Conference Paper

Enhancing sector data management to target the water poor

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Abstract

Appropriate data management as the basis of effective performance reporting is crucial if sector institutions are to track whether they achieve their objectives. This paper shows how a post process of readily available data to construct water poverty maps can be used to identify effectively the most water poor communities, and thus improve the targeting of sector development policies and projects. To this end, water poverty takes its definition from the Water Poverty Index, which combines biophysical, social, economic and environmental data in one single and comparable number to produce a holistic and user-friendly tool for policy making. The study is based on a comprehensive record of the water sources developed by UNICEF in Turkana District, in Kenya. The main conclusion is that such an index allows decision-makers to determine and target priority needs for interventions in the water sector, while assessing the impacts of sector-related development policies. Postprint (author’s final draft)

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... In this sense, Wilk and Jonsson (2013) have suggested that a better understanding of poverty or prosperity of a country or a district in water is an imperative in order to allow a better targeting of strategic actions for an efficient management of water resources. That is necessary particularly for arid and semi-arid areas where access to and reliability of water sources have a large influence on promoting sustainable livelihoods and, where environmental impact associated with inadequate resource management is significant (Giné and Pérez-Foguet, 2009). However, the major challenge one is facing is know how to appreciate with relevance water prosperity or poverty. ...
Research
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This working paper is an analytical framework on how to include the poor and vulnerable groups in water and sanitation services providing in Developing countries. PS: The improved version is published in Water Policy
... El trabajo que se presenta en esta comunicación pretende aunar todos los aspectos anteriormente citados: la formación en valores, la cooperación al desarrollo, el desarrollo sostenible y la investigación a través de la creación de un grupo de trabajo interdisciplinar. Gracias a la financiación interna por parte de la Universidad Europea de Madrid del proyecto titulado "Rehabilitación de 9 puntos de agua potable en la Región de Afar (Etiopía)" se pretende abastecer de agua potable de manera permanente a varios municipios de la Región de Afar en Etiopía (Giné, 2008), mediante un trabajo en equipo con la población local. La carencia de agua potable en estas poblaciones ha obligado a las mismas a utilizar el río para satisfacer sus necesidades lo que ha provocado la aparición de enfermedades como el cólera y la diarrea acuosa, ya que el río Awash está altamente contaminado (Gizaw, 1996;Nash, 1994). ...
Article
Introducción La Universidad por sus propias características como lugar de generación de conocimiento y formación integral de los estudiantes, tiene una gran influencia sobre éstos, y sobre la sociedad en general. De ahí, que su compromiso con los derechos humanos, la libertad y la aceptación de las diferencias deba ser una máxima en su actuación. Tal y como dice Camps (2008), el objetivo principal de la educación es la formación de la personalidad. Y se hace necesario, formar no sólo a profesionales sino a personas con pensamiento crítico, comprometidas y respetuosas con su entorno, que en su futura actuación profesional pongan en práctica valores como el respeto, la equidad y la convivencia. En este marco conceptual, bastantes universidades además de trabajar en áreas como el respeto al medioambiente, la integración de personas con discapacidad, la conciencia de los derechos humanos, etc. impulsan proyectos de Cooperación al desarrollo. Según la definición aportada por CRUE "la Cooperación al Desarrollo es una parte de la Cooperación Internacional que, con similar propósito, se establece entre países con distinto nivel de desarrollo, con unos fines concretos (consolidación democrática, desarrollo económico y social sostenible, lucha contra la pobreza, protección del medio ambiente, entre otros). No se debe confundir con ayuda humanitaria y debe exigir un esfuerzo de las contrapartes, aunque no pueda ser el mismo en todos los países. Así, el impulso por parte de las universidades en la Cooperación al desarrollo resulta un modo enriquecedor de introducir formación en valores y desarrollar competencias éticas entre los estudiantes universitarios (Rodríguez, 2008). Los profesores tienen en este sentido la responsabilidad de aumentar su formación en este ámbito, promover la investigación e impulsar proyectos en los que los alumnos se puedan involucrar (Castaño et al., 2009; Domínguez, 2009).
... It is believed that information in current database is not adequately integrated, hindering their use for policy and planning purposes. In a previous study (Giné and Pérez-Foguet, 2009a) it was shown that a post process of available data can produce easy-to-use water poverty maps (where water poverty takes its definition from the WPI), and provide a simple and powerful tool to both support water resource management and effectively tackle water poverty. However, and aimed at overcoming major criticism levelled at the WPI, a revised method (Giné and Pérez-Foguet, 2009b) to construct the index is employed in this paper. ...
Conference Paper
This paper highlights the relevance of the use of the Water Poverty Index as an effective water management tool in resources allocation and prioritization processes. Nevertheless, three conceptual weaknesses exist in the current index, including redundancy among variables, the decision of assigning weights to them, and the aggregation method. Based on a post process of readily available but sector relevant data, a revised method to construct the index has been developed through a case study in Kenya, at local scale. The paper discusses the results of this application. In particular, different approaches to exploit the index as a policy tool are presented, with the aim of enabling a more comprehensive understanding of the water sector constraints and challenges, and thus enhance related decision-making accordingly. Postprint (author’s final draft)
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This paper provides discussion of ways in which an interdisciplinary approach can be taken to produce an integrated assessment of water stress and scarcity, linking physical estimates of water availability with socioeconomic variables that reflect poverty, i.e., a Water Poverty Index. It is known that poor households often suffer from poor water provision, and this results in a significant loss of time and effort, especially for women. By linking the physical and social sciences to address this issue, a more equitable solution for water allocation may be found. For the purpose of initiating discussion, a summary of different approaches to establishing a Water Poverty Index is discussed.
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The article details the development and uses of the water poverty index (WPI). The index was developed as a holistic tool to measure water stress at the household and community levels, designed to aid national decision makers, at community and central government level, as well as donor agencies, to determine priority needs for interventions in the water sector. The index combines into a single number a cluster of data directly and indirectly relevant to water stress. Subcomponents of the index include measures of: access to water; water quantity, quality and variability; water uses (domestic, food, productive purposes); capacity for water management; and environmental aspects. The WPI methodology was developed through pilot projects in South Africa, Tanzania and Sri Lanka and involved intensive participation and consultation with all stakeholders, including water users, politicians, water sector professionals, aid agency personnel and others. The article discusses approaches for the further implementation of the water poverty index, including the possibilities of acquiring the necessary data through existing national surveys or by establishing interdisciplinary water modules in school curricula. The article argues that the WPI fills the need for a simple, open and transparent tool, one that will appeal to politicians and decision makers, and at the same time can empower poor people to participate in the better targeting of water sector interventions and development budgets in general.
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The Water Poverty Index (WPI), introduced by Sullivan, is an inter-disciplinary tool that integrates the key issues relating to water resources, combining physical, social, economic and environmental information associated with people’s ability to get access to water and to use water for productive purposes. It is most relevant at the community or sub-basin scales. This paper is concerned not with the development or underlying methodology of the index, but with how it can best be applied in practice to generate useful data, and then how these data may be used to generate benefits, especially for poor people who suffer from inadequate access to water. WPI values would need to be generated over wide areas, and this would require substantial institutional development. To do this, the use of existing census procedures and the needs for simplified data collection are considered, and the idea of widespread data collection through schools is examined. A number of technical issues relating to implementation of the WPI are discussed, particularly how the different spatial scales inter-relate and how the assessment of the physical resource and the collection of social and economic data may be made compatible. Finally, we discuss how the WPI value can be used in practice, and some of the issues and problems that this presents.
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"The paper discusses the application of the Water Poverty Index (WPI) as a monitoring tool for Benin's water sector. Benin is currently in a process of political decentralization shifting responsibility for and administration of rural water supplies from the national to the communal level. Appropriate indicators are needed for monitoring and analyzing the progress of the water sector for each community. The Water Poverty Index allows monitoring of a combination of aspects affecting rural water management, including water sources, access to and use of water, human capacity to manage water, and environmental impacts. The application of this index is tested for Benin at the regional level. A series of variables have been chosen for inclusion into the index following data collection and analysis in Benin under the IMPETUS project. Results show a clear distinction between communes in the north and the south of the country and WPI rankings are similar to those for poverty levels. The paper concludes with a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the WPI and suggests improvements for its application at the communal level." Author's Abstract
Water, schools and health Management Information System (MIS) for Turkana District
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