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Temporal and Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Harassment and Abuse in Sport

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Abstract

Recent revelations of sexual misconduct by sports coaches have challenged long-held beliefs in the educational value of sport, yet there is very little knowledge about the dynamics of sexual exploitation in sport upon which to base improvements in the practice of sports coaching or teaching. Earlier inductive research by Brackenridge (1996, 1997a, 1997b) in Britain established a set of hypothesised risk factors for sexual abuse in sport which have subsequently been reinforced by the results of survey research on elite athletes in Canada (Kirby and Greaves 1996). However, risk analysis for sexual abuse in sport has not yet been framed within a temporal or developmental sequence, nor sufficiently differentiated between elite and recreational levels of sport, or between coach-initiated and peer-initiated abuse. This paper reports selected findings from a Dutch qualitative study (Cense 1997) of 14 athletes who have survived sexual abuse in sport. The aim of the study was to identify risk factors that influence sexual abuse and harassment and to analyse which risks might be diminished through a prevention policy implemented by sport organisations. The Dutch study reinforces the earlier risk factor analyses but extends them by putting forward a preliminary temporal model of risk in sport that integrates offender behaviour with athlete and situational factors. On the basis of this model, suggestions are made to assist early diagnosis and prevention of sexual harassment and abuse by authority figures in sport.

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... In a systematic literature review on sexual violence against children in sport and exercise (Bjørnseth and Szabo, 2018), the authors find that a typical characteristic of perpetrators is that they have power and influence over their victims. Three articles highlight that the coach-athlete relationship is characterized by an imbalance of power favoring the coach (Cense and Brackenridge, 2001;Sand et al., 2011). In a central finding of Stirling and Kerr (2009, p. 231), the coach's position of power is derived from the "closeness of the relationship, the legitimate authority of the coach, the coach's expertise and previous successes, and the coach's ability to control access to the athletes." ...
... Five of the included studies emphasize closeness as a relevant psychological factor in the emergence of sexual violence. In four of these studies, female athletes sexually abused by their coaches compare the coach-athlete relationship to a parent-child relationship or a friendship (Cense and Brackenridge, 2001;Brackenridge and Fasting, 2005;Stirling and Kerr, 2009;Bisgaard and Toftegaard Støckel, 2019). Moreover, the coach is seen as an older brother by athletes (Bisgaard and Toftegaard Støckel, 2019). ...
... In six studies, a central result is that athletes sexually abused by their coaches report blurred boundaries within the coachathlete relationship (Cense and Brackenridge, 2001;Brackenridge and Fasting, 2005;Stirling and Kerr, 2009;Bjørnseth and Szabo, 2018;Bisgaard and Toftegaard Støckel, 2019;Prewitt-White, 2019). Athletes share that their coaches have deep insights into their lives (e.g., having personal information about school and friends) and are present in contexts other than sport (e.g., helping with homework; Stirling and Kerr, 2009). ...
Article
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Sexual violence against athletes in elite and leisure sport has become of growing interest in recent years. In line with social media initiatives such as #SportToo and #CoachDontTouchMe and a rise in general media coverage, research in this field indicates an urgent need for action. These recent developments occasionally have led to no-touch policies, which may result in moral panic, uncertainty, and fear of unjustified suspicion among coaches. However, the role of closeness and distance in the development of sexual violence within the coach–athlete relationship has not yet been researched systematically. In this scoping review, the authors focus on the coach–athlete relationship, particularly its predispositions to sexual violence and how to prevent abusive relationships. Some characteristics typical of elite sport may predispose coaches to commit abuse, such as gender and power relations, the need for physical touch, hierarchical structures in sport, and trust and closeness between coaches and athletes. This scoping review follows an interdisciplinary approach combining sociological and psychological perspectives. It comprises 25 publications in English and German published from 2000 to 2019. The literature review highlights that closeness, power, blurred boundaries, and ambiguous roles are areas that seem to be crucial to the analysis of the coach–athlete relationship from both sociological and psychological perspectives.
... This paper also revealed more male athletes experienced sexual harassment compared to female athletes and the perpetrators were also males. Unlike in Malaysia, studies related to sexual harassment in sports have been conducted and published extensively in various countries especially in Europe such as Cense & Brackenridge (2001) [15] ...
... This paper also revealed more male athletes experienced sexual harassment compared to female athletes and the perpetrators were also males. Unlike in Malaysia, studies related to sexual harassment in sports have been conducted and published extensively in various countries especially in Europe such as Cense & Brackenridge (2001) [15] ...
... All members in the group were unanimously concern about who is/are responsible to enforce the policy and the SOPs. This finding is similar to issues related to the lack of knowledge and the absence of grievances procedure in sexual harassment reporting discussed byCense & Brackenridge (2001) [15] and Fasting et al. (2003) [26]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article attempts to discuss the risk factors related to the occurrence of sexual harassment in sports. There have been many glaring cases of sexual harassment in sports reported in the Malaysian media. Unfortunately, most of these cases end up without any redress for the victim or punishment against the perpetrator. Hence, the objective of this article is to analyze the risk factors faced by sport practitioners and officers in handling as well as preventing sexual harassment and abuse in a few recent cases. A qualitative method was applied and the primary data was collected through focus group sessions comprised of thirty-five (35) experts from sports institutions, enforcement officers, civil society representatives, athletes and related government agencies. The result depicts fifteen (15) risk factors involved in handling cases related to sexual harassment and abuse in sports particularly the lack of a code of practice and unclear procedures for those in charge. Since currently in Malaysia there are no specific rules related to handling sexual harassment in sports, previous cases were investigated under a penal code and it has made it impossible for the victims to receive protection and redress.
... Many sports create an environment that enables the manipulation and de-humanization of athletes (Cense and Brackenridge 2001). With frequent close contact, coaches have the ability to victimize athletes, as the sport lacks monitoring practices and promotes secrecy (Cense and Brackenridge 2001). ...
... Many sports create an environment that enables the manipulation and de-humanization of athletes (Cense and Brackenridge 2001). With frequent close contact, coaches have the ability to victimize athletes, as the sport lacks monitoring practices and promotes secrecy (Cense and Brackenridge 2001). In many cases, this "climate of secrecy" (McPherson et al. 2017, 44) strips players of their agency and ensures that players continue to be commoditized and indistinct, thus making them easier to manage. ...
... Considering the issues around silence and potential backlash, many players elect to never disclose their experiences to others (Hartill 2009). Unfortunately, as athletes are business investments, the greater status they gain, the more pressure is placed upon them (Cense and Brackenridge 2001), thus deterring athletes from talking. ...
Article
Athletes who make it to the upper echelons of professional ice hockey in North America are indoctrinated into the beliefs, norms, and rituals of the sport from an early age. These practices are often highly restrictive, and can eventually lead to reduced autonomy and eventual commoditization—defined as the extraction of economic and performance value to the point where athletes become indistinct and interchangeable. Using the commoditization framework developed by Hirschman and Hill (2000 Hirschman, E. C. , and R. P.Hill . 2000. “On Human Commoditization and Resistance: A Model Based upon Buchenwald Concentration Camp.” Psychology and Marketing 17 (6): 469–491. doi:10.1002/(sici)1520-6793(200006)17:6 < 469::aid-mar3 > 3.0.co;2-3.[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] , [Google Scholar]), we analyse how these processes de-humanize, control, and silence athletes and the role that institutions play in its enactment. Through an examination of these processes, this paper substantiates the concept of athlete commoditization and explores the influence of cultural and technological changes on our future conceptualization of the construct.
... At the individual level, some researchers have highlighted the prevalence of sexual violence in different social groups including ethnic and sexual minorities as well as athletes with a disability (Fasting et al., 2008;Peltola and Kivijärvi, 2017;Vertommen et al., 2016). Others also indicate young age (Cense and Brackenridge, 2001), being a girl or participating in elite sport as risk factors (Alexander et al., 2011;Leahy et al., 2002;Vertommen et al., 2016). Relational and organizational factors have also been linked to the occurrence of sexual violence in a sport context (Parent & Fortier, 2018), including power inequalities in relationships with athletes (Mountjoy et al., 2016;Owton and Sparkes, 2017;Stirling and Kerr, 2009), situations where young people are left unsupervised with a possible perpetrator (Cense and Brackenridge, 2001;Stirling and Kerr, 2009) as well as the lack of prevention in sport organizations (Lang and Hartill, 2016;Mathews, 2017;Parent & Demers, 2011;Parent & El Hlimi, 2013). ...
... Others also indicate young age (Cense and Brackenridge, 2001), being a girl or participating in elite sport as risk factors (Alexander et al., 2011;Leahy et al., 2002;Vertommen et al., 2016). Relational and organizational factors have also been linked to the occurrence of sexual violence in a sport context (Parent & Fortier, 2018), including power inequalities in relationships with athletes (Mountjoy et al., 2016;Owton and Sparkes, 2017;Stirling and Kerr, 2009), situations where young people are left unsupervised with a possible perpetrator (Cense and Brackenridge, 2001;Stirling and Kerr, 2009) as well as the lack of prevention in sport organizations (Lang and Hartill, 2016;Mathews, 2017;Parent & Demers, 2011;Parent & El Hlimi, 2013). At the socio-cultural level, tolerance and normalization of violence are also important factors to consider in explaining the violence experienced by young individuals in a sport context (Parent & Fortier, 2018). ...
... Thus, they can sometimes be perceived better than other athletes. As a result, Cense and Brackenridge (2001) argue that athletes with an isolated position on the team, because of their better sporting abilities or the greater attention received from the coach, are more vulnerable to experiencing sexual violence. The authors suggest that this isolation deprives them of the support they might receive from their teammates, making them more vulnerable. ...
Article
Full-text available
In research, various reasons have been proposed to be able to understand the occurrence of sexual violence in sport. This article examines the relationships between conformity to the sport ethic norms and sexual violence among young athletes, according to sex and type of sport (individual and team). Athletes (N=1140) from Quebec, Canada aged 13 to 18 years responded to an online questionnaire, which included two validated tools: a measure of conformity to the sport ethic norms (i.e. striving for distinction, self-sacrifice and refusing to accept limits) and a measure of experiences of sexual violence (i.e. by teammates and coaches). Relationships between variables were examined using logistic regression analysis. The results show that increasing conformity to the striving for distinction norm contributes to an increase in the probability of being victim of sexual violence from teammates. Conformity to this norm is also associated with sexual violence by the coach, depending on the type of sport. Finally, increasing conformity to the norm of self-sacrifice increases the likelihood of experiencing sexual violence from the coach in individual sport. These results may lead to the establishment of collective actions to influence conformity to the sport ethic norms and may pave the way for other studies to examine the factors influencing sexual violence, since the phenomenon is multifactorial and little of the variance is explain by sport ethic.
... Coach-athlete relationship factors have been found to be connected to sexual harassment and abuse amongst young adult sport participants (Johansson & Lundqvist, 2017). However, sexual abuse within a coach-athlete relationship may also suggests intimate partner violence or domestic violence, a situation rarely acknowledged in this space despite recognized similarity in perpetrator behaviors (Cense & Brackenridge, 2001). ...
... This reflection by the participants aligns with Cense and Brackenridge's (2001) argument that the democratization of sport will support the prevention of sexual abuse within sport. By democratization they were referring predominantly to empowerment of athletes and reducing the "omnipotence" (p.72) of the coach, however this can also relate to the hierarchical power Accepted author manuscript version reprinted, by permission, from Journal of Sport Management, 2021, https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.2020 ...
... 133-134) has argued in her discussion of the list of perpetrators published by USA Gymnastics in the wake of the Larry Nassar trial, "A focus on individuals can distract from questions about whether USA Gymnastics is eliminating problematic processes and systems: It may focus exclusively on rather than beyond the rapist…and [a] lack of intervention is part of how violence is organized." As part of this move to think beyond the individual, democratizing sports organizations through increased diversity to reduce hierarchical and patriarchal power relations is needed for violence prevention (Cense & Brackenridge, 2001). ...
Article
Full-text available
In this article we discuss the process and outcomes arising from a unique collaboration involving researchers and professionals to explore key gaps and challenges in sport organizations' responses to violence against women. Using the World Café method in a one-day research forum in Victoria, Australia, we brought together State sport organizations, violence against women organizations and multidisciplinary researchers to reflect upon the multiple contexts that shape violence against women in community sport. Drawing together insights from feminist research and a socio-ecological perspective, this article contributes to sport management scholarship by using an innovative methodology for collaborative knowledge sharing and creation to explore the challenges and opportunities for organizational action to address violence against women. We advance a gendered lens for understanding how power relations shape sport management practice contexts as well as future research into organizational thinking, research, and responses to violence against women.
... In Stirling and Kerr (2009), the all-encompassing nature of elite sport is especially apparent in the power of the coach and specifically in the closeness of the coach and athlete and the coach's detailed knowledge of and involvement in many aspects of the athlete's life. As part of infiltrating numerous areas of the athlete's life, a coach often takes the place of or acts as a parental figure for the athlete (Brackenridge & Fasting, 2005;Cense & Brackenridge, 2001;Gervis & Dunn, 2004;Owton & Sparkes, 2017;Parent & Demers, 2011;Smits et al., 2017;Stirling & Kerr, 2009, 2014Tofler et al., 1996). The athlete's coach will even sometimes adopt them (Tofler et al., 1996), which is an extreme case of a coach acting as a parental figure. ...
... As the coach and sport take over the athlete's life, the athlete often becomes isolated from peers and family, making it easier for the coach to exploit them (Brackenridge & Kirby, 1997;Cense & Brackenridge, 2001;Gervis & Dunn, 2004;Smits et al., 2017;Tofler et al., 1996). ...
... Sexual abuse in sport includes having a sexual relationship with an athlete; improper sexual contact, including genital penetration; indecent exposure; providing rewards for sexual favours; sexually explicit comments, jokes or gestures; sexual propositions; and showing an athlete pornographic images, videos, or other material (Stirling, 2009;Stirling, Bridges, Cruz, & Mountjoy, 2011). Male coaches are often the perpetrators of sexual offences against athletes (e.g., Cameron et al., 2017;Cense & Brackenridge, 2001;Fasting, Brackenridge, & Walseth, 2007). In terms of the prevalence of sexual abuse of elite child athletes, Kirby and Greaves (1997) found that 1.9% of elite athletes from Canada were forced to have sexual intercourse in the sports context before turning 16 years old. ...
Article
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Emotional abuse and sexual abuse are often co-occurring forms of child maltreatment that can have numerous negative effects on development. This narrative review synthesises research on emotional and sexual abuse of elite child athletes by their coaches to examine the dynamics and consequences of abuse in the elite sport context and to investigate characteristics of this context – in which the coach-athlete relationship is central – that make these athletes especially vulnerable to abuse. This paper contributes to the literature through using a developmental perspective to identify these characteristics, which are the intensity and one-dimensionality of child athletes’ experiences at the elite level. These characteristics are dangerous because they lead to the normalisation of the abuse and isolation of the still-developing athlete. Critical issues related to both emotional and sexual abuse of elite child athletes are also discussed, including internalisation and rationalisation of the abuse, disruption of identity, and dynamics surrounding disclosure.
... I mean, I tensed up and kept quiet." (Buket, Fencing) Other studies report similar findings (Cense & Brackenridge, 2001;Kerr et al., 2014, p. 744) in that the trainer can use awareness of this high status against the victim, leaving him/her weak and vulnerable. The undisputable power of the trainer is often manifested in the form of a teacher, parent, or idol, which cements the power difference between trainer and athlete. ...
... Undoubtedly, lack of awareness is another reason why child athletes keep quiet or are silenced when it comes to experiencing abuse. As Cense and Brackenridge (2001) note, children's limited knowledge about sexuality, sexual abuse, and grooming means that they misinterpret the abuse. ...
... A significant finding in this study is that sports locations provide key sites for abuse, with training camps and competition accommodation venues posing serious risks. Cense and Brackenridge (2001) suggest four situations that particularly encourage abuse: when the athlete goes to a tournament, while the trainer gives an athlete a massage, when the athlete visits the trainer's home, and when the athlete is inside the trainer's vehicle. ...
Article
This study analyzed child abuse practices and the factors facilitating abuse in sports organizations in Turkey. It used qualitative research methods through individual interviews in order to understand the case experientially and in-depth from various perspectives. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 39 individuals older than 18 years of age who had either previously done or were currently involved in an individual sport. The interviews retrospectively focused on the abuse practices experienced by the participants during their childhood and the factors facilitating these practices. Furthermore, this piece of research utilized content analysis of the interview data and explored the factors leading to abuse practices in sports under four main themes. Thus it was concluded that the most important factors leading to child abuse in sports include types of relationships built in sports fields; sociological factors outside the sport field; sports-specific locations and problems experienced in child protection in Turkey.
... 54,75 It is unclear whether this is due to intrinsic changes in the athlete-coach relationship or reflects greater exposure to high-risk situations. [80][81][82] In athletes who compete in individual sports, the period of "imminent achievement" is a distinctly vulnerable period. In this developmental phase, athletes are considered pre-elite but have not yet acquired an elite-level status. ...
... 86,87 Unsupervised situations (locker room, travel/away trips, and coach's car or home), times of isolation (individual training sessions), and group events that involve alcohol are particularly high-risk environments that increase the risk for sexual harassment and abuse. 81,82,88,89 Psychological abuse often serves as the "gateway" to other forms of nonaccidental violence, 27 and 75% of youth athletes reported emotional abuse during organized sport. 90 Sexual abuse can be prefaced by "grooming behavior" where a coach shows preferential treatment toward an athlete, and sometimes even the parents, in efforts to gain favor and trust. ...
... 78 Table 3, prevention efforts need to account for the 3 main categories of risk regarding sexual harassment and abuse in sport-athlete, coach, and sport. 82,89 Several wellestablished strategies in the protection of minors can also be applied to help prevent sexual abuse in sport. Four key components of the grooming process in a coach-athlete relationship are the targeting of the victim, building trust and friendship, developing control and loyalty, and building and securing secrecy. ...
Article
The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine convened a panel of experts to provide an evidence-based, best practice document to assist sports medicine physicians and other members of the athletic care network with the detection, treatment, and prevention of mental health (MH) issues in competitive athletes. This statement discusses how members of the sports medicine team, including team physicians, athletic trainers, and MH providers, work together in providing comprehensive psychological care to athletes. It specifically addresses psychological factors in athletes including personality issues and the psychological response to injury and illness. The statement also examines the athletic culture and environmental factors that commonly impact MH, including sexuality and gender issues, hazing, bullying, sexual misconduct, and transition from sport. Specific MH disorders in athletes, such as eating disorders/disordered eating, depression and suicide, anxiety and stress, overtraining, sleep disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, are reviewed with a focus on detection, management, the effect on performance, and prevention. This document uses the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy to grade level of evidence.
... Hall and Hirschman (1992) suggested a quadripartite model of child sexual abuse, which included four motivational factors that work in isolation or tandem: (a) physiological sexual arousal, (b) cognitive motivation; (c) affective dysfunction; and (d), personality problems. Cense and Brackenridge (2001), developed a Temporal Model of Sexual Abuse with Children and Young Persons in Sport based on previous literature (Parent, 2011). This model suggests that a perpetrator must first have the motivation to abuse. ...
... For example, Snapchat markets its platform to users with the promise that their messages disappear within 10 s after a recipient opens it. Thus, Snapchat's premise of disappearing content aligns with sexual grooming practices that are focused on secrecy (Canter, Hughes, & Kirby, 1998;Cense & Brackenridge, 2001). Nevertheless, there are several ways that Snapchat content to be saved, such as taking a screenshot of the message, or using an app to store the message (Byrd, 2018), methods which have been employed to document coaches' sexual abuse on the platform (Eriksen, 2018;Hayes-Freeland, 2017). ...
... In sum, Snapchat becomes a tool for perpetrators because of: (a) the likelihood of victims using the platform; (b) the allure of disappearing content which may prompt abusers to overcome inhibitions about sending sexually explicit content to minors (Cense & Brackenridge, 2001;Finkelhor, 1984); (c) perceptions that sexting on the platform is normalized; and (d) the location feature enhances abusers ability to access victims. To better understand the role of Snapchat in CSA in sport, our examination was guided by the following questions: ...
Article
Child sexual abuse is a pervasive problem that sport organizations must confront to protect the integrity of sport. While previous researchers have examined this topic, few have explored the role that technology plays. The authors address this gap by examining how coach perpetrators utilize Snapchat to facilitate sexual abuse, using Cense and Brackenridge's (2001) Temporal Model of Sexual Abuse with Children and Young Persons in Sport as a framework. Analysis of 99 media reports from 2013 to 2018 found that Snapchat provides motivation for coach perpetrators to sexually abuse that allowed them, in varied ways, to overcome internal inhibitions, external barriers, and break down victim resistance. The results indicate that youth sport organizations must develop clear policies that govern coach-athlete communication and relationships in the digital age. To further protect young athletes, youth sport organizations must develop programming to educate parents and athletes on these boundaries, to increase understanding about how sexual abuse and sexual maltreatment occur in virtual spaces. © 2019 Sport Management Association of Australia and New Zealand
... This paper also revealed more male athletes experienced sexual harassment compared to female athletes and the perpetrators were also males. Unlike in Malaysia, studies related to sexual harassment in sports have been conducted and published extensively in various countries especially in Europe such as Cense & Brackenridge (2001) [15] ...
... This paper also revealed more male athletes experienced sexual harassment compared to female athletes and the perpetrators were also males. Unlike in Malaysia, studies related to sexual harassment in sports have been conducted and published extensively in various countries especially in Europe such as Cense & Brackenridge (2001) [15] ...
... All members in the group were unanimously concern about who is/are responsible to enforce the policy and the SOPs. This finding is similar to issues related to the lack of knowledge and the absence of grievances procedure in sexual harassment reporting discussed byCense & Brackenridge (2001) [15] and Fasting et al. (2003) [26]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article attempts to discuss the challenges related to the occurrence of sexual harassment in sports. There were many glaring cases of sexual harassment in sports reported in the media. Unfortunately, most of these cases end up without any redress for the victim or punishment against the perpetrator. Hence, the objective of this article is to analyse the challenges faced by sports practitioners and officers in preventing as well as handling a few recent cases of sexual harassment and abuse. A qualitative method has been applied and the primary data is collected through focus group sessions comprised of thirty-five (35) experts from sports institutions, enforcement officers, civil society representatives, athletes and related government agencies. The result depicts there are fifteen challenges involved in handling cases related to sexual harassment and abuse in sports particularly lack code of practice and unclear procedures on the person in charge. Since there is no specific rules related to sexual harassment, previous cases were investigated under penal code and made it impossible for the victims to receive protection and redress.
... Studies on the perpetration of SA in sport were mostly based on anecdotal accounts of female victims. Thus, little is known about patterns involved in the victimization of males (Cense, 1997;Cense and Brackenridge, 2001;Hartill, 2005;Parent and Bannon, 2012) and the possible discrepancies of MO strategies used with female or male victims in sport remain understudied. ...
... Most of them established an emotional proximity with athletes by befriending and spending a lot of time with them (e.g., calling the athlete at all hours of the day, discussing personal matters, taking the athlete out to dinner) to gain their trust. This is congruent with testimonies of victimized athletes that included athletes identifying their coach as their best friend or someone who knew everything about them (Cense and Brackenridge, 2001;Owton and Sparkes, 2017). Given that it is considered normal for coaches and athletes to be in close proximity, whether during informal (e.g., team parties) or formal outings (e.g., competitions), it appeared relatively easy for coaches to gain trust by befriending the athlete without raising any suspicions (Brackenridge et al., 2008). ...
... Once this "trusting" foundation has been laid, it was relatively easy for coaches to take the athlete to an isolated location aside from the training site or coaches' home (e.g., wooden area, isolated parking spot, hotel room). Previous studies in sport have focused on contextual risk factors (e.g., location, context surrounding the abuse) rather than on strategies used to isolate the athlete before the abuse (Kirby and Greaves, 1997;Cense and Brackenridge, 2001;Toftegaard Nielsen, 2004;Brackenridge et al., 2008). Competitions away and social occasions not related to sport were identified in earlier research as contextual risk factors for SA (Kirby and Greaves, 1997;Brackenridge et al., 2008) and coaches in our sample were likely to take advantage of these opportunities to bring the athlete to an isolated area. ...
Article
Full-text available
While sport is known to have a beneficial impact on the mental and physical health of millions of children and adolescents in North America (Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute, 2013; Noble and Vermillion, 2014), unfortunately, young athletes also experience abuse in this context. Studies reported prevalence of sexual abuse (SA) by a coach ranging from 0.3% to 9.7% (Alexander et al., 2011; Leahy et al., 2002; Parent et al., 2016; Toftegaard, 2001). Although other stakeholders have been identified as perpetrators of SA, more intrusive behaviors of sexual violence (e.g., sexual abuse with contact) as well as higher rates of long-term post-traumatic and dissociative symptoms are reported by athletes when the coach is the offender, compared to other perpetrators (e.g., peer athletes) (Leahy et al., 2004; Vertommen et al., 2017). It has been suggested that perpetrators in positions of authority are more likely to use emotionally manipulative strategies in their modus operandi (MO), which may lead to more severe and long-lasting SA and therefore, result in more negative psychological impact (Leahy et al., 2004; Vertommen et al., 2017). However, to this day, coaches’ MO remains vastly understudied. The few existing studies on the topic have focused exclusively on strategies involved in one specific stage of MO, namely gaining victim cooperation in SA (Brackenridge et al., 2008; Toftegaard, 2004). To our knowledge, no studies have yet documented all MO strategies and stages of SA perpetrated by coaches against one or more athletes under their authority.
... emotional abuse; Stirling et al. 2011). Present understandings of athlete maltreatment arbitrarily end when athletes exit their sport contexts (Cense and Brackenridge 2001). Survivors of sport abuse have increased likelihood of future victimization (Hamilton and Browne 1998). ...
... A cultural relativist paradigm highlights an important set of actions embedded within the culture under study (Tilley 2000). There are interconnected yet idiosyncratic subcultures situated within the broader Australian culture (Brown 2008), such as sport and organizational subcultures (Henriksen and Stambulova 2017). Athletes' holistic developmental context is a culmination of interactions across their macroenvironments (i.e. ...
... Engaging in this project without considering our cultural and personal values can contribute to ethnocentrism -viewing our cultural values as superior to an opposing culture (Brown 2008). Researchers can transcend ethnocentrism by becoming aware of their subjectivity though cultural and personal self-awareness (Brown 2008;Ryba et al. 2013). ...
... Eerder dan een opsomming van feitelijke gebeurtenissen (zoals de specifieke delicten en hun frequentie), besteden de deelnemers uitvoerig aandacht aan het beschrijven van de manier waarop de pleger het misbruik voorbereidde. De pleger spon als het ware een web om het kind waardoor ontsnapping haast onmogelijk werd en inmenging van buitenaf verhinderd werd (Cense & Brackenridge, 2001). Wellicht verklaart dit ook waarom het misbruik zoveel jaren heeft kunnen voortduren en de impact vele jaren later nog voelbaar is. ...
... Hoewel deze getuigenissen verzameld zijn in een kleine, selecte steekproef, vertonen de beschreven demografische kenmerken overeenkomsten met de bestaande literatuur. De plegers zijn mannelijk, ouder dan het slachtoffer en hebben een autoriteitspositie(Cense & Brackenridge, 2001;Seto, 2018). De interesse voor het werken met kinderen wordt niet alleen duidelijk door hun trainersfunctie, maar ook op professioneel vlak hebben verschillende plegers rechtstreeks contact met kinderen. ...
Article
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“You can reach the top, but only if you trust me”. Victim perspectives on perpetrator characteristics of child sexual abuse in sport Driven by the public disclosure of high-profile child sexual abuse cases, political and scientific attention for violence against children in sport has recently increased. Up until today, the evidence base is grounded in quantitative self-report studies with athletes, and mainly focusses on the prevalence and risk factors of sexual abuse. Narrative research on the topic is scarce and little is known about perpetrator characteristics and interpersonal dynamics. In this study, we analyzed the lived experiences of nine victim-survivors of chronic child sexual abuse in Flemish sport. Using their narratives, we looked for perpetrator characteristics and behaviours leading on to and during the abuse. The offenders were all male, older than the victim and in a position of authority. Interviewees mentioned several opportunities, created in the sport environment, for the abuse to be prepared, initiated and continued over a long period of time, including installing trust, secrecy, dependency and threat. Analyzing survivors’ voices not only brings new insights, but also allows for acknowledgement, advanced meaning making and stronger prevention in the world of sport. Keywords: sexual violence, sexual offenders, victim narratives Kernwoorden: seksueel geweld, seksuele plegers, slachtoffergetuigenissen
... Given the unique aspects of the sport environment, female athletes are vulnerable to verbal, emotional, and sexual abuse. Due to the power imbalance and authoritarian nature of sport, scholars argue athletics is a prime climate for the abuse of athletes (Cense & Brackenridge, 2001;Kerr & Stirling, 2012;Stirling & Kerr, 2013). A meta-analysis conducted on literature that examined non-accidental violence in sport found that "non-accidental violence is a pervasive and protracted issue affecting athletes of all types and ages, though children, elite athletes and those from stigmatized groups (e.g., women, LGBTQ, gender non-conforming, and athletes with disabilities) are more vulnerable to non-accidental violence." ...
... Coaches often hold all of the power due to their ability to make choices about playing time, scholarships, team selection, and their ability to regulate access to training, facilities, and support staff (Brake, 2012;Bringer, Brackenridge, & Johnston, 2002). Because of the power imbalance and authoritarian nature of sport, scholars argue athletics is a prime climate for the abuse of athletes (Cense & Brackenridge, 2001;Kerr & Stirling, 2012;Stirling & Kerr, 2013). ...
Technical Report
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Girls and Women shines a light on the current landscape for girls and women in sport reflected in the latest data from nearly 500 research reports and results from a new national survey of more than 2,300 women working in women's sport. Taking stock of where we are in achieving gender equity in sport requires study, transparency and candor. This groundbreaking report brings together the latest facts and milestones and elevates the voices of women offering fresh insight and perspective. Importantly the report includes calls to action to help propel momentum for change. Stakeholders in all areas of sport, from grassroots to high school, college and elite athletics, collegiate administrators, coaches, policymakers, leaders in the corporate and media sectors all have a critical role to play. The WSF is committed to keeping these conversations at the forefront and working collaboratively with others to accelerate the pace of change. Continued progress depends on comprehensive, up-to-date information in real time. Only when we operate from a shared understanding of the landscape can we ensure thoughtful conversation and sound decision-making necessary for progress. From playing fields to board rooms, girls and women continue to live out their passion for sport. As these accomplishments are celebrated, let's continue to examine the gaps and opportunities to ensure that all girls and all women can get in the game. Only then will we be able to realize the full potential unleashed by sport. All girls. All women. All sports.
... For example, Tamminen et al. (2013), who investigated the situation among elite female athletes, found that bullying victimization from teammates was observed in sport. Other studies disclose not only peer bullying, but also draw attention to the coach as a bully (Cense and Brackenridge, 2001;Peltola and Kivijärvi, 2017), while relational aggression is the most frequently reported form of bullying (Kerr et al., 2016). Hence, bullying can acquire not only horizontal (athlete-athlete) but also vertical (coach-athlete) character. ...
... That is, certain negative actions are often perceived as a certain phenomenon that is "normal" and tolerable in sport. Therefore, the problem also arises due to violence used by the coaches (Wilson, 2017) or his/her bullying behavior (Cense and Brackenridge, 2001;Peltola and Kivijärvi, 2017), identified in research. In this context, it makes sense to continue research to evaluate how adequately sports organizations are prepared to respond to bullying in sport (Slobounov, 2008;Vardanyan and Ruskina, 2013;Mountjoy et al., 2016). ...
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Bullying is acknowledged by scientists as a considerable and still unresolved problem in sport. By triggering stress-related emotions, they determine the behavior of those experiencing bullying and cause various negative effects on their physical and mental health. However, in the presence of the tenacious trend in sports "to put one's own house in order," athletes, coaches, teams, and sports organizations themselves often do not emphasize bullying or state that they do not encounter the problem at all, and adheres to the belief that athletes may use negative emotions instrumentally in order to perform tasks given to them more effectively. The aim of this research was to reveal the determinants of the internal environment of sports organizations, causing trends of bullying in organized sport. To achieve the research aim, a qualitative research paradigm was chosen. The empirical study involved eight coaches working in organized sport in Lithuania. The survey was conducted using the semi-structured interview method. Data were analyzed employing inductive content analysis. The presented research results encompass the transcriptions of interviews, which are conceptually divided into three main categories revealing coaches' opinion on trends of bullying in organized sport, related to the sports organization's internal environment. Categories identified during the study can be equated to interrelated levels of model of Organizational behavior. The micro level-interrelationships; the mezzo level-sports professionals' (coaches') behavior; and the macro level-management of interrelationships. These results revealed which determinants of the sports organization's internal environment can be favorable for emergence of bullying and its dynamics in both interrelationships among athletes and interrelationships between athletes and coaches. And these trends of bullying, revealed on the basis of the responses of coaches involved in the study, allow us to see harmful principles of coaching, bullying-promoting traditions of team/group leadership, existing in sport, and to predict how this may effect both the athlete himself, his environment and attractiveness of the sporting activity itself.
... The circulation of this discourse in youth sport has not however, eradicated abusive coach-athlete relationships Athletes who are in an abusive coach-athlete relationship often learn to adapt to and/or accept the occurrence of abusive coaching behaviours through a process called grooming. Grooming is the term applied to the gradual preparation of a child by the abuser through the normalization of harassment and, sometimes, sexual abuse (Cense & Brackenridge, 2001;Montserrat, 2011). Scholars have shown how the process of grooming enables coaches to sexually abuse athletes, often for many years, without resistance from athletes (Cense & Brackenridge, 2001;Moget, Weber & Van Veldhoven, 2012). ...
... Grooming is the term applied to the gradual preparation of a child by the abuser through the normalization of harassment and, sometimes, sexual abuse (Cense & Brackenridge, 2001;Montserrat, 2011). Scholars have shown how the process of grooming enables coaches to sexually abuse athletes, often for many years, without resistance from athletes (Cense & Brackenridge, 2001;Moget, Weber & Van Veldhoven, 2012). Leberg (1997:26) suggests that there are three types of grooming involved in this process: 1) physical grooming that may lead to and include inappropriate touching of the athletes' bodies; 2) psychological grooming of the athlete and family, that may occur for example when a coach constantly tells an athlete and her parents that she needs to spend more time with him for practice, and 3) grooming of the social environment or the community, for example a coach building such a good reputation for competitive success that s/he becomes an unquestioned authority in the sport domain. ...
... Vertommen et al. 2017), risk studies (cf. Cense and Brackenridge 2001), different forms of sexual violence (cf. Sanderson and Weathers 2019), literature reviews on sexual violence in sport (cf. ...
... Mountjoy et al. 2015;Bjørnseth and Szabo 2018), and finally consequences of sexual violence in victims . In sum, research has so far mainly focused on sexual and gender-based violence in sport (Cense and Brackenridge 2001;Hartill 2009). As a result, and as is the case in most European countries, Dutch policies with regard to sexuality and gender in sport contexts are mainly aimed at preventing sexual and gender-based violence and formulating adequate responses in case of incidents (Scholte et al. 2016;De Vries, Ross-van Dorp, and Myjer 2017). ...
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Introduction: Positive ethics is a trending topic in sports. However, a gap exists when sexuality and gender issues are concerned. This study aimed to explore the concept of sexual integrity as an opportunity for the development of a positive ethics approach of sexuality and gender in sport contexts. Materials and methods: To obtain consensus on definition, operationalization, and competences, a Delphi study was conducted among 77 stakeholders divided into panels of youth coaches, physical education (PE) teachers, athletes, and PE students. Results: Consensus was reached on a definition and operationalization of sexual integrity in sport contexts, defining it as the conscious, respectful, and responsible handling of one’s own and other people’s body, opinions, relationships, and behaviour with regard to sexuality and gender, with the aim of contributing to the pleasure, development, resilience, and safety of (young) people in sports. Core competences for sexual integrity were highlighted, not only for coaches and PE teachers, but also for youngsters to develop. Discussion: This study presents a definition, an operationalization, and a number of competences for sexual integrity. With these, an essential connection with a positive ethical climate is proposed for the benefit of coaches, PE teachers, and youngsters as actors. The operationalization and concrete list of competences will aid the development of future prevention policies regarding sexual and gender-based violence, with an important opportunity for programme designers and policy makers to optimize training programmes. Further research is required to include sport federations’ perspectives and to develop and implement programmes addressing sexual integrity for the benefit of coaches, PE teachers, and youngsters.
... Analyzing risk factors for sexual recidivism might also be useful for the development and monitoring of prevention strategies at the level of sport organizations. Based on interviews with female athletes reporting sexual harassment in sport, Cense and Brackenridge proposed a temporal model of risk factors for sexual abuse in sport (Cense and Brackenridge, 2001), building on Cohen's Routine Activity Theory (Cohen and Felson, 1979). This theory emphasizes that crime occurs when three elements converge: a motivated offender, a suitable target, and the absence of a capable guardian. ...
... These results cannot be used to build personality profiles or be used as a basis for selection and screening in sport staff positions. Other specific possible risk factors connected to the sport context, e.g., harsh training conditions and authoritarian coaching styles (Cense and Brackenridge, 2001), are not included in the risk assessment tools, but may be valuable in further investigation of the problem of CSA in sport. ...
Article
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Current knowledge of people who commit child sex offenses (PCSO) in sport contexts is based on descriptive information from cross-sectional self-report studies of survivors and media coverage of court cases. In-depth scientific analyses of characteristics, interpersonal dynamics, and applied theories of sexual offending in sport are largely absent. This paper starts with a description of available Belgian data on PCSO in sport, coming from self-reports in community samples, reported cases in the media, and interviews with survivors. The main goal of this study is the analysis of treatment file information from 16 convicted PCSO in sport using two actuarial recidivism assessment instruments (STATIC-99R and STABLE-2007). Overall, the majority of the included PCSO's risk assessments indicated relatively low risk of sexual recidivism. Notable was the preponderance of high risk scores on items related to exclusively unrelated victims, male victims, sexual deviance, and the absence of an intimate relationship. Other static and dynamic factors related to the risk of sexual recidivism, e.g., (prior) non-sexual violent offenses, unknown victims, hostility toward women, lack of concern for others, and poor cooperation with supervisors were rated relatively low in this sample of PCSO in sport. The findings point toward the complex and nuanced patterns that underlie child sexual abuse in sport. The current findings bring us one step closer to filling in the puzzle of child sexual abuse in sport and will help inform evidence- and experience-based prevention and intervention efforts.
... This explanation is supported by the review of reviews by Maniglio (2009). Therefore, the former victim might make an easy target for potential offenders in sport, as these are always in search of vulnerable persons (Cense & Brackenridge, 2001). This also fits with the fact that athletes with severe sexual violence experiences are more likely to report overlaps in sexual violence experiences between the two contexts. ...
... As can be seen from our data-and in line with the data provided by Fasting et al. (2004)-elite athletes seem to be a vulnerable group when it comes to sexual violence experiences. Further studies need to explore if the explanation lies in the culture of organized sport (Brackenridge, 2001) or more in the personal history of the respective athletes (Cense & Brackenridge, 2001). Nevertheless, an important consequence from our results is therefore to make even stronger efforts to protect young athletes from becoming a victim of sexual violence. ...
Article
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Background Research on the prevalence of sexual violence in sport mostly focuses on incidents of sexual violence that happen in the context of sport, but few studies are available that systematically target the lifetime prevalence of sexual violence in the athletes (as persons), combining experiences in sport and outside the sport system. The aim of the current study was thus to compare sexual violence experiences of elite athletes in Germany in sport with those outside sport. Methods The study was carried out in cooperation with the German Olympic and Paralympic Committee who contacted their registered elite athletes. In total, 1529 elite athletes took part in an online survey and answered questions regarding their sexual violence experiences first in the context of sport and afterwards outside the sport context. Results Results show that 54.2% of the athletes had experienced some form of sexual violence during their lifetime, 20.6% even a severe incident of sexual violence. Incidents happened more often outside sport than in sport, but 48% of the victims were affected in both areas of life, indicating a high overlap of victimization experiences. Conclusion One recommendation from our results is therefore to make even stronger efforts to protect young athletes from becoming a victim of sexual violence. In case a sport club has a person of trust in the club, it can be an important place for athletes with sexual violence experiences (no matter whether experienced inside or outside sport), so that they are being heard and helped.
... What is also important to note is that, our short story aside, although there are investigations into alleged gender-based violence by those who may be described as well-known or in positions of power, little is known about other cases in sport that get pursued which fall outside the radar of the media because they are not well-known. There appears to be a number of reasons for this, comprising of people feeling unable to share their stories through being suppressed or silenced and resistance to acknowledge that sport itself does in fact possess a dark side (Cense & Brackenridge, 2001). ...
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Creative nonfiction writing is the literary technique employed in this article to explore insights and assist our understanding of an “alleged” sexual assault in a sport coach education environment. Creative nonfiction employs various narrative tools—characters, setting, figurative language, sequences of events, plot, sub-plot, and dialogue—designed to render the sensitive and controversial elements of sexual assault significant. Readers are, therefore, invited to engage with Stacey’s Story and reflect on the actions of both the perpetrator(s) and the victim. While there are risks associated with the sharing of stories, especially those which are considered dangerous, it is envisaged that Stacey’s Story will be viewed as an opportunity to develop more critical responses and advance our understanding of gender-based violence in sport.
... In other words, reporting ongoing abuse can be described as the exception rather than the rule. This also appears to be the case for athletes (Cense & Brackenridge, 2001). As signs of abuse of different forms can be hard to observe by others (e.g. ...
Article
Although sexual abuse occurs within sport, few athletes formally report it while they are still active participants. At the same time, formal reporting channels in sport often constitute a central part of sport organisations’ safeguarding frameworks. Therefore, how reporting procedures are perceived and made sense of by athletes and others in sport is important for understanding their potential as well as their limitations. The article addresses this question through a sociological lens inspired by Steven Lukes and Norbert Elias that foregrounds power and social belonging. Sport leaders, coaches and (women) athletes from organised sport in Zambia were interviewed about their perspectives on the prospect of reporting abuse through formal channels in sport. Issues perceived as reporting barriers included fears related to punishment, not being believed, being gossiped about, and being excluded from sport. Reporting sexual abuse was construed as a task that potentially jeopardised athletes’ social position as well as their sport privileges and remaining silent or telling a trusted friend about abuse was articulated as the safest alternative. The uncertainty associated with the reporting process is discussed in relation to decision-making, agenda-setting, and ideological power and the social meanings ascribed to sport participation. I conclude that the role of power and social belonging should be considered central aspects of the reporting conundrum, and that these dimensions deserve due attention within safeguarding in sport.
... In particular, a number of studies have focused on physical abuse [53], sexual abuse and harassment of women by athletes, coaches, and other expert figures in sport [54], as well as emotional and psychological abuse [55]. The research based in the global North explains how sport participation may expose female athletes to increased instances of sexual violence and harassment [56,57]). However, in contrast, the protection hypothesis suggests that sport is actually useful for females to build their capacity to protect and defend themselves against sexual harassment and abuse by developing self-esteem and physical strength [58]. ...
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This paper draws on postcolonial feminist political ecology theory, feminist theories of violence and new materialist approaches to sport and physical cultural studies—combined with literature on the role of non-humans in international development—to unpack the connections between gender-based violence and the environment in sport, gender and development (SGD) programming in Nicaragua. To do this, postcolonial feminist participatory action research (PFPAR), including visual research methods such as photovoice, was used to better understand, and prioritize, young Nicaraguan women’s experiences of the environment and gender-based violence as they participated in an SGD program used to promote environmentalism and improve their sexual and reproductive health rights. To conclude, the importance of accounting for the broader physical environment in social and political forces was underlined as it shapes the lives of those on the receiving end of SGD interventions.
... More critically, SAH disproportionally impacts women and sexual minorities (Berlan et al., 2010;Coulter et al., 2017;Mennicke et al., 2020;Mitchell et al., 2014;Wood et al., 2018). Mounting evidence suggests that women experience more sexual harassment and assault than men (Cense & Brackenridge, 2001;Krebs et al., 2009;O'Hare & O'Donohue, 1998). However, recent studies also indicated there might be a more nuanced relationship between sex and sexual harassment and assault victimization-while girls reported more instances of getting unwanted sexual attention, boys reported more cases of same-sex sexual harassment victimization in school (Rolfe & Schroeder, 2020;Schnoll et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Sexual assault and harassment (SAH) has become an increasing global concern that disproportionately impacts gender and sexual minority youth, yet research is scarce outside Western nations. In addition, sexual assault and sexual harassment are closely related experiences in both academic inquiries on sexual victimization and public discussion in the global #Metoo movement. Drawing from a large Chinese college student sample (N = 50,818), we investigated the prevalence of SAH victimization during childhood, adolescence, and emerging adulthood, as well as the SAH disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth. The population‐weighted prevalence of SAH victimization was estimated to be 20.23% during childhood, 42.87% during adolescence, and 21.87% during emerging adulthood, with more than half of the youth (55.41%) having ever experienced any SAH. Logistic regression results suggested girls and sexual minorities were disproportionally impacted across childhood, adolescence, and emerging adulthood. The discussion is framed in the context of Chinese culture and current Chinese legislation related to SAH.
... Several studies show that athletes experience emotional and physical violence not only from their peers but also from coaches [14,17]. Even in the context of early childhood education, coaches strive for victories so strongly that they harass players by hitting, yelling out loud, and kicking them, even in front of other players. ...
Article
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The interpretation of the evolutionary theory prevailing in sport, based on the approach that the strongest survive, varies with the rules inherent in the criminal world, forbidding to "take out" negative information about interrelationships, in this case, outside the team or group. Such traditionally established culture puts pressure on athletes to suffer from bullying and follow the "silence law". In the long run, this turns into a precondition for unsafe environment for athletes, which, due to negative consequences for the individual, can be identified as threats to social sustainability at the individual level. Such a situation is also indirectly approved by the heads and coaches of organizations. The latter, who lack competencies to resolve conflict situations, are left to solve arising problems on their own and do not receive any support from the management of organizations. Therefore, the aim of this research is to reveal the factors determining the specificity, emergence, and development of bullying and harassment in sport as threats to social sustainability at the individual level. The research was conducted using a semi-structured interview method with eight coaches representing team, individual, and duel sport branches. Inductive content analysis served as the basis for the data analysis. Research results disclosed factors determining the specificity of emergence of bullying and harassment in sport and hindering the entrenchment of social sustainability in sport at the individual level. The results revealed the euphemisms distinguished by coaches, which, in sport, have a positive connotation, such as "combativeness" and "sports anger" instead of the term "aggression". It was identified that coaches named aggressors as "harder players", "confident players", "active persons", "players-torpedoes", "emotional players", and "competitive players". Sports competition is justified in various forms. The emergence of bullying and harassment is grounded on "mastery differences", it is stated that abusive actions are experienced by "physically weak" players, while physical actions used by athletes are called "mischief"; verbal actions are "raillery". In addition, inadequate preparation of Lithuanian coaches to respond to bullying and harassment in their trained teams or groups on time and appropriately was identified. It turned out that sports organizations are not particularly interested in organizing trainings for prevention of destructive interrelations and intervention. Such kind of in-service training is left to the coach's initiative.
Article
The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine convened a panel of experts to provide an evidence-based, best practices document to assist sports medicine physicians and other members of the athletic care network with the detection, treatment, and prevention of mental health issues in competitive athletes. This statement discusses how members of the sports medicine team, including team physicians, athletic trainers, and mental health providers, work together in providing comprehensive psychological care to athletes. It specifically addresses psychological factors in athletes including personality issues and the psychological response to injury and illness. The statement also examines the athletic culture and environmental factors that commonly impact mental health, including sexuality and gender issues, hazing, bullying, sexual misconduct, and transition from sport. Specific mental health disorders in athletes, such as eating disorders/disordered eating, depression and suicide, anxiety and stress, overtraining, sleep disorders, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, are reviewed with a focus on detection, management, the effect on performance, and prevention. This document uses the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT) to grade level of evidence.
Chapter
Der Beitrag analysiert die sozialen Strukturen und Bedingungen des Sports, die die Ausübung von Machtmissbrauch und sexualisierte Gewalt gegen Kinder und Jugendliche begünstigen können. Dazu werden zunächst aus einer theoretischen Perspektive und auf Basis des Forschungsstandes relevante Strukturen des Sports beschrieben und diese durch Einblicke aus Interviews mit Betroffenen sexualisierter Gewalt vertiefend erläutert. Im Ergebnis werden insbesondere Nähe und Vertrauen, ungleiche Geschlechterverhältnisse und Heteronormativität, Selektionsprozesse und Elitebildung sowie Disziplinierung und Fremdbestimmung als soziale Strukturen des Sports identifiziert, die für die Ausübung von sexualisierter Gewalt im Sport begünstigend sind und es den Betroffenen erschweren, über ihre Gewalterfahrungen im Sport zu sprechen.
Book
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This book contains six articles on young people's negotiation of sexual agency, and forms my PhD dissertation.
Article
Introduction. Pension provision is one of the institutions which ensure the implementation of the principle of independence and impartiality of judges. The reform of the modern judicial institutions should take into account the accumulated historical experience of creating and developing both state and non-state pension mechanisms. The analysis of the genesis of pension legal relations in autocratic Russia allows us to understand the essence and purpose of modern institutions of post-service provision for judges, as well as to obtain a scientific basis for the ongoing transformations of the pension system as a whole. Theoretical Basis. Methods. The purpose of the research is to identify patterns and factors of creation and development of pension institutions for judicial employees in autocratic Russia. To achieve this goal, the following tasks were investigated: an analysis of the causes of the emergence and transformation of state pension institutions for Russian judges in the period from the XVII to the beginning of the XX centuries, the study of the system of emerital pensions of the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Empire, other non-state methods of pension provision, and the determination of functional characteristics of pensions of judicial employees in the specified period. In the course of the research a dialectical method of scientific knowledge was used, from the standpoint of which the reforms of the pension system and related legal norms were considered comprehensively, in development, interrelation and interaction with other phenomena of social and political life. General scientific (analysis, synthesis, deduction, induction, analogy, system- structural, functional, etc.) and specific scientific (formal-legal, comparative law, philological) methods were based on the dialectical method. Results. As a result of the research, the following conclusions were made: the pension system as a form of post-service provision for judges gradually replaced the system of feedings and estates as the rewards for service. Starting with one-time appointments of pensions personally by the monarch, the pension system gradually began to cover all civil servants. At the same time, seniority pensions in the autocracy could be received not only by judges, but also by other employees of the court apparatus. Additional pension guarantees for judicial employees appeared after the creation of the emerital Fund of the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Empire, as well as The Committee for the Charity of Honoured Civil Servants. Pensions in autocratic Russia had a broad function, including stimulating long-term honest service and preventing corrupt behavior. Discussion and Conclusion. State pension provision in Russia has always been an important element in the system of other legal incentives attracting the most talented lawyers to work in the courts. Of all forms of material security for judges, pension provision is the most conducive to conscientious public service of a judge as it is a kind of reward, a goal which can only be achieved through a long period of faithful service.
Article
Introduction. The article analyses the problem of the restriction of human rights and freedoms in the modern conditions of the environmental and health crisis created by the COVID-19 pandemic. Theoretical Basis. Methods. The study uses a formal and dogmatic approach to the analysis of the normative legal framework of the European system of human rights and freedoms. A comparative legal analysis made it possible to identify both the general and the specific as regards the restriction of rights and freedoms in the states of the European Union. The article presents an analysis of the decisions of the Court of Justice of the European Union, and the High Courts of both France and Germany that were rendered in connection with the environmental crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic Results. The starting point for the author’s analysis of the research topic is the classic conclu- sion that human rights have experienced a golden age since the late 1960s with the end of the communist utopia and the establishment of the model of liberal democracy. In the social sphere, the emancipation of morality freed a person from social and family structures that determined his place and role in the family and society. In the economic sphere, the neo-liberal revolution made it possible to fully realise economic freedoms. The European legal system has accompanied and implemented this golden age. COVID-19 and the environmental crisis have led to unprecedented restrictions on the exercise of rights and freedoms. Discussion and Conclusion. The foregoing has allowed us to draw the following conclusions. Hu- man rights are ideology. Like any ideology, its goal is totalising. As soon as we leave the field of law (a normative approach) in order to use law to promote values (an axiological approach), ad- vocates of human rights and freedoms finally abandon serious legal science. The totality of free- doms has become somewhat conditional. By standardising their methods, their implementation will depend on a set of permanent and universal constraints. A new paradigm of human rights and freedoms has emerged, which is built around “rights-duties”.
Article
Introduction. The article is devoted to the development of methods of solving the current issues and problems of how to challenge legal acts of administrative offence proceedings for antimonopoly control in the courts. The focus is on the problem of the balance of interests between support for, and on the other hand increasing the burden on the judicial system of administrative procedural regulations for challenging such acts. Theoretical Basis. Methods. The theoretical basis of this article is the works of domestic and foreign researchers in the field of jurisprudence. This is primarily the administration and administrative procedures, antimonopoly (competition) law, business law and their related scientific fields. The methodological basis of this research is a combination of philosophical, general scientific and private scientific methods of cognition. Results. This study of administrative and procedural antimonopoly regulation has shown that there is no well-thought-out system of legal means in the legislation that meets the needs of en- suring a balance of interests in terms of approaches to procedural economy and the efficiency of using public and private resources. As a result, administrative and judicial proceedings in- crease for the same events of alleged violations whilst there is an absence of an objective need to engage in many of them. This leads to overloading of the judicial system, an unreasonable expenditure of public resources and costs of participants in the process. It creates unreason- able economic-legal barriers, resulting in the distraction of the forces and resources of the state and the private sector from solving problems of social-economic development and socially useful business activity. Discussion and Conclusion. To overcome this complicated problem, obviously, requires legisla- tive change, confidently using the principles of law, and an analogy of law that will form the ap- proaches for the objective needs of the balance of interests. This paper contains specific propos- als for the development of such approaches.
Article
Introduction. The article is devoted to a comprehensive study of the conceptual foundations of the institution of the special rules for assigning punishment and the mechanism of the interaction of those punishments. Looked at through the prism of the signs of system formation, their essence and boundaries, their legal nature and the purposes of applying these rules are made clearly visible. This study also investigates the problems of the interaction of special rules for their appointment both among themselves as well as with other structural units of the institution of sentencing. Theoretical Basis. Methods. The methods were selected based on an understanding of the goals, objectives and the object of the research. The methodological basis of the work is a set of both general scientific and specific scientific methods of the cognition of social and legal phenomena. These are the analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, system-structural, comparative-legal, historical-legal, and formal-legal methods. Results. The article is devoted to a comprehensive study of the conceptual foundations of the in- stitution of special sentencing rules. Their essence is revealed through the prism of system-form- ing features, their circle, content and legal nature, and the purpose of applying these rules are specified. The problems of interaction of special rules of appointment both among themselves and with other structural units of the institution of sentencing are also investigated. Discussion and Conclusion. On the basis of this study, the distinctive features of the special rules for the assignment of punishment are established, Using this, the author formulates a definition, according to which the special rules for the assignment of punishment are the rules provided for in the criminal and criminal procedure code of the Russian Federation, and which are applied by the court in the process of individualising the punishment to the guilty person. This needs to take take into account the understanding of the characteristics of the committed crime, the identity of the perpetrator and the specifics of the implemented form of criminal proceedings. Finally, a conclusion is made about the relative independence of the above rules, which is confirmed not only by their separate consolidation in the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, but also by the presence of iinherent features which allow them to be distinguished from general principles, principles and other rules for assigning punishment. The ratio of general and special rules is due to the specifics of the application, the interaction of the named rules, and their influence on the choice of the punishment and their functional purpose.
Article
Introduction. This article analyses the historical aspects of the formation of the foundations of fe- deralism as a constitutional principle, as well as its origins and development in the United States of America and Brazil. Theoretical Basis. Methods. The study of law, legislation, and doctrine related to American and Brazilian federalism was undertaken. The study of Brazilian and foreign scientific works was car- ried out on the basis of an interdisciplinary comparative study from the standpoint of legal theory. Results. The result is the comparison of the American and Brazilian models of federalism with the analysis of some definitions of the concept of federation, as well as its specificity in Brazil in the modern period. The authors of this study intended to highlight the development of federalism in Brazil, touching upon the aspects of Brazilian federalism as reflected in the 1988 Constitution. Discussion and Conclusion. The analysis of the Brazilian Constitution shows such features as the plurality of the constituent entities of the state forming a federation. Brazilian federalism is also characterised by the principle of non-interference, which means that the Union cannot in- terfere in the affairs of the member states, and the states, in turn, cannot interfere in the affairs of the municipalities.
Article
Introduction. The necessity of criminalising acts against the safety of maritime navigation in na- tional legislation is based on the requirement to comply with the international obligations. The relevance of the research is that the implementation of such criminalisation is not always carried out in a timely and adequate manner. Тhe author’s versions of the criminal law can be used by the legislator to further improve the Criminal Code. Theoretical Basis. Methods. The methodological basis of the study was a set of both general scientific and private scientific methods of cognition. In particular these included the analysis, synthesis, comparative, formal and the legal. Special attention was paid to the international legal standards, and the regulation of criminal liability for encroachments against security sea shipping. Results. The article analyses the regulations at the national level governing the crime of acts which infringe upon the safety of navigation at sea and in the river space. This is Art. 211 “Hijacking of an aircraft or water transport or railway rolling stock” and Art. 227 “Piracy” as provided for in the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. The article considers the provisions corresponding to these from international treaties, and investigates the problems of compliance in implementing norms of the Russian criminal law with the basic contractual provisions. At the same time, international acts are analysed in their latest and current version, taking into account all the changes and additions made to them. Discussion and Conclusion. As a result of the study, the authors come to the conclusion that it is necessary to make alterations to the national criminal legislation to bring it in line with the current international standards due to the absence of provisions in it regarding liability for crimes committed against sea vessels, as well as on board or against fixed platforms located on the continental shelf. At the same time, the authors propose specific additions to the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. In particular, these are on the inclusion of certain signs of corpus delicti relating to the number of qualifying items, and which also indicate the need to formulate specific criminal law norms providing for liability for crimes against sea vessels, as well as on board or against fixed platforms located on the continental shelf.
Article
Whole-organism performance capacity is thought to play a key role in sexual selection, through its impacts on both intrasexual competition and intersexual mate choice. Based on data from elite sports, several studies have reported a positive association between facial attractiveness and athletic performance in humans, leading to claims that facial correlates of sporting prowess in men reveal heritable or nonheritable mate quality. However, for most of the sports studied (soccer, ice hockey, American football, and cycling), it is not possible to separate individual performance from team performance. Here, using photographs of athletes who compete annually in a multi-event World Cup, we examine the relationship between facial attractiveness and individual career-best performance metrics in the biathlon, a multidisciplinary sport that combines target shooting and cross-country skiing. Unlike all previous studies, which considered only male athletes, we report relationships for both sportsmen and sportswomen. As predicted by evolutionary arguments, we found that male biathletes were judged more attractive if (unknown to the raters) they had achieved a higher peak performance (World Cup points score) in their career, whereas there was no significant relationship for female biathletes. Our findings show that elite male athletes display visible, attractive cues that reliably reflect their athletic performance.
Article
Introduction. The abolishment of a judicial act, which has entered into legal force, especially after a significant period of time, may occur in only exceptional cases. Otherwise, it contradicts the ap- proaches of the European Court of Human Rights and the Constitutional Court of Russia to the general requirement for legal certainty as regards res judicata. Exceptional cases include those relating to ensuring the right to a fair trial. The past judicial enforcement experience in modern Russia has shown that bankruptcy credi- tors, who believe that their rights have been violated by a judicial act, on which a claim filed by another person in a bankruptcy case is based, previously did not have any procedural defense mechanism. That was the case until one was introduced that would allow them to appeal such a judicial act if they believed that the claim, filed on its basis in a bankruptcy case, was based on an invalid transaction or lacks foundation due to the unreliability of evidence. This is so even in situ- ation where these judicial acts may have been adopted in cases in which they did not participate. The current judicial practice, however, shows that it is often impossible for them to protect their rights due to the incorrect understanding of the rules for calculating and/or restoring the term of appeal, as established in parts 1 and 2 of article 259 of the Code of Arbitration Procedure of Russian Federation. Theoretical Basis. Methods. The methodological basis of the work was the dialectical method. Such general scientific, private scientific legal and special methods of scientific knowledge inherent in the procedural sciences as the analysis and the synthesis, induction and deduction, dogmatic, comparative legal, and teleological methods, as well as the analysis and the generalisation of judicial practice have been used. Results. The article highlights the three most common erroneous, in the author’s opinion, approaches of courts to calculating and/or restoring the term of appeal. Discussion and Conclusion. Based on the results of the evaluation of the erroneous approaches, four major claims are formulated against them. These are based on the interpretation of the norms of parts 1 and 2 of article 259 of the Code of Arbitration Procedure of Russian Federation which corresponds to the tasks and principles of judicial proceedings in arbitration courts. The claims are based on the explanations of the Supreme Court of Russia related to the issue under consideration, its conclusions on specific cases, as well as the provisions of the decisions of the lower supervisory instances which deserve support. On this basis, the most realistic options for correcting judicial practice are indicated, which are absolutely necessary to ensure the right to a fair trial.
Chapter
Hazing and bullying are major factors impacting the mental health of athletes. While these behaviors arise from initiation rites and may serve as a means of organizational self-governance, they can rapidly evolve into dangerous and maladaptive behaviors with negative health consequences. Hazing exists as a trial for group entry and potentially to enhance team cohesion. Bullying aims to exclude undesired participants from the athletic group. Both behaviors have the potential to include sexualized violence. The modern athletic culture has mixed views on hazing, with some viewing it as unacceptable, while others consider it an important part of mainstream sports. Bullying has more unified opposition. Early recognition of risk factors for abusive behaviors is critical, as these behaviors, once established, may be difficult to curtail.
Article
Introduction. Corruption is a complex multidimensional phenomenon that negatively affects all spheres of life within the state and its society. Despite the fact that corruption has been known since the times of ancient China, the study and scientific analysis of the causes and consequenc- es of corruption began to be dealt with only in recent years. Theoretical Basis. Methods. Modern scientific research methods were used, devoted to the defi- nition of the essence of corruption, methods of its prevention, its detection and the elimination of various forms of corruption. The determination of corruption on the basis of one of the scientif- ic approaches: political, economic, social, legal, etc. The interdisciplinary approach used in the work is based on various methods, including comparative legal, structural and functional, infor- mational and a number of others, which made it possible to draw reliable conclusions based on the results of the study. Results. The presented review of scientific publications allows us to combine the results of re- search in various branches of science for a deeper understanding of the essence of corruption, the degree and nature of the influence of corruption as to the structure and functioning of gov- ernment bodies, the development of civil society institutions, and the provision of economic and social guarantees of citizens. The article summarises certain results obtained in the field of sci- entific research on the problems of corruption. Discussion and Conclusion. Scientifically grounded conclusions and proposals contained in the works of scientists from different countries make it possible to systematically recognise cor- ruption as a global international problem, since they present a “global picture of corruption”, as well as to show in detail its individual elements. This makes it possible to substantiate univer- sal methods of preventing corruption, taking into account national characteristics of individual states.
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Full-text available
Coaches are instrumental in creating safe sport environments, especially in preventing sexual violence, but little is known about helpful bystander behaviors, hampering effective prevention programs. To identify determining characteristics of positive bystander behavior, 1442 Belgian youth-sport coaches completed a dedicated online questionnaire on bystander-related attitudes, descriptive and injunctive norms, autonomy beliefs, and self-efficacy using two hypothetical sport-associated sexual-violence scenarios. Potential for change was analyzed using confidence interval-based estimation of relevance (CIBER). 127 coaches (9.6%) had witnessed sexual violence over the past year. Most had intervened (single incident: 3.7%; multiple incidents: 2.4%). Experiential attitude expectation, instrumental attitude evaluation, perceived referent behavior and approval, and subskill presence were positively associated with coaches’ intentions to intervene. Of the determinants of positive coach-bystander behavior, attitude and perceived norms proved key constituents for programs addressing sexual violence in youth sport. To promote (pro-)active coach-bystander behaviors, the results are discussed from a theoretical and practice-oriented perspective.
Article
Athletes are vulnerable to sexual violence. Perpetrators of sexual violence may be a trusted coach, a member of the health care team, or a peer. The consequences of sexual violence are wide ranging, resulting in immediate and long-term physical and mental health outcomes that require recognition and comprehensive, multidisciplinary care. Sports medicine providers need to have specific knowledge and skill to care for athletes who experience sexual violence. Several sports organizations (e.g., International Olympic Committee, United States Olympic and Paralympic Committee, the National Collegiate Athletic Association, and the National Athletic Trainers' Association) have developed policies and procedures to prevent sexual violence and help sports medicine specialists provide care and services for athletes affected by sexual violence. Nevertheless, there remains a need for clinical guidelines, screening tools, and education, as well as clinical best practices to address sexual violence in sports medicine.
Book
Full-text available
Ongeveer 250.000 kinderen en volwassen doen in Nederland aan gymsport. Naast het sportplezier komen er ook incidenten voor, zoals blijkt uit diverse mediaberichten. Dit onderzoek beschrijft in welke mate grensoverschrijdend gedrag voorkomt in alle gymdisciplines en – niveaus. Ook is nagegaan wat de aard van die misdragingen is en wat ermee is gebeurd als slachtoffers dit hebben gemeld. In dit grootschalige onderzoek zijn online vragenlijsten afgenomen onder oud-gymsporters en huidige gymsporters, zijn tal van interviews gehouden met gymsporters, ouders, bestuurders, trainers, experts en documenten bestudeerd die gaan over de opvolging van meldingen, het beleid en de (tucht)rechtspraak ten aanzien van grensoverschrijdend gedrag. In dit voor Nederland unieke sportspecifieke onderzoek worden aanbevelingen gedaan om de gymsport veiliger en gezonder te maken.
Article
Sexual violence (SV) remains at epidemic proportions in the U.S. and growing evidence demonstrates that youth and adults engaged in sport are at increased risk of victimization and perpetration of SV. Unfortunately, sport SV prevention strategies are rarely built on theory or theoretically grounded evidence, despite demonstrated effectiveness of such approaches. This study aimed to answer to questions: 1) Which theories are relevant to the development of effective SV prevention strategies in sport?; and 2) How has theory been incorporated into existing SV prevention literature on sport safety? A scoping review of the literature plus expert input identified 29 theories pertinent to SV prevention in sport. A systemized review of the literature regarding SV prevention in sport resulted in the identification and characterization of 41 published articles. Authors then examined theory’s role in prevention literature. This study identified 29 theories pertinent to SV prevention in sports and applicable across the behavioral spectrum. Most theories were rooted in the Behavioral (41%), Situational (24%) or Social/Attitudinal (21%) areas. Less common were theories grounded in Feminist (14%) domains. Theories were predominantly focused at the individual (42%), organizational (29%), and interpersonal (18%) ecological levels. Of the 41 sport prevention articles, 33 (83%) referred to a theory either explicitly or implicitly. Though most theories have been incorporated into prevention efforts, closer examination indicates that the majority were descriptive, unlikely to use a sophisticated methodology (10%; e.g., experimental, quasi-experimental), and rarely intended to assess a specific prevention program/strategy or policy (21%). Strong theoretical foundations are available for SV prevention research focused on sports, and their application appears to show value across the developmental spectrum of athletes. There remains a need for greater focus on theory-driven research intended to develop prevention strategies and policies designed to enhance athlete safety.
Article
Introduction. Millions of children are ill-treated every day at home, at school, on the streets, and in sports. While sport is believed to promote health and help children to develop important social skills, its importance is often overestimated. In sports culture, violence is often taken for granted. This is an integral part of the cruel treatment of children in sports. Further, the closed nature of sports can only partially explain why both foreign and domestic experts still pay so little attention to the abuse of young athletes. Theoretical Basis. Methods. This research has been based on general scientific methods (such as analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, and the system analysis method) and methods of legal science (including methods of comparative jurisprudence, methods of literal, systematic and historical interpretation of legal norms). The theoretical basis of the thesis was the scientific papers of Russian and foreign experts in the field of criminal law, criminology, sociology, psychology and sports law. Results. A study of data on child abuse in sports, including scientific papers, data and recommendations provided by international organisations, shows that a common understanding of the term has not yet been developed nor have the specifics of “child abuse in sports” been determined. Analysis of the currently available documents developed by international organisations, shows that most of the recommendations are superficial and vague. Certain types of illtreatment, such as sexual abuse by peer or exploitation of the labour of child athletes are not covered in detail. Discussion and Conclusion. Considering the results of the studies of laws and regulations conducted in several foreign countries by international organisations, the authors have concluded that regardless of whether cruel treatment of children is a sporting tradition, no cruelty towards them can be justified; violence and exploitation of children athletes need to be prevented.
Book
A useful tool for practitioners, researchers, theorists, and advanced students, Handbook of Sexual Assault analyzes the nature and extent of the problem of sexual offending and classifies the types of offenders according to an empirically developed system. In addition, contributors present the theories of the etiology and maintenance of sexual offending; offer various perspectives and factors relevant to accurate assessment; and detail contemporary treatment procedures.
Book
'...the most comprehensive account to date of the discovery and identification of child abuse and its consolidation in Britain as a social problem ...informative and compelling ...an important study not only of child abuse but also of the sociology of a social problem.' The Times Higher Education Supplement
Chapter
‘Monsters don’t get near to children — nice men do’. This quotation conies from a television interview in 1993 with Ray Wyre, Director of the Gracewell Clinic for the rehabilitation of sex offenders. It sums up neatly the myth surrounding sexual harassment and abuse, that such behaviours are the result of stranger danger when, in reality, just the opposite is the case. It also reminds us that myths or expectations can mislead or distract us and that research about what we think we know is just as important as research about what we think we don’t know. This chapter draws on my own experiences of carrying out preliminary research into sexual harassment and abuse by sports coaches: in particular, it explores the methodological and ethical difficulties faced when researching such sensitive and emotive topics. My intention is to challenge some of the traditional approaches to research and to demonstrate that there is a rich vein of material to be tapped by those who are brave enough to ‘enter the field’ in this way (Whyte 1984). Most importantly, the chapter argues that, as feminists, we should be willing to work in difficult areas of research, to ask difficult questions and to voice unpopular messages if we wish to make a positive contribution to the betterment of women’s experiences of sport and physical activity. Throughout this chapter, following the advice of Kirby and McKenna (1989), I refer to those who assisted in interviews as participants and not as subjects or interviewees since I have tried to recognise the shared process of the research.
Article
This investigation of sexual harassment in university sport begins by developing a theoretical framework based on feminist analyses of male violence, and examining the links between violence and the ideology of male sport. The organization of sport and physical education in Canadian universities is then described, and university women’s experiences of male violence in sport-related contexts is investigated, with particular reference to the issues of power relations in coaching and control of women’s bodies. Relevant findings from a preliminary survey of women’s experiences of sexual harassment in sport contexts are presented throughout the discussion, and recommendations are developed.
Article
One of the ways heterosexuality maintains its privileged status is through the discursive figure of "the closet," where everyday speech normalizes heterosexuality while silencing lesbian sexuality. In this paper, feminist and queer theories are used to explain why the closet has featured so prominently in women's physical education. The paper also contains a poststructural analysis of how the closet was constructed in the life histories of 6 lesbian and heterosexual physical educators. Excerpts from the life histories illustrate how silences inside the closet acquired meaning only in relation to everyday talk about heterosexuality. Finally, deconstruction is used to suggest how heterosexuality can sometimes find itself inside the closet, thereby undermining the boundaries between inside/outside, silence/speech, and lesbian/heterosexual.
Article
Young athletes frequently suffer from being seen as athletes first and children second. This has consequences for their legal, civil and human rights as children and for the way in which sport organizations choose to intervene on their behalf to protect them from physical, psychological and sexual abuses. Sport careers peak at different ages depending on the sport: in some, children as young as 12 or 13 may reach the highest levels of competitive performance; in others, full maturity as an athlete may come late into adulthood or even middle age. Recognition of this variation has given rise to the concept of `sport age', referring to sport-specific athlete development. This concept is of significance in helping to identify the developmental process in terms of athletic, rather than chronological, maturity. The risk of sexual abuse in sport, formerly ignored or denied, has now been documented in a number of studies, using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Drawing on data from these studies and from the previous work on sport age and athletic maturation, this paper proposes a possible means of identifying and assessing relative risk of sexual abuse to elite young athletes in selected sports. The concept of a `stage of imminent achievement' (SIA) is proposed as the period of peak vulnerability of young athletes to sexual abuse.
Article
Many women have, at some time, been the subject of sexual harassment or abuse in their working lives. This paper explains how similar experiences also occur in sport and why they have particularly devastating consequences for girls and women. Sexual harassment and abuse arise from the culture of sport and from the opportunities for exploitation of power and authority which this affords coaches. Results from studies of personal accounts of abuse by former women athletes are presented and used to test various explanatory theories of abuse.
Article
The present study investigates the variations in crime scene behaviour that exist among child sex offenders. Hypotheses concerning behavioural consistencies are drawn from the diverse literature on child sexual abuse wherein three conceptually distinct behavioural themes are identified, characterized by aggressive, intimate, or criminal-opportunist modes of offender-victim interaction.Crime scene data from 97 recorded child sex offences are analysed using multivariate statistical procedures to assess the validity of the themes. The results provide empirical support for all three themes, suggesting a multivariate model of offence behaviour in child sexual abuse. These findings effectively demonstrate that paedophilia can exist as both a pathology and a form of criminality.
Article
Sexual harassment is widely prevalent within academic environments. Yet, many implicit harassing behaviors bear resemblance to instructor immediacy behaviors (i.e., behaviors intended to reduce relational distance). Since females are largely the targets of sexual harassment, it was proposed that they would rate immediacy behaviors to be less appropriate and would experience less comfort with these behaviors than their male counterparts. Three-hundred-fifty-four students (approximately 70% of whom were European-American) were asked to rate 19 ambiguous instructor behaviors for appropriateness. Participants were also asked to indicate how personally comfortable they would be with the described behaviors. Results indicated males rated 12 of 19 behaviors to be significantly more appropriate than females and indicated significantly greater comfort with 14 of 19 behaviors.
Article
The problems associated with children's involvement in high-performance sport are considered and equated to the issue of child labour. After considering the extent and severity of problems with child labour in all parts of the world, the paper then turns to the problem of `sport labour'. Although this is by no means as serious as the child labour problem, it has many similar characteristics. The reasons why high performance sport involvement is not, but should be, considered as work are assessed. The paper proposes a resolution to the child labour/sport labour dilemma by addressing a series of questions: Are we ready for child labour laws in sport? Who would support child labour laws in sport?; Who is to be responsible for the welfare of children in high-performance sport? Is there a solution?
Article
The increase in participation of women in sport has not been matched by a similar increase in the involvement of women as administrators and decision-makers. In all British sports organisations studied, women remained underrepresented at administrative, controlling and decision-making levels. Analysis of trends since 1960 revealed little change in the percentage of women occupying positions of power. Women's power has been effectively lessened since the 1960s with the move towards a more professionalised and bureaucratised state-controlled sports environment since there are few women among the new professionals. The trends are further discussed in the context of the changing place of women in British society.
Article
The data summarized in this paper represent 11 years (1977-1988) of information on the status of women in intercollegiate athletics gathered in an on-going national study of all four-year college and university members of the NCAA with intercollegiate athletic programs for women. It is noted that over this period there has been an increase in sports participation by girls and women and a decrease in women in leadership positions. (JD)
Article
[This book is] for all those interested in issues of sport morality. . . . In particular, professors and researchers in the social sciences of sport, together with their graduate students and perhaps advanced undergraduates, may find the book helpful. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
"Sexual Harassment in the Workplace" provides a comprehensive look at what we know about sexual harassment. [This book] is grounded in theory, research, and practice but is accessible to researchers, advanced students, and practitioners in multiple disciplines. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Covering, as it does, the important features involved in the assessment and treatment of sexual aggressors, as well as theories concerning the development and maintenance of such offending, this book summarizes, in the words of experts in each area, current understanding of this pervasive and socially destructive problem. It is our hope that this book will prove to be valuable to researchers who are concerned with expanding our present understanding of sexual aggressors by encouraging present researchers not only to continue their valuable work, but also to recognize the broader context of their contributions. Students who are training in the various disciplines (e.g., psychiatry, psychology, social work, sociology, law, criminology) relevant to the scientific, clincal, and social response to sexual aggression will have available in this book a comprehensive summary of present research findings. Finally, governmental agencies responsible for dealing with sexual offenders and their victims might consider this book as a resource. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In an effort to sort out the reality from the controversies and anxiety, the Family Research Laboratory, with funding from the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect, undertook a two-year nationwide investigation of sexual abuse in day care. The study was intended to answer a broad range of questions about the problem, looking not just at the sensational and controversial cases, but "ordinary" cases as well—cases that were handled in a routine and unremarkable fashion. This book reports that study. The book addresses issues related to the incidence of the problem and whether day care is a high-risk environment for children (Chapter 1). It describes the perpetrators of this abuse, and tries to evaluate various strategies for screening them from access to children (Chapter 2). The book also describes the victims and the dynamics of abuse (Chapters 3 and 4) and the characteristics of facilities (Chapter 7), all with an eye toward finding vulnerabilities that might be better protected. The process of detection and disclosure is examined carefully (Chapter 5) for ideas about how to promote more, better, and earlier reports. The impact on the children is examined for help in working with victims in the aftermath (Chapter 6). The study also looked into the social and professional response to cases of abuse. Chapter 8 describes the types of investigations that occurred, the kinds of problems encountered by investigators, and the relative effectiveness of different approaches. Chapter 9 details the types of actions taken by licensing and law-enforcement agencies, trying to evaluate whether the response was effective and appropriate. Finally, Chapter 10 discusses the kind of impact that cases had on the communities where they occurred, an impact that in some cases was profound and long-lasting. All in all, the report touches on many facets of the problem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study examines the issue of sexual harassment within the context of (changing) power-relationships between men and women in the workplace. From the sixties on trends in the workforce allowed us to witness a growing number of female workers outside the home. The composition of the female workforce has undergone important changes in the areas of age, marital status and educational background. Although the sexual division of work and the inequality between the labour positions of men and women can by no means be said to have disappeared, these quantitative and qualitative changes in the workforce may have had some impact on the relationships between men and women at work. In some workplaces the (increasing) presence of female workers may have affected the dominant social and cultural norms in the day-to-day relationships between the sexes. However, the issue of sexual harassment is not brought up in all kinds of workplaces. Especially in male-dominated workplaces women find much difficulty in challenging unwelcome sexual advances by men. Also, the same behavior of men can be interpretated in different ways by different women, for example some women will think of sexual advances at work as more acceptable than other women do. ... Zie: Summary
Article
Sexual abuse has only recently been recognised as a problem within sport (Brackenridge 1994) and, as yet, little is known about the contexts in which girls might be at greater or lesser risk of experiencing such crimes. This papers explores the assumptions which parents make about their daughters’ health and safety in the sports coaching context in relation to Hellestedt’s (1987) Parentlal Involvement Continuum. Data from a study of 93 sets of parents of elite young sportswomen are presented which show what much mothers and fathers know about their daughters’ coaching setting. The results are used to evaluate the extent to which parents’ assumptions about sport as a healthy place for healthy girls are warranted. Research on sexual abuse prevention in day care settings (Finkelhor & Williams 1988) is explored as a possible template for parents who wish to contribute to the prevention of sexual abuse of girls in sport.
Article
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Brighton, 1994.
Article
Submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Department of Physical Education and Sport Studies. Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Alberta, 1986.
Article
Synopsis There have been recent attempts to re-define those offenders who are sufficiently dangerous to justify a longer sentence for their current offence than is normally provided in law, but there is little information about the frequency with which serious sexual offenders are reconvicted. Follow-up studies of the re-conviction in the subsequent 24 years and 15 years of those found guilty of rape, incest, and unlawful sexual intercourse with girls under 13 in 1951 and 1961 have therefore been made. The present paper deals with those prosecuted for unlawful sexual intercourse with girls under 13. The results suggest that there is a low but more persistent tendency to re-conviction than is found in property offenders.
Male and female responses to ambiguous instructor behavioursSibling and parent-child incest offendersSex offences against young girls: A long-term record study
  • R Garlick
  • T C N Gibbens
  • K L Soothill
  • G K Way
  • T C N Gibbens
  • K L Soothill
  • G K Way
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The abusive coach: A preliminary description and analysis of abusive male coach-female athlete relationships
  • T Crosset
Crosset, T. (1989) ‘The abusive coach: A preliminary description and analysis of abusive male coach-female athlete relationships.’ Unpublished manuscript, Department of Physical Education, Brandeis University
Sexual Harassment in Sport
WomenSport International (1997) Sexual Harassment in Sport. Cheltenham: WomenSport International.
Elite Sports Coaching in Practice: Ethical Reflections -an Interview with Peter Keen
  • A Tomlinson
  • S Fleming
Tomlinson, A. and Fleming, S. (1995) 'Elite Sports Coaching in Practice: Ethical Reflections -an Interview with Peter Keen', in A. Tomlinson and S. Fleming (eds) Ethics, Sport and Leisure: Crises and Critiques, pp. 37-54. Chelsea School Research Centre, Topic Report 5. Brighton: University of Brighton.
Protecting Children from Abuse: A Guide for Everyone Involved in Children's Sport
National Coaching Foundation (1996) Protecting Children from Abuse: A Guide for Everyone Involved in Children's Sport. Leeds: NCF Coachwise.
Harassment in Sport: A Guide to Policies, Procedures and Resources
Canadian Association for the Advancement of Women and Sport (1994) Harassment in Sport: A Guide to Policies, Procedures and Resources. Ottawa: CAAW+S.
Wot No Women Coaches? A Report on Issues Relating to Women's Lives as Sports Coaches in the UK
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  • C H Brackenridge
West, A. and Brackenridge, C.H. (1990) Wot No Women Coaches? A Report on Issues Relating to Women's Lives as Sports Coaches in the UK. Sheffield: PAVIC Publications.
Editorial: Partnerships between Physical Education and Sport
  • P Harrison
Harrison, P. (1995) 'Editorial: Partnerships between Physical Education and Sport', British Journal of Physical Education 17(2): 26-30.
Dat Hoort er nu Eenmaal Bij: Aard en Omvang van Ongewenste Omgangsvormen bij de Nederlandse Politie (It is Part of the Game: The Scope of Sexual Harassment in the Dutch Police Corps)
  • L Eikenaar
Eikenaar, L. (1993) Dat Hoort er nu Eenmaal Bij: Aard en Omvang van Ongewenste Omgangsvormen bij de Nederlandse Politie (It is Part of the Game: The Scope of Sexual Harassment in the Dutch Police Corps). Rotterdam: LPEC.
The Stronger Women Get, the More Men Love Football. Sexism and the American Culture of Sports
  • M Burton-Nelson
Burton-Nelson, M. (1996) The Stronger Women Get, the More Men Love Football. Sexism and the American Culture of Sports. New York: Harcourt Brace.
Foul play: sexual harassment in sport.' Paper presented at the Pre-Olympic Scientific Congress
  • S Kirby
  • L Greaves
Kirby, S. & Greaves, L. (1996) 'Foul play: sexual harassment in sport.' Paper presented at the Pre-Olympic Scientific Congress, Dallas, Texas, USA, July 11-15.
Sexual harassment: female athletes' experiences and coaches' responsibilities', Sport Science Periodical on Research and Technology in Sport Coaching Association of Canada
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Lenskyj, H. (1992a) 'Sexual harassment: female athletes' experiences and coaches' responsibilities', Sport Science Periodical on Research and Technology in Sport Coaching Association of Canada, 12 (6) Special Topics B-1.
Post-Sport: Transgressing Boundaries in Physical Culture
  • B Pronger
Pronger, B. (1998) 'Post-Sport: Transgressing Boundaries in Physical Culture', in G. Rail (ed.) Sport and Postmodern Times, pp. 277-300. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Crossing the Line: Sexual Harassment and Abuse in Canada's National Sport
  • L Robinson
Robinson, L. (1997) Crossing the Line: Sexual Harassment and Abuse in Canada's National Sport. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Inc.
The Evaluation of Leisure Programmes in Secondary Schools
  • J Sherlock
Sherlock, J. (1979) The Evaluation of Leisure Programmes in Secondary Schools. Journal of Psycho-Social Aspects Occasional Papers 5. Edinburgh: Dunfermline College of PE.
Red Card or Carte Blanche: Risk Factors for Sexual Harassment and Sexual Abuse in Sport: Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
  • M Cense
Cense, M. (1997b) Red Card or Carte Blanche: Risk Factors for Sexual Harassment and Sexual Abuse in Sport: Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations. Arnhem: NOC-NSF.
De Illusie van Veiligheid. Voortekenen en Ontwikkeling van Geweld Tegen Vrouwen in Relaties (The Illusion of Safety; Prognostics and Development of Domestic Violence)
  • S Mastenbroek
Mastenbroek, S. (1995) De Illusie van Veiligheid. Voortekenen en Ontwikkeling van Geweld Tegen Vrouwen in Relaties (The Illusion of Safety; Prognostics and Development of Domestic Violence). Utrecht: Jan van Arkel.
Child Abuse Trends in England and Wales 1988-1990: and an Overview from 1973-1990
  • S J Creighton
Creighton, S.J. (1992) Child Abuse Trends in England and Wales 1988-1990: and an Overview from 1973-1990. London: NSPCC.
Public Heroes, Private Felons: Athletes and Crimes Against Women
  • J Benedict
Benedict, J. (1997) Public Heroes, Private Felons: Athletes and Crimes Against Women. Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press.
Education for Leisure -a Critique
  • M Talbot
Talbot, M. (1976) 'Education for Leisure -a Critique', British Journal of Physical Education 7(3): 147-8.