Physicochemical, preliminary phytochemical and powder microscopical studies of “M-Swadishta virechana churna” –An Ayurvedic poly herbal formulation

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Ayurvedic formulation M-Swadista virechana churna is known to be an effective laxative in diseases like Arsha (heamorrhoids), Amasangraha (accumulation of Ama-undigested toxic substance) and Vibandha (constipation). Literature reviews revealed that there are no reports available on the physicochemical standardization & Powder microscopy of “M-Swadishta virechana churna. Hence, analytical studies have been taken up to derive the Pharmacopoeial standards for quality control. The ayurvedic compound formulation, M-Swadishta virechana churna contains Swarnapatri (Cassia angustifolia), Madhuka (Glycerrhiza glabra) and Ikshu Sarkara (cane sugar- Saccharam officinarum). The present communication deals with the physico chemical, preliminary phyto chemical and chromatographic with powder microscopical studies gave valuable parameters for laying down Pharmacopoeial standards of the compound formulation.

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Isoflavan derivatives, glabridin (1), hispaglabridin A (2), hispaglabridin B (3), 4′-O-methylglabridin (4) and 3′-hydroxy-4′-O-methylglabridin (5), isolated from Glycyrrhiza glabra, were investigated for their ability to protect liver mitochondria against oxidative stresses. Mitochondrial lipid peroxidation linked to respiratory electron transport and that induced non-enzymatically were inhibited by these isoflavans. Hispaglabridin A (2) strongly inhibited both peroxidations and 3′-hydroxy-4′-O-methylglabridin (5) was the most effective at preventing NADH-dependent peroxidation. 3′-Hydroxy-4′-O-methylglabridin (5) protected mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activities against NADPH-dependent peroxidation injury. Dihydroxyfumarate-induced mitochondrial peroxidation was also prevented by this isoflavan. Isoflavans from G. glabra were shown to be effective in protecting mitochondrial function against oxidative stresses.
Anthranoid derivatives are used all over the world as a treatment for constipation. These compounds are present in several drugs of plant origin, especially as O- or C-glycosides. Besides featuring different substituents, the aglycone might consist of an anthraquinone, an anthrone or a dianthrone. So far, detailed information concerning their metabolism and pharmacokinetic characteristics is available only in a few cases. The best characterized compounds are sennoside, a dianthrone O-glycoside present in senna leaves and senna pods, and its aglycone (rhein anthrone). After oral administration, sennoside is degraded only in the lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract, releasing its active metabolite rhein anthrone. Nowadays, this process is understood at the molecular level. A study with 14C-labelled rhein anthrone administered intracecally to rats, revealed that the compound is scarcely absorbed. Since on the contrary its anthraquinone equivalent is absorbed to a much larger extent, it is inferred that dianthrone- or anthrone-glycosides exhibit a lower systemic availability than anthraquinone O-glycosides.
Laxatives are generally well tolerated and may be considered safe drugs. When taken at much higher than the recommended doses (laxative abuse) some side effects may occur (e.g. hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, renal tubular damage). It is controversial whether the laxatives currently used may lead to morphologic changes of the autonomous nervous system of the colon. Melanosis coli is due to pigment-laden macrophages within the submucosa. It occurs after long-term intake of anthraquinones and has no functional consequences. No case of 'cathartic colon' has been observed during the last few decades, and we can assume that it was probably caused by laxatives which are no longer in use.
The present study analyzed the antioxidative properties of natural compounds from the root of the plant Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) toward LDL oxidation. Seven constituents, with antioxidant capacity were isolated from Glycyrrhiza glabra. The isolated compounds were identified as the isoflavans Hispaglabridin A (1), Hispaglabridin B (4), Glabridin (3), and 4'-O-Methylglabridin (2), the two chalcones, isoprenylchalcone derivative (5) and Isoliquiritigenin (6), and the isoflavone, Formononetin (7). Among these compounds, Glabridin constituted the major amount in the crude extract (11.6%, w/w) as detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The antioxidative capacities of the isolated compounds (1-7) were tested against beta-carotene destruction and LDL oxidation. The isoflavans (1-4) at a concentration of 50 microM inhibited beta-carotene consumption, following 90 min of incubation at 50 degrees C, similar to the inhibitory effect of the whole licorice crude extract (at 16 mg/1). The chalcones (5 and 6) exhibited moderate inhibition and the isoflavone 7 was almost inactive, whereas vitamin E (50 microM) completely inhibited beta-carotene consumption. The inhibitory effect of the constituents 1-7, at a concentration of 30 microM on 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced LDL oxidation was determined by measuring the amount of the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the amount of lipid peroxides. While compounds 1-6 exhibited high inhibitory activity, compound 7 and vitamin E were not active. A dose-dependent inhibitory effect of Glabridin, on the formation of cholesteryl linoleate hydroperoxide (CLOOH), in an AAPH-induced LDL oxidation system was also shown. Glabridin, at 5 or 40-60 microM concentration, inhibited the CLOOH formation by 62% and 90%, respectively. These results suggest that constituents 1-6 are very potent antioxidants toward LDL oxidation with Glabridin being the most abundant and potent antioxidant. As LDL oxidation is a key event in the formation of the early atherosclerotic lesion, the use of these natural antioxidants may be proven beneficial to attenuate atherosclerosis.
An introductory section includes a brief resume of previous observations on the fluorescence of crude drugs and drug products exposed to ultraviolet radiation. A key for identification of powdered vegetable drugs based on their fluorescence under ultraviolet radiation is presented. Possible application of the method and its shortcomings are discussed.
Rasatantra sara va siddha sangraha prayoga, 1 st , 2nd part. 10 th Edn. Ajmer; Krishna Gopal granthamala
  • Pt
Pt.Krishna Gopal Acharya. Rasatantra sara va siddha sangraha prayoga, 1 st, 2nd part. 10 th Edn. Ajmer; Krishna Gopal granthamala, 2005.
Satyesh Chandra Pakrashi; The treatise of Indian medicinal plants
  • Asima Chatterjee
Asima Chatterjee, Satyesh Chandra Pakrashi; The treatise of Indian medicinal plants,Vol.2. New Delhi;