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The Undiscovered Self

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... Early adolescence is a transitional period between childhood and adolescence when the innocence of childhood starts giving way to greater awareness and the realities of life. Jung (1958) refers to the "gradual awakening of consciousness" in childhood (p. 48). ...
... To this end, SP is an engaging activity that promotes creativity and understanding and facilitates problem-solving (Nickum & Purgason, 2017). Inner experience is superior to belief and more likely to occur through creative engagement (Jung, 1958). ...
... Jung viewed the self as the totality of a person including the conscious (ego) and the unconscious, i.e., the whole of the person (Franz, 1964;Jung & Hull, 2014). The individual is preformed by the psyche and nourished by the gradual awakening of consciousness during childhood, and on this complicated base the ego arises (Jung, 2019;Jung, 1958). A fundamental Jungian concept is that consciousness is a precondition to being in the world and the unconscious is powerful and plays a crucial role that cannot be ignored (Jung, 1958). ...
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The focus of this study was an in-depth exploration of early adolescent Sandplay (SP) in a resource-poor environment. The participants aged 9–14 were selected for their age from a children’s home environment. Silent, group SP was offered weekly for six consecutive weeks. SP was tendered in multiple layers of temenos. Of interest was the experience of SP during early adolescence. The qualitative exploration was considered from a Jungian perspective and conducted as a single case study. Research methods included researcher observation, the generation of six sand images of each of the five early adolescent participant’s SP process, interviews with childcare staff and researcher reflections. Initial sand images and childcare staff descriptions of the children highlighted themes of wounding. Initial sand images portray chaotic, overwhelming and threatening scenes, indicative of trauma and vulnerability and the need for containment. Final sand images display balanced, harmonious scenes that support healing. Varying encounters with the Self were depicted in centring actions and subsequent sand scenes included signs of integration and belonging. Indications of transpersonal encounters were characterised by numinous scenes and supported by childcarer descriptions of outstanding interactions with the children. Positive changes included activation and desire to play, increased cooperative and collaborative behaviour as well as a more open and calm demeanour, which reinforces the positive effect of silent group SP. The implications are potentially far-reaching in terms of the relative affordability, accessibility and suitability of this intervention that is not reliant on the verbal skills of the participant or the therapist. Keywords: Early adolescence, resource-poor environment, silent group Sandplay intervention, temenos, Jungian perspective
... The self-awareness concept has its roots in Carl Jung's psychology. Jung (1958) means that what generally is called self-knowledge is very limited, and it depends largely on social aspects. This prejudiced self-knowledge is immune to critique, but humans can obtain a deeper self-knowledge through exploration of their own "souls." ...
... This prejudiced self-knowledge is immune to critique, but humans can obtain a deeper self-knowledge through exploration of their own "souls." According to Jung (1958), human psyches hide unknown potentialities, which can lead individuals to either catastrophe or construction, depending on how the individuals encounter them. If the individuals meet these powers with the right attitude, the attitudes can guide toward good ends. ...
... However, individuals easily avoid changes, and therefore, changing humankind is a slow process, according to Jung. However, by insight into one's own actions, and with access to one's own unconsciousness, an individual can influence the unconsciousness of others (Jung, 1958). ...
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An ever-growing number of scholars are developing and applying competency frameworks in the context of sustainability education. Despite the strong interest, most of the research has ignored the varying meanings of competency, which can be interpreted as a performed ability, but also as personality development. UNESCO (the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization) recently suggested self-awareness to be a central sustainability competency. However, the sustainability competency discourse is lacking a thorough analysis of how and if personality development related dispositions can be considered as competencies, how can they be taught in higher education, and how can the potentially transformative experiences resulting from such teaching be considered. This article aims at a deep understanding of the concept of self-awareness and its interpretations. We have reviewed the roots and analyzed the current interpretations of self-awareness in sustainability competency research and explored how the competency frameworks connect to transformative learning. In addition, we give tangible examples from art based and creative practices of design education, in which we have examined how self-awareness is defined and how it connects to transformative learning. The interpretations of self-awareness addressed two perspectives: awareness of oneself and awareness of one’s relation to others and a wider society. Based on our research, becoming self-aware is a process that nourishes transformative learning. We additionally understand self-awareness as a process of internal growth instead of only a performable ability. This needs to be considered when developing the sustainability competency frameworks and their applications in education.
... The more power men had over nature the more his knowledge and skill went to his head'. (Jung 1957). ...
... Yet we think that psychic mistakes and their consequences can be got rid of with mere words'. (Jung 1957). ...
... What is commonly called self-knowledge is therefore a very limited knowledge, most of it dependent on social factors, of what goes on in the human psyche'. (Jung 1957). ...
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The future of mankind will depend on the ability of the individual to acquire Self-knowledge. The preservation of autonomy of the individual is supported by learning to fathom one's own unconscious and inner being, the undiscovered self. By consciously developing Self-knowledge the possibility originates for the individual to make his own conscious choices and to understand an other human being. It often takes a great deal of effort from an individual to consciously open up to his inner being. Gaining experiences related to intra-personal development and consciously reflecting on those experiences, is essential to keep the conscious intra-personal development process in motion. Education can lend a helping hand during this process, from the start of the school career of children, by making room in the curriculum for affective and experiential education. Theory disturbs the experiential orientation and the focus on emotions. Offer affective and experiential education to children from an early age, with plenty of personal room, and continuing this form of education until they leave school, supports young people to become more and more self-directing. The way in which this form of education is taken care for is crucial for its success.
... To study the symbols in the Bedhaya and their relation to the psychological aspects of Javanese being, we should first overview the theory of symbolism as part of the collective unconsciousness concept proposed by C.G. Jung (1959). Most psychology theorists criticise Jung, who has always been controversial and confusing. ...
... According to Jung (1959), collective unconscious is a psychic framework which explains that the deepest unconscious mind is genetically inherited from our ancestors. The collective unconscious is expressed through universal and pancultural concepts called archetypes. ...
... According to Jung (in Hillman, 1998), myths provide psychological intermediary symbolic meaning that brings collective unconsciousness into consciousness. Myths and arts are essential for self-realisation as they balance the psyche by integrating, remembering and shedding light on those unconscious aspects of ourselves (Jung, 1959). Moreover, through myth-based art creation, like the Bedhaya, we can see the traces of our collective unconsciousness that contains archaic truth about existence. ...
Article
The Bedhaya is the avant-garde of Yogyakarta and Surakarta (Java, Indonesia) court dance. This classical dance replete with Javanese symbols, spirituality and cultural values embedded in its aesthetic elements. Furthermore, the Bedhaya was created not for entertainment but rather as a meditative medium that would allow individuals to gain wisdom and higher consciousness. These noble characteristics of the dance suggest that the Bedhaya has psychological purposes for the performers and the spectators. We may gain insight into the process of attaining mental growth through studying the embodied wisdom and aesthetic ideal of the Bedhaya, which reflects the development of the human’s psyche. Therefore, the author proposes an interpretation of Bedhaya’s underlying symbolism, aesthetic experience, and potential as means of psychological growth. The paper’s primary argument is delivered by studying a set of theoretical ideas that present Bedhaya as a distinguished aesthetic with psychological capacities. Further, art as an embodiment of cultural wisdom and ethics is also discussed by connecting Bedhaya and other artistic forms drawn from varied cultures.
... The experience of being abandoned by God is a common experience of a religious person (Rahner 1984;Grom 2007). It is often associated with the normal process of RS development in a human being (Jung 2010). At times, it can be the greatest test of faith imaginable for a person (Głaz 1998). ...
... The effects of the experience of being abandoned by God are visible in the religious and personality sphere of a human related to his personal and social life (Meister Eckhart 1955;St. John of the Cross 2007; Głaz 2013b) and is integrated into the overall human experience (Jung 2010). It involves the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral dimensions of a person. ...
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The issue of religiosity and spirituality and their measurement are quite well developed fields in the psychology of religion. However, the literature shows a lack of research tools to measure the religious experience of the feeling of abandonment by God among followers of the Catholic religion. The purpose of this article is to fulfill this gap through the presentation of the notion of ‘God abandonment’, and its operationalization, by constructing the Scale of Abandonment by God: SAG (Skala Opuszczenia Przez Boga—SOPB). The psychometric value of the tool was evaluated, that is the reliability and validity. In order to achieve this goal, three stages of instrument development (item generation, scale development, and instrument testing) were undertaken in three studies. Stage 1: The pilot study concerned the development of positive statements about the concept of the Catholic experience of God (i.e., the subjective feeling of the experience of God's abandonment in the life of a contemporary person, as well as showing to what extent this belief can affect some aspects of his/her life). Stage 2: Was designed to perform exploratory factor analysis and test–retest reliability to assess stability of the SAG in a three-week time range. Stage 3: Validation of the SAG by Confirmatory Factor Analysis was performed. Result: The SAG can be recognized as a one-factor measure of the feeling of abandonment by God. Because the content of the SAG items indicate the positive aspects of the abandonment of God, this can assist people living in Catholic societies.
... [28] His qualities of social interest and lifestyle are fundamental to wellness theory, wellness models, and theoretical assessments of wellness across the helping professions. Along with Adler; Jung, Rogers, and Maslow were trailblazers of the wellness movement, initially aiding the helping field in moving away from the more medical model-based treatment modalities [29,20,31]. ...
... Jung suggested individual psyches yearned for integration and that individuals had an instinctual desire for balance and wholeness [29]. Rogers discussed the importance of personal strengths and capacities as human beings and coined the term fully-functioning, encompassing individuals practicing health and self-actualization [30]. ...
Article
Introduction: Wellness and the concept of holism have rich histories throughout the helping professions. However, Westernized medical models often promote the concept of treatment rather than prevention, limiting the helper’s ability to focus on wellness when working with clients/patients. Therefore, in order to support a re-integration to holistic wellness and the prevention of illness, and re-focus on a wellness ideology, we conducted a thorough theoretical overview of wellness in the helping professions to: (a) provide a historical overview of wellness in helping professions, (b) discuss prominent wellness models, (c) review wellness assessments, (d) present wellness supervision models, and (e) offer implications for helping professionals, helping educators, and helping-professionals-in-training (HPITs) who would like to implement or re-integrate wellness techniques across occupational and personal realms. Discussion: The history of healthcare is rich with wellness undertones and holistic foundations for practice. However, the helping professions have been shifting away from traditional wellness ideologies with the emphasis on current healthcare trends and the philosophical struggle of balancing both wellness tenets and a popular medical model for practice. Following a thorough discussion of historical implications of wellness, wellness models, wellness assessments, and wellness supervision, implications for a re-integration of a wellness ideology are highlighted for (a) helping professionals, (b) healthcare educators, and (c) HPITs. In regard to practicing healthcare providers, helping professionals are only as helpful as they are well. We suggest that helping professionals refocus their practice to include wellness and integrate such practices into their daily routine to combat compassion fatigue and/or burnout (which are common occurrences among helpers). Wellness practices may include meditation; breathing exercises; reflection; journaling; and other avenues to reflect, respond, and re-center throughout the day to remain within their own window of tolerance, reducing potential for burnout. Helping professional educators, on the other hand, are tasked with training the next wave of helpers. As such, they are responsible for assessing personal levels of wellness in order to ensure they are modeling wellness-behaviors for their HPITs. Regarding healthcare training programs and curriculums, administrators may introduce wellness courses or infuse wellness throughout the life of the program/training experience so HPITs are learning about wellness education and how to implement it across diverse situations. Furthermore, consistent wellness infusion in curricula could promote wellness behaviors and practices beyond the training experience. Finally, HPITs (similar to practicing professionals and healthcare educators) are not insulated from the effects of unwellness. As such, HPITs are encouraged during their clinical experiences to assess their own wellness and partake in activities to increase their wellness awareness. HPITs can formally (see the section on wellness assessments) or informally assess (refer to the wellness models section) their current levels of functioning and learn of potential wellness discrepancies early on in their careers, which in turn can help mitigate negative effects of being a helper in the future. Conclusion: With the influence of Westernized viewpoints and a medical model symptom-reduction focus, a re-orientation to wellness could benefit helpers. Furthermore, as helpers continue to face heavy caseloads, high stress environments, and increased propensity for burnout and related issues, increasing wellness and wellness awareness can serve as a protective factor against the deleterious effects of helping for both helpers and the individuals they serve. By reviewing the literature on wellness (e.g., models, assessments, supervision) in the helping professions and applying wellness perspectives in personal and professional endeavors, helping can once again be at the forefront of wellness-based treatment, training, and living.
... It has been stated that "Man is the creator of all judgments and decisions that encourage, invent and carry all developments in the world, and the planner of the future" [8]. The occupation of space is the first proof of such an existence; furthermore, it is the basic expression of human beings and animals; plants and clouds; balance; permanence; and the body as an articulation of acceptance [9]. ...
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The reproduction of space along the border in post-conflict divided cities is an important issue in relation to urban resilience. Nicosia, widely known as the last divided capital city in Europe, is the capital city of Turkish Cypriots in the north and Greek Cypriots in the south. The Buffer Zone was formalized in 1974 as an emergency measure against inter-communal clashes. Further, the walled city of Nicosia was bisected, and thus urban and social unity became a relic of the past. In addition, the city center became the edge of the two bisected halves. The Nicosia Master Plan (NMP) was initiated by professionals on both sides. Moreover, it was in the first planning attempt that Nicosia was considered as a whole. The NMP was the first self-reliant quest that was developed for the purpose of finding a solution that could operate without having to wait for a political consensus. The Ledra Palace crossing opened in 2003 as the first opening on the border that ran across the United Nations (UN)-controlled Buffer Zone in Nicosia. Such a crossing possessed a symbolic meaning; the two communities feel as if they are socially united, and it encouraged NGOs and artists to step forward and allow the border to be perceived not as a boundary but as a shared space. The Buffer Fringe Festival is one of the recent cultural organizations that was held along the divide of Nicosia and it is also the festival scrutinized in this paper. This festival was designed to explore the boundary as a phenomenon experienced in daily life; furthermore, discussions were had regarding how the Buffer Fringe actors and artists perceived the festival as a peace-making tool. Together with visual and verbal records, the analysis conducted in this paper is based on qualitative data within a theoretical framework concerning body–space connections. In this paper, the aim is to emphasize how festivals can function beyond the limits of borders, provide an arena for connecting people, and exemplifies how one can interpret the spatial transformation of a space within the context of post-conflict divided cities.
... The preceding statements concur with Beuster's (1991:1) assertion that in contemporary society an individual, specifically the typical Westerner, "has a fragmented worldview, a world of polarities, where the subjective, inner reality is isolated from the external and so-called objective scientific reality". This divided reality could predominantly be attributed to the obdurate Newtonian scientific paradigm and its adherent ideological assumptions of linearity, determinism, separateness, predictability, controllability, dualism, reductionism and logical positivism (Beuster, 1991;Bohm, 1983;Jung, 1958& Peat, 2003. Jung (1958:12) explained that statistical truths and abstract knowledge impart an unrealistic, rational picture of the world in which the individual, as a merely marginal phenomenon, plays no role. ...
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This study is an exploration of how the quantum self, the quintessence of the individual, drawson archetypal symbols and mythologems during the process of intrapsychic communication. Theprocess relates to the confluence of a subjective, inner experiential reality and reality as a socialconstruct during transcendent cycles of the unique individual. The Jungian constructs of archetypalimages, symbols, myths and mythologems are considered as the derivatives of this subjective,inner reality reflected in the text of a narrative and the dreams of an individual.An archetypal and mythical semiotic textual analysis of ‘The Alchemist’ by Paolo Coehlo, and anindividual case analysis of dream symbols and a self-report based on the interpretation of a dreamtheme by using active imagination indicate that an inner, subjective transcendental reality isimminent in the individual. An intrinsic need for and representation of equanimity and unity arereflected in the images, symbols and myths of the self as archetype of meaning nested in thecollective unconscious.
... Many unnerving words and cliches have stagnated our consciousness over centuries, but are we approaching the 6.Watson reasons that the 'Suspicion is … that cave art is in fact to be understood as writing as much as art, a secret and sacred recording of the animals which early man relied upon for food. (This is an idea supported by the fact that many contemporary tribes who create rock paintings have no word for art in their language)' (Mithen 1996 The in-depth psychologists Sigmund Freud (Freud 1920(Freud , 1923McLeod 2019) and Carl Jung (Jung 2013;McLeod 2018): ...
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In this article, focusing on the building blocks of art with its concomitant role and meaning, we commence with a brief evolutionary overview of the origin of land vertebrates, which culminated in the rise of our species as we view it. We then review three iconic phases of human evolution, colloquially designated as the Neanderthals, the San and the Cro-Magnons, as manifested by their artistic endeavours. We are well aware that the Cro-Magnons are currently regarded as not sufficiently distinct from modern Homo sapiens to be separately designated. Therefore, the terms ‘anatomically modern humans’ (AMH) or ‘early modern humans’ (EMH) are suggested for these inhabitants of the Upper Palaeolithic as they shared an anatomical resemblance with us but still lacked the full complement of behavioural attributes that typify ourselves. This particular selection was chosen because these groups have partially overlapped historically, yet each represents a distinctive approach to the artistic impulse. Subsequently, we consider more contemporary developments regarding human art intertwined with our interpretation of art’s role and meaning. Then, we briefly discuss a broader account of the evolution of art in which these three phases are firmly based and through which our understanding of and engagement with the evolutionary development of these stages are elucidated and complemented. In conclusion, particular views about language and the role and meaning of art are confirmed. Particular views about language and the role and meaning of art are endorsed and supplemented by an extensive body of relevant literature. Contribution: This article explores the evolution of art and its accompanying role and meaning in an intersectional and interdisciplinary manner that fits well with the intention of this unique collection on the building blocks of our past, present and future and with the nature of this journal and our ongoing engagement with HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies.
... Being compassionate, patient, and disciplined with children is not just good for the children's SIWE but also is meaningful and spiritually beneficial for the parents. It has been known in modern psychology that having a meaningful purpose behind a difficult experience makes the experience rewarding (Jung, 2006). Suppose parents are aware of how psychologically beneficial their compassion and patience could be for their children. ...
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Purpose: The first part of this paper, titled "‘Creation of the Islamic Self for Sustainability"’ was published in the Journal of Islamic Business and Management Vol. 10, Issue 2. In the first part, the authors attempted to establish the relationship between Self-Image, Worth and Esteem (SIWE) and sustainable consumption habits, within the conceptual framework and praxis of the Islamic tradition. In the second part of the paper, the authors, now attempt, to trace the causes of a weak SIWE and what role Parents, Education and Muslim Entrepreneurs can play in (a) strengthening the SIWE of the next generation of Muslims, (b) Inspire them to become environmentally conscious consumers and producers. Design/Methodology/Approach: The analysis presented in the paper is based on an interpretive synthesis of a focused literature review. Findings: The paper explores the role which parenting and education in Muslim communities can play to develop environmentally conscious entrepreneurs equipped with a strong SIWE as well as how the environmentally-conscious Muslim entrepreneurs can pursue their businesses to transform their communities in an environmentally sustainable manner. Originality/Significance: This is perhaps the first paper which explores the critical relationship between the psychological outcome of Muslim parenting, education in the form of development of SIWE and environmentally conscious entrepreneurship. Research Limitations/Implications: The framework presented in the paper will require further substantiation when practically applied within Muslim families, educational institutions and market place. Practical and Social Implications: The paper can provide insights to parents, policy makers in the education system, and concerned entrepreneurs.
... During the primary research phase for this paper, Student Two reflected the arguments of Foucault (1982), Bourdieu and Passeron (1977) by stating during the interview that "there is a lot of anxiety when it comes to career level, there is social anxiety, anxiety on the education level, on the economic level; lots of anxieties". Similarly, the institutions themselves are subjugated by the same process as the individual, with Jung (2014) proposing that rulers are themselves subject to the same limitations and only differentiated by the fact that they are mouthpieces of state doctrine. ...
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In this paper, I address Jacque Lacan’s theory of the four discourses, namely, master/slave, university, hysteric and analyst. The four discourses are explored via interviews with five postgraduate business students from a leading Irish business school. Three of the students were prepared to abdicate responsibility for career decision-making to me, thereby suggesting the discourses of the master/slave and university. The remaining two students expected to retain greater control over the career decision-making process which implies a shift in position to the discourse of the analyst. I propose that career counselling should primarily reside in the discourse of analyst, with supporting reference to the discourses of hysteric, university and master/slave. Currently, there is no inclusion of Lacan in career theory.
... The Jungian psyche is therefore the most open framework for psychodynamic explorations in the MSR field because it is inherently spiritual as well as psychological. Jung had strong concerns regarding the dogmatic excesses of religion (Jung, 1957(Jung, /1970), but he recognized that human beings are driven by holistic, spiritual and meaningful needs which pervade a great deal of our interactions and behaviours. Despite this natural fit, works grounded in a Jungian perspective and exploring MSR issues are relatively few. ...
... Within a clinical lens, both Jasper's (2011) concept of moral batteries with an emphasis on opposites and Williamson's (2011) chains with an emphasis on acceptance and transformation have affinities to Jungian psychology. In his manifesto The Undiscovered Self, Jung (2006) was clear that psychoanalysis had a distinct role in activism. Even though Jung's writings contain many problematic and possibly racist undertones, Brewster (2017Brewster ( , 2019, a Black Jungian analyst, demonstrates how the core Jungian framework can be critically reexamined and reimagined to serve Black clients. ...
... Every theory of personality in psychology has its own thesis about the person. Analytic theories focus on intrapsychic elements [15,16]. Other construct emphasizes traits and skills. ...
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Human beings are inherently relational. To relate may mean to communicate, interact, transact, engage, involve and even just be with another person. It may imply fulfilling and satisfying the needs of one another. In a more altruistic tone, the relationship is giving and receiving. Others see a relationship as a social exchange. In contrast, others may see it as a social and ethical contract that ought to adhere. Others see a relationship as an instrument as a means to self-actualize or as a process of reaching the self-potential. There are many types of relationships. While others have a formal set of rules, there are interpersonal relationships that have loose code of affair. Among the dimensions of relationship, intimate interpersonal relationships are complicated. In contrast to business affair, marriage and in other intimate partnership, sanctions, roles and rules are not clearly defined. The ambiguity of interpersonal relationships reflects the dynamisms of its elements. Since its fluid, contextual and multi-faceted, there is no exact point of analysis. In this article, awareness, dialog, groundedness, embodiment are discussed in the light of intimate partner conflicts that are amplified using fictional case vignettes that are adopted from real cases of intimate conflict. This article concludes with the assertion that cultivation of relationships starts with the person.
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Critics such as Burton R. Pollin (2004) have referred to the influence that Edgar Allan Poe’s tales have exerted on Stephen King’s fiction. More recently, from a psychoanalytic perspective, Rachel McCoppin (2019) has argued that Poe’s narrators display arrested psychic growth because they refuse to examine the shadow within their self. The mentoring role that Poe and his tales played throughout King’s early short fiction may be symbolically interpreted as the Jungian shadow that King needed to face in order to propel his creative growth as an author. King’s process of apprenticeship in relation to Poe may also be approached by means of Harold Bloom’s notion of the anxiety of influence, which entails the psychological struggle that aspiring writers must bear with the aim to overcome the unease arising from the awe-inspiring shadow of their literary predecessors. This chapter will approach Poe’s legacy as a symbolic shadow along King’s early phase of creativity and will consider instances of Bloom’s different stages concerning the anxiety of influence by means of a comparative analysis between Poe’s tale “The Murders in the Rue Morgue” (1841) and King’s short story “The Monkey” (1980).
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In this paper, we explore how the emotions of eco-anxiety and eco-anger can be perceived as potentially constructive responses to the climate crisis. We examine the context in which these emotions are experienced and expressed in light of the relationship between human beings and Nature. We argue that these eco-emotions are both visceral and numinous, and that this dual characteristic is critical when determining how best to respond to eco-anxiety and eco-anger. We propose that a suitable approach to this challenge is to draw from the imagination and the symbolic domain, and we offer personal reflections on what this process may look like.
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This article explores intrapersonal and transpersonal communication as the principal derivatives of a subjective, inner reality. These levels relate to different states and levels of consciousness and corresponding levels of selfawareness. Since an exploration of the nature of the self and its possible confluence with states and levels of consciousness necessitates a multidisciplinary approach, theories and constructs in Psychology, the New Physics (Quantum Physics), Mysticism, and Philosophy are integrated with contemporary communication notions of the self and consciousness. Integration and inclusiveness consequently form the bedrock of this article.
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It has been a few years since the editors published their first book together on nonviolence. Arguably, violence has gotten worse. Certainly, divisive nationalist hate mongering leaders have risen to power in three of the world's purported democracies: Brazil, India, and the U.S. Human inability to adapt to change and receive and respond to the objective truths of their lives seems to be leading this disturbing trend in the wrong direction. The editors can no longer just contribute a chapter on micro changes. Instead, they are moved to address and confront entrenched systemic root causes of violence in the U.S. and between men and women around the world.
Article
For an ‘evolutionary thinker’, storytelling may be considered a shared derived trait (synapomorphy) of the human lineage. Once we began to tell stories, they became a key trait shaping our subsequent evolution. Furthermore, whether the ‘centre of narrative gravity’ is cosmological (as in creation myths) or focused on an individual character, the form of narrative is itself evolutionary, describing a process of transformation from an initial situation to subsequent states (with or without ‘resolution’). This article articulates the basic logic of an ‘evolutionary stance’ and applies this heuristic to a consideration of narrative, epistemology, religion, and the status of ‘self’. In the process, insights from evolutionary biology (including the concept of ‘major evolutionary transitions’), cognitive science (including predictive processing and relevance realisation as well as computational definitions of ‘self’) and analytical psychology are drawn upon. The article ends with a consideration of practices – from meditation and active imagination to psychedelic-assisted psychotherapies – aimed at suspending the activity of the personal ‘self’ and shifting the ‘centre of narrative gravity’ to reveal transpersonal elements of the psyche. Although we inevitably resume narrativizing our existence, the experience of temporary breaks in our personal narratives may enable us to tell more inclusive stories.
Article
Мета. У статті визначається місце духовної підтримки пацієнтів методами арт-терапії в системі професійної допомоги в клінічних умовах. Важливими завданнями є аналіз останніх досліджень щодо духовної підтримки пацієнтів в клінічній практиці; узагальнення та систематизація основних методологічних підходів та огляд прикладних досліджень із заявленої проблематики; експлікація категоріального апарату; обґрунтування контепоральних моделей духовної підтримки пацієнтів в арт-терапевтичній взаємодії; визначення психотерапевтичних мішеней духовної підтримки пацієнтів в арт-терапевтичному процесі. Методи. Дана стаття має характер теоретико-методологічної розвідки. Основні методи дослідження – аналіз останніх досліджень щодо духовної підтримки пацієнтів в клінічній практиці за допомогою інструментів арт-терапії; синтез, узагальнення та систематизація основних методологічних підходів та прикладних досліджень; експлікація категоріального апарату; теоретико-методологічне моделювання. Результати. Огляд зарубіжних та вітчизняних наукових публікацій дає можливість зробити висновки про те, що духовна підтримка пацієнтів в період одужання в умовах клініки є фундаментальною умовою швидкого одужання пацієнтів незалежно від діагнозу та перебігу захворювань. Арт-терапія як метод духовної підтримки пацієнтів у клінічних умовах має високий потенціал застосування та вимагає подальшого вивчення, апробування та впровадження в умови стаціонару. Висновки. Ми визначили духовну підтримку як терапевтичну допомогу пацієнтам знайти смисли, надію та цілісність у їх житті та стосунках, відчути свій зв’язок з собою, іншими та Всесвітом, а також дати їм відчуття турботи, співчутливої присутності та безумовного прийняття, готовності бути разом у складні часи, вислухати та поважати їх індивідуальні духовні переконання та вірування. Ми виокремили психотерапевтичні мішені, для яких духовно орієнтована арт-терапія є ефективною: самореалізація та саморозвиток, самопізнання, прийняття реальності, пошук сенсу і мети існування та усвідомлення самоцінності. Проведений мета аналіз наукових джерел дозволив визначити основні моделі сучасної арт-терапії заснованої на духовній підтримці: Модель континууму експресивної терапії; Модель відновлення; Модель тіла і розуму в арт-терапії. Важливим завданням сьогодні є віднайдення ефективних інструментів арт-терапевтичної роботи та створення програм духовної підтримки пацієнтів, що, безумовно, є перспективним напрямком подальших досліджень.
Chapter
This chapter briefly discusses the importance of mental science for the ongoing evolution of human societies; it lists the assets and liabilities from the present, primarily reductionistic, political, religious, and scientific models in dealing with the immense domain of the collective variables that affect the phase-space of human creativity; and it hints to the philosophies of mental science, the like of Kauffman and Nagel (as well as the theories of Kafatos, Nadeau, Tegmark, and Damasio), which open mind’s imagination to paths toward what Kauffman would call the “adjacent possible” (“the creativity in the universe is tied to the explosions into the adjacent possible.“). The chapter closes with a striking example of mind’s creativity through an analogical resurgence of the Puzzle dream that opened the book.KeywordsLevel IV multiverseSynchronicityAutocatalytic setsQuantum decoherenceDarwinian preadaptationsAdjacent possibles
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The paper aims to identify, describe, analyse and evaluate the motivational aspects of the decision-making process for university studies based on a questionnaire survey conducted by students of the Faculty of Social Sciences of the University of Ss. Cyril and Methodius in Trnava (Slovak Republic). Using analytical-synthetic and mathematical-statistical methods, the answers obtained from a set of questions focused on the analysis of decisive motives for the choice of study, field and faculty, the fulfilment of ideas about study and perspectives of further professional orientation and application in practice were evaluated. This matter is very topical, as the decision to study at university is undoubtedly one of the fundamental decisions of life. A specific decision is formed by a number of factors that can shape the student’s approach to fulfilling his/her study duties and his/her attitudes in applying his/her knowledge and skills in practice. Keywords: student motivation, decision-making, university studies, questionnaire, university, Slovakia
Thesis
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The Present thesis focuses on the theme of self-actualization in Gibran’s The Prophet, it is studied that, self-reflection leads to an acknowledgment of the other side. The centering & integrating stage of individuation is the goal of this inner work. The prose poems in Gibran’s The Prophet, constitute the data of present research analyzed, primarily by Jungian psychoanalytic concepts. The concepts of self & individuation unveil the implicit meanings relevant to self-actualization. It is qualitative research. Methods used are brief thematic analysis & Jungian psychoanalysis after a close reading of the data, The Prophet. Psychological & psycho-social perspectives are opted for. The roles of free will, optimism, uniqueness vs similarities & the merging of the unconscious and conscious, focusing on the goal of integration within, by assimilating the repressed contents, is assessed. The significance of re-molding the adopted knowledge & unleashing the inherent potential; to achieve better outcomes is analyzed. The findings of the research are that the stress on distinctness & wholeness of the individual in Jungian psychoanalytic theory is parallel to Gibran’s emphasis on realizing our unique & higher self. However, in both selected theory & data, self-actualization is interlinked with a collective consideration, it makes us humane. Individuation results in the actualization of self; by creating a balanced & whole self. This research has the scope to give percipience to future Pakistani Muslim researchers interested in the psychoanalytic study of self-actualization in other mystical texts.
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This employs quantitative and qualitative research approaches and the data collection technique used the learning interest scale. The data analysis technique used qualitative descriptive analysis to get a picture of attitude, response, and responsibility when learning English e-learning based on the Scientific Approach according to each IM. The results of this study indicate that there is a significant effect of using e-learning based on a scientific approach on the English learning outcomes of SDIT AL Fauzi Medan. Furthermore, the results of the observation sheet generally show the attitudes, responses, and responsibilities of students according to the intelligence machine "sufficient." Intelligent thinking machines have better attitudes, responses and responsibilities when participating in learning compared to other intelligence machines.
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Abstract / Darwin’s Influence on Montgomery Critical analysis of Anne of Green Gables and The Blue Castle provides evidence that L.M. Montgomery harnesses her knowledge and understanding of scientific theory, in particular Isaac Newton’s laws of inertial motion, which is the basis for Albert Einstein’s relativity theory. In a letter dated 29 September 1920, she queries her correspondent, “What do you think about Einstein’s astounding discovery of the real nature of light? Or do you think about it at all? It is a rather fatiguing subject for thought. It is said there are only two men in the world who understand it. It is a curious thing that this revolutionary discovery should come just when everything else that made up our old world is being upset or torn to pieces. In the long run the result will probably be a wonderful era of development in every realm of thought and activity.”1 Einstein was awarded the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of the photoelectric effect, thus crossing the threshold from Newton’s gravitational laws in the cosmos of the solar system to subatomic particle physics. Likewise, Charles Darwin, also influenced by Newton, amassed scientific evidence to show that biological mechanisms of adaptation and survival govern propagation of species in the natural world. Montgomery validates her knowledge of these physical sciences in depicting ways that human society inflicts unfair discriminatory beliefs and practices on individuals based on their physical differences from either the perceived or statistically documented prevailing norms in their communities. While social scientists typically study the incidence of mental illness in victims of prejudice, textual evidence indicates that Montgomery obliquely implicates perpetrators of discriminatory behavior as sufferers of mental illness. According to Health Canada (2002), discrimination may be defined as “an action or a decision that treats a person or a group badly for reasons such as their race, age or disability” and also “marital status.” Public Safety Canada (2021) describes types of social bullying, which include “making up names, name-calling, excluding, and spreading fake rumors” and defines “bullying” as “acts of intentional harm repeated over time in a relationship where an imbalance of power exists”; moreover, “victims” of “verbal name-calling and insults” can “suffer degrees of harm” and “may become depressed or suicidal or at the very least hurt and unhappy.” In contradistinction to the norm for victims of discriminatory bullying, where “victims are likely to have low self-esteem,” textual analysis reveals that Montgomery portrays self-confident protagonists who outshine their detractors. Through depictions of Anne and Valancy undergoing communal discrimination and ostracization, prejudice emerges as a dominant theme in three major ways—physical descriptions, dialogues, and narratologically sophisticated techniques such as stream-of-consciousness, interior monologues, indirect discourse, and dramatic irony—that document the discriminatory attitudes of their communities. To rephrase in Darwinian terms, the societal environment may be viewed as predatory in its behaviour towards prey whose physical appearance labels them as unacceptably different, hence inferior and contemptible, thus deserving disparagement. Anne Shirley and Valancy Jane Stirling, are targets of discrimination. Both Anne and Valancy take advantage of opportunities to prove that they possess inner fortitude, mettle, imagination, and intellectual insight, which empower them to withstand, indeed to overcome, the obstacle of prejudice. They change its repulsive energy into a positive force which ultimately allows them to achieve excellence and recognition. Mental Health and Adaptation Montgomery is a broad-minded novelist whose subtextual delineation of prejudice as a form of mental distress also shows that she values unusual individuals who stand out in a crowd because of their differences in physical appearance. She is deft in underscoring the importance of conformity and solidarity, which help to create a positive foundation for harmonious social relationships. In both novels, she depicts protagonists who are social outcasts and she highlights the aesthetic prioritization of difference over sameness. Her artistic credo as a literary artist harmonizes with her implicit ethical advocacy of morally supporting protagonists who are vulnerable to being rejected in their societal milieu because of anomalous physical traits that exert an impact on the way they are perceived, which, in turn, forces them to develop adaptive defence mechanisms. Thus, the traditional romantic theme of the individual versus society underscores how discrimination of anomalous traits works as a dynamic energizing force in an open society. Instead of succumbing to mental illness, Anne and Valancy develop their uniqueness by using it as leverage to strengthen their character and personality. Both novels satirically criticize an ethnographically homologous majority for intolerant behavior toward persons who are different. The protagonists prove themselves to be capable of converting their perceived shortcomings into socially acceptable manifestations reflecting moral strength of character, which have tended to be disregarded and devalued by their communities. These targets of prejudice are challenged to find ways to prove themselves in a democratic society, which is by definition built on principles of conformity and sameness, where the building blocks intertwine individual freedom and variance with dissimilarity and divergence. Mental Health and Adaptation Montgomery is a broad-minded novelist whose subtextual delineation of prejudice as a form of mental distress also shows that she values unusual individuals who stand out in a crowd because of their differences in physical appearance. She is deft in underscoring the importance of conformity and solidarity, which help to create a positive foundation for harmonious social relationships. In both novels, she depicts protagonists who are social outcasts and she highlights the aesthetic prioritization of difference over sameness. Her artistic credo as a literary artist harmonizes with her implicit ethical advocacy of morally supporting protagonists who are vulnerable to being rejected in their societal milieu because of anomalous physical traits that exert an impact on the way they are perceived, which, in turn, forces them to develop adaptive defence mechanisms. Thus, the traditional romantic theme of the individual versus society underscores how discrimination of anomalous traits works as a dynamic energizing force in an open society. Instead of succumbing to mental illness, Anne and Valancy develop their uniqueness by using it as leverage to strengthen their character and personality. Both novels satirically criticize an ethnographically homologous majority for intolerant behavior toward persons who are different. The protagonists prove themselves to be capable of converting their perceived shortcomings into socially acceptable manifestations reflecting moral strength of character, which have tended to be disregarded and devalued by their communities. These targets of prejudice are challenged to find ways to prove themselves in a democratic society, which is by definition built on principles of conformity and sameness, where the building blocks intertwine individual freedom and variance with dissimilarity and divergence.
Book
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This handbook is aimed at all kinds of professionals who like to add coaching to their repertoire. The focus of this approach is combining different tracks of development related to the multi-layered reality in which an individual is situated. Outcome-oriented action is combined with progression in personal development and meaningful participation in the well-being of the whole. With this handbook you learn to master the two core competencies of this approach: structuring progress, using a multi-track model (the Fork model) and creating a triadic dialogue with clients. Both competencies are extensively elaborated: You find a number of examples, powerful questions, and specific phrases you can add in conversations with your client, student, or employee. For over ten years this handbook has been used as the consolidated textbook for different coaching training programs in the Netherlands and Belgium. The ambition is to advocate an approach that invites professionals to work in a more holistic and inclusive way. The basic tenet of the development-oriented approach is that everything that happens to a client is part of a process of becoming a whole person aligned with greater wholes. If people want meaningful and lasting progress we need to place goal-oriented projects and problem-solving actions within the framework of this larger existential phenomenon of unfolding identity. Boldly said, the development-oriented approach in guidance situates goal-oriented action and problem-solving into the bigger frames. Using a multi-layered worldview the coach is not only a problem solver or a monitor, he is also an awakener, an educator, and a genuine fellow human.
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Digitalisation heralds unprecedented societal change, expected to profoundly influence our identity development. Concomitant with the era of digitalisation has been the modern emergence of positive psychology (PP) and sweeping demographic change (Arnett, 2000; Arnett et al., 2020). This narrative exploration of literature on the self, analysing material across disciplinary and epistemological stances, sought a new contribution from PP. Deep enquiry of the self, ‘who am I?’, might be key to the psychology of thriving as well as disorder. Examining notions of authenticity as a process of discovery of self and a social co-creation of self suggests the dialogical aspects of the self might be a crucial feature for PP to be able to engage with a more complete and accurate appreciation of a person, pursuing harmony for individual and group needs. Embracing authenticity as a unifying principle for self-development, free choice combined with ethical responsibility. A conceptual scheme for the whole self is introduced, supported by a development pathway suggesting PP, and similar interventions, could be utilised to promote authenticity in stages, a process of bringing the whole self to life. At its climax there is the inference that a pathway for authenticity might also be a pathway for sustainable happiness.
Article
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This series of papers on early anticipations of a spiritual New Age ends with Carl Jung’s version of a futural planetary-wide unus mundus rejoining person and cosmos, based on his psychoid linkage of quantum physics and consciousness, and especially on the neo-shamanic worldview emerging out of his spirit guided initiation in the more recently published Red Book. A cognitive-psychological re-evaluation of Jung’s archetypal imagination, the metaphoricity of his alchemical writings, and a comparison of Jung and Levi-Strauss on mythological thinking all support a contemporary view of Jung’s active imagination and mythic amplification as a spiritual intelligence based on a formal operations in affect, as also reflected in his use of the multi-perspectival synchronicities of the I-Ching. A reconsideration of Bourguignon on the larger relations between trance and social structure further supports the neo-shamanic nature of Jung’s Aquarian Age expectations.
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A lo largo de la historia de relatos sobre vampiros—del folclore a la ficción literaria—la descripción de estas criaturas inhumanas se ha metamorfoseado del mito de Carl Jung, nacido del arquetipo de la Sombra, en tres arquetipos vampíricos distintos, ninguno de los cuales ha dejado atrás sus orígenes míticos por completo. Estos arquetipos se presentan como el vampiro monstruo, el vampiro trágico y el vampiro romántico. Al examinar la etimología de la palabra vampiro, el folclore vampírico antiguo, la literatura vampírica temprana hasta la moderna y el cine vampírico temprano hasta el contemporáneo, este trabajo mostrará que el vampiro ya no está relegado al papel de antagonista contra el protagonista de la historia. El vampiro podría ser el antihéroe trágico o el protagonista de un relato. Mucho folclore temprano sobre los vampiros se representa por medio de relatos que los seres humanos contaban para explicar la maldad y la mala suerte que sufría su familia. Sin embargo, cuando el vampiro entró en la ficción literaria temprana, los autores empezaron a ejercer su poder de manipular la narrativa vampírica, creando nuevas construcciones vampíricas. Este cambio en las caracterizaciones de vampiros es un comentario alegórico sobre la lucha del hombre para superar su naturaleza pecaminosa al buscar la salvación por medio de la redención.
Article
The common approach to the negotiation process focuses on the external manifestation of the interaction between two parties who are trying to reach a satisfactory agreement. This view does not take into account the internal drivers of behavior of the involved parties. The externalized dynamic between the negotiators is only the secondary result of the interplay between the conscious and unconscious elements in the psyche of both parties. The condition of a long-lasting agreement is therefore a collaboration between the conscious and unconscious representation on the individual level. This article examines the transcendent function as a union between the conscious and the unconscious, specifically the ego and the self. It focuses on the tendencies of these two factors that can either hinder or make the transition of energy possible in view of reaching a successful manifested agreement. The study provides a straightforward reference that can be used by analysts and business professionals to help them understand what are the psychological aspects that affect the negotiation process, both on the individual and on the collective level.
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This is the first draft containing 4525 words of my planned 8000-word submission tentatively titled "L.M. Montgomery's Darwinian Diagnosis: Prejudice and Mental Illness in _Anne of Green Gables_ and _The Blue Castle_," by Nancy Ann Watanabe, for a special issue of the _Journal of L.M. Montgomery Studies_, which has an extended deadline of 1 September 2021. Since Montgomery read biologist Henry Drummond's critique of Darwin, my paper incorporates Darwin's theory of adaptation and survival of the fittest in critical analysis of the 1908 and 1926 novels in which the feminist protagonists are subjected to discriminatory treatment based on their gender, physical appearance, intellectual interests, ecological concerns, and marital status. Hypothesis: Montgomery shows that Anne Shirley and Valancy Stirling model survival of the fittest because they meet the challenges imposed by discriminatory attitudes in their societal milieus by proving that their shortcomings are strengths that catapult them from social pariahs to paragons. Textual evidence is marshaled to demonstrate that Montgomery views discrimination as an inherent feature in an open society organized by socioeconomic class and demographic classifications but characterized by difference, not sameness, thus both individuals and communities can model survival of the fittest by adapting to the prevailing societal milieu. Montgomery shows that society unwittingly inflicts its mental illness on uniquely gifted individuals. Montgomery's views bulwarks of society as mentally ill when they discriminate against persons whose physical appearance, intellectual and cultural interests, moral awareness, and stand-offishness are anomalous, hence incomprehensible and not worthy of respect. The heroines in Montgomery's two novels model survival of the fittest because they direct their energy to prevail over societal adversity and show compassion toward those who are afflicted by the mental illness of prejudice against persons who are different. Society rewards conformity to expectations, which are not always in the best interest of individuals, nor indeed of the general good.
Article
This paper explores how the deadly shadow of COVID-19 passing over the Earth constitutes a collective trauma that frequently opens up or 'triggers' un-remembered personal trauma, and it provides clinical examples of these intersections. The paper further explores how the human imagination, which we normally utilize to make meaning out of traumatic experience, can be hijacked by fear - leading to avoidance of suffering and to illusory formulations and alternative realities such as conspiracy theories. Alternatively, the imagination can be employed in more realistic and creative ways - leading through conscious suffering to healing and wholeness. Which path the imagination takes is shown to depend on the capacity of individuals to feel the full reality of the human condition in general and the exquisite vulnerability of our existence as fragile human beings at this moment in history. Ernest Becker's analysis of our 'denial of death' and his urgency to embrace our common human vulnerability is explored in relation to Jung's early tendency to deny the body. The author proposes that the more creative uses of the imagination, connected to a more humble and realistic apprehension of our common destiny, may be seen in the 'Black Lives Matter' movement that swept the world in the aftermath of the COVID-19 outbreak.
Article
This paper is a Jungian interpretation and exploration of nine paintings completed by Picasso in 1946 in Antibes, France, where he had moved at the end of the German occupation of Paris. The paintings depict the Roman mythological figure of the faun, which served as the agency for Picasso’s archetypal imagination to explore his psyche and lead him on an internal journey to individuation.
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Community is a significant aspect of human development. Structure, therein, enables order to be implemented within community. Communal order permits the variation of development, and the vast quantity of individuals simultaneously undergoing the psycho-social developmental process, to be successfully formulated. Successful formulation seems to involve a community structure that displays various models, whose virtues are imitated through participatory role play. The structure of the community and the role performances of the inhabitants should collaborate in a manner wherein biological propensities, environmental factors, and individual specifications create healthful balance. Balance, amid the vast variation, seems to enable the instillation of the virtues of integrity, respect, and responsibility in the lives of the populace. Understanding the probable outliers of human development, particularly those that might thwart healthful balance, seems to have produced efforts of population control. Population control seems to be an evolved tool, wielded by officials, to methodically manage the resources and systems of the community; such that, the vast variation does not unproductively outweigh the overall goals, security, and stability of society. Community structure suffers averse impact when population control becomes contaminated through corrupted governing bodies. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
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Throughout the history of vampire stories—from folklore to literary fiction—the portrayal of vampires has metamorphosed from Carl Jung’s myth, born of the Shadow archetype, into three distinct vampiric archetypes, none of which have completely left their mythic origins behind. These archetypes present themselves as the monster vampire, the tragic vampire, and the romantic vampire. By examining the etymology of the word vampire, ancient vampire folklore, early to modern vampire literature, and early to contemporary vampire cinema, this paper will show that the vampire is no longer relegated to the role of antagonist to the story’s protagonist. The vampire could be the tragic anti-hero or the protagonist of a story. Many early folklores about vampires are represented by stories humankind told to explain evil and misfortune visited upon their family. However, when the vampire entered early literary fiction, authors began to exercise their power to manipulate the vampire narrative, creating new vampire constructs. This shift in vampire characterizations is an allegorical commentary on man’s fight to overcome his sinful nature by seeking salvation through redemption.
Article
Social existence is vital for any person's survival. Social existence theory relates to how individuals conceptualize their existence in a social world, learn from others, and communicate with others. We discuss constructivism, social learning, and the influence of language, as well as the influence of language on society's views of mental illness and the systemic nature of these views.
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Judgment and Preference are the products of relational schemata. In addition to influential evolutionary and biological elements, social factors contribute to the format of relational schemata and its outputs. Relational schemata are instilled by evolution and biology, and further developed in childhood, exercised in adolescence, and fortified in adulthood by the adolescent's support systems and engagement with societal institutions. Judgment is a cognitive mechanism used to impose criteria and understanding upon encountered stimuli. Preference is a perceptual mechanism used to discriminate between stimuli as best befits the adolescent's needs. The products of judgment and preference appear to collaborate efforts toward individuation and the construction of the adolescent's identity. Together, judgment and preference are used by the adolescent to guide their behavior through the developmental process toward adulthood, by consciously and subconsciously building social-cognitive boundaries as required by context and survival. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
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Adolescence is the stage of human development wherein the human forms their individual identity. Support systems assist in the understanding of social structures. The understanding gathered by interaction with support systems fuels how adolescents formulate engagement with social structures. Adolescents appear to use archetypal social structures to mete the content of stimuli and, thereby, gauge the manner in which they should act regarding their conceptual determination of content validity. Taking risks in adolescence appears to be the id forming a relationship with stimuli, while the ego guides with reality testing. The ultimate goal of risk taking appears to be individuation, through the superego calculating and re-calculating the varying facets of identity formation. The types of risks taken during adolescents appears to result from engagement with support systems and the degree to which these systems provided value and repute to the adolescent. Resilience appears to result from the lessons learned during risk-taking endeavors, which appears to be the product of the degree to which adolescent support systems foster healthful values, the recognition for responsibility of action, and the need for purposeful living. Although social systems might not appear to be as conventional as in historical times, the duty of support systems are to foster the values required for healthful identity output by adolescents, particularly during this critical time of human development. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
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Adolescence is a time of turbulent changes. With a growing biological system, the psychological and behavioral systems of adolescents are also rapidly developing and learning differing response patterns than previously garnered in childhood. These developing human adolescent systems are typically susceptible to environmental stimuli and the behavioral responses of associated support mechanisms. As a result, support systems, like parental guidance and healthy social networks, are essential for healthful response development and beneficial development of adaptive behavioral mechanisms. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
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Many teacher education programs globally are undergoing significant changes in response to government policy, imperatives driven by global competitiveness, as well as local conditions. This is particularly relevant in the South African context where teacher education seeks to navigate from the ravages of apartheid education towards addressing the developmental needs of the majority of its citizens. This book records and explores efforts by academic staff members within the Faculty of Education at Stellenbosch University, South Africa, responding to the demands of a new program in initial teacher education. It brings together diverse views seeking to present a coherent program in the Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE). It examines how curriculum design unfolds across disciplines in the program, and crucially, the commonalities in the presentation of course material. Lecturers examine the purpose, structure and content of their teaching as they engage with putting democratic policy goals into practice in the core, as well as subject-specific modules of the program.
Chapter
This deals with the existential aspects of old age, including changes in life meaning and concerns about legacy. Existential well-being often benefits from the development of spirituality which, in turn, can be expressed in several ways, including through specific religious beliefs and practices. Existential issues are brought into sharper focus in the life of an old person by the obvious fact that inevitably, as time passes, death nears. This brings to the fore questions about what constitutes a “good death”, and thus the debate over euthanasia and suicide is the focus of a specific section. We conclude this chapter with an exploration of the challenges of the end of life in multicultural societies, and the issues that affect end-of-life care.
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