochemical screening of MeACP was performed by using standard chemicals and methods. 60 NMRI mice of either sex were randomly divided into Control group which received 5% Tween 80, a standard group which received Imipramine (15mg/kg) and three treatment groups which were given three doses 3.25, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg doses of MeACP. Antidepressant effects were measured in the forced swimming and tail suspension tests. Each group consisted of 6-7 animals. Result: All three test doses of MeACP (3.25, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg) induced antidepressant-like behavior in FST and TST (p<0.001) and comparable with positive control Imipramine 15mg/kg. Conclusions: Methanolic extract of MeACP possess excellent antidepressant potential at low doses but its effect on long term administration and its safety profile in acute and chronic administration is needed to be further evaluated.
... The cortices of A. Comosus L. served as alexipharmic, antitussive, and antidiarrhea agents in china and other countries. Its leaves were also used as antidyspepsia or antidiarrheal agents in Chinese traditional medicine [11] . A. Comosus is also known to possess anti-fertility and abortifacient activities [12] , hepato-protective [13] , and anti-depressant [14] . A. comosus leaves enriched with phenols has antidiabetic [15] and anti-hypolipidemic [16] . ...
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... The authors concluded that A. comosus juice presented results comparable to antidepressants, showed reduction of immobility time, reversing hypothermia, as well as inhibition of brain monoamine activity. [43] The antidepressant activity in mice of the methanolic extract of A. comosus peels using three different doses compared to imipramine, FWT and TST were also performed. The extract has excellent low-dose antidepressant potential, but its effect on long-term administration and the safety profile in acute and chronic administration should be evaluated. ...
... The protective role of Ananas comosus might be attributed to its high content of active ingredients (ananasate, beta-sitosterol, campesterol, chlorogenic acid, rutin, naringenin, bromelain, vitamin A, B and C, glycosides and flavonoids) that have potent antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities (Parle and Goel, 2010). Bromelain administration together with AlCl 3 improved lipids and proteins level due to its anti-inflammatory effect and this in line with Al-Otaibi et al. (2015) who reported that rats treated with high dose of lead induced dyslipidemia that was alleviated by stem bromelain treatment. ...
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