Chavín de Huantar es uno de los sitios fundamentales para entender el Periodo Formativo en los Andes centrales. Ironicamente, a pesar de muchas decadas de investigaciones realizadas por docenas de investigadores, su cronologia es todavia debatida e insegura. Este articulo presenta una reseña de la evidencia historica para la cronologia de Chavin, enfatizando la contribucion de los fechados radiocarbonicos calibrados y, de manera breve, revisando los que están temporalmente relacionados con otros sitios formativos. Se analizan, tambien, los numerosos fechados de carbono-14 asociados a ceramica y contextos arquitectonicos conocidos en Chavin derivados de estudios recientes. De hecho, muchos fechados de Chavin y sitios relacionados concuerdan en ubicar a la ceramica negra pulida estampada, denominada janabarroide, alrededor de 800-500 a.C. (calib.). La presencia de ocupaciones anteriores y posteriores, documentadas con fechados, ayudan a confirmar este rango temporal para materiales reconocidos del "Horizonte Temprano». En contraste con algunos otros importantes sitios formativos, Chavin deja de funcionar como templo hacia 500 a.C. (calib.), aunque los esfuerzos destinados a las construcciones principales ya estaban disminuyendo, de manera notable, antes de esta epoca.Chavin de Huantar is one of the key sites of the Formative Period in the Central Andes, with many decades of investigations by dozens of investigators, but ironically its chronology is still poorly defined and contested. This article reviews the historical evidence for Chavin chronology, emphasizing an examination of calibrated radiocarbon dates, and summarily reviewing related radiocarbon evidence from approximately contemporary sites. The more voluminous C14 evidence from recent work at Chavin is then examined, particularly focused on dates from known ceramic and architectural contexts. A large number of determinations concur, both in and outside of Chavin, in dating stamped polished blackware "janabarroid" ceramics in the range of 800-500 BC in calibrated age. Earlier and later occupations at Chavin are documented, helping confirm this time range for «Early Horizon» materials. Chavin, unlike some other important Formative sites, loses its temple function by around 500 BC calibrated, although major construction seems to have greatly decreased well before that time.
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"Chavín de Huántar (Figure 1) is a major Formative Period (3200–2200 BP) archaeological site in the highlands of Peru, located at 3150 masl, at the base of the eastern slope of the Cordillera Blanca (Rick et al. 2011). This site is composed of an elaborate stone temple, constructed plazas, and surrounding ritual facilities. "
"In coastal Nepeña, recent research has questioned traditional connections with the Chavín phenomenon and the adjacent highlands (Chicoine 2006, 2010b; Shibata 2010, 2011); especially considering the reevaluation of the occupational history and chronology at Chavín de Huántar (Burger and Salazar-Burger 2008; Rick et al. 2011). While Chavín-related and Cupisnique stylistic features are evident at the late Initial Period ceremonial centres of Cerro Blanco and Huaca Partida, by the time of the emergence of urban communities at Caylán and associated settlements, coastal populations appear to have steered clear of Chavín imagery. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: South American camelids (llamas and alpacas) were of great economic, social and ritual significance in the pre-Hispanic Andes. Although these animals are largely limited to high-altitude (>3500 masl) pastures, it has been hypothesised that camelids were also raised at lower altitudes in the arid coastal river valleys. Previous isotopic studies of Early Intermediate Period (c. 200 BC?AD 600) and Middle Horizon (c. AD 600?1100) camelids support this argument. Here, we utilise carbon and nitrogen isotopic analyses of camelid bone collagen from the Early Horizon (c. 800?200 BC) sites of Caylán and Huambacho on the north-central coast of Peru to examine the management of these animals during the first millennium BC. Most of the camelid isotopic compositions are consistent with the acquisition of animals that were part of caravans, moving between the coast and the highlands. A small number of the animals may have been raised on the coast, suggesting that the practice of coastal camelid husbandry was in the
Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Environmental Archaeology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the pre-Columbian sequence, Andean warfare ranged greatly in
intensity. This review combines published information on cranial trauma and settlement
patterns, which often align and clarify each other, to make an initial
assessment of how severely Andean populations were affected by war over time and
space. The data speak to a number of major topics in the archaeology of warfare, such
as the origin of war, contrasts in state militarism, and changes in the practice of war
related to social organization. Although there is considerable regional variation, two
large-scale ‘‘waves’’ of escalated conflict that are clearly supported by the cranial
trauma and settlement pattern data occurred in the Final Formative (late Early
Horizon, 400 BC–AD 100) and the Late Intermediate period (AD 1000–1400).
Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Journal of Archaeological Research