ArticlePDF Available
A preview of the PDF is not available
... The persistence of beliefs of teachers during innovations is also supported by Olson & Eaton [7], Martin [8], Carmichael et al. [9] and Rubin & Bruce [10]. These authors all stress the influence of existing classroom routines. ...
... In their view, teachers' need to adapt innovations stems from their preferred teaching styles and values. This need for adaptation is also reported by Rubin & Bruce [10] who conclude that in their study teachers "create new practices that reflect complex and situation-specific combinations of old and new approaches" (p. 2). ...
Chapter
The decision of teachers whether or not to use computers depends on two basic categories of factors: factors at school level and factors at teacher level. However, teacher factors appear to be more significant than the factors at school level. Teachers have strong beliefs in respect to the content of their subject matter as well as to the pedagogy. The case-studies in one school (1989–1993) described here show that those beliefs appear to change only very slowly. Teachers adopt new media if they can use them in accordance with their existing beliefs and practice. The findings of this study coincide to a large extent with the results of many other studies of classroom practice.
... Bruce and Peyton's notion of a 'realization' of a technological innovation offers a good way of conceptualizing this process of co-evolution. The idea of realization was proposed by Rubin and Bruce (1990) and expanded by Peyton (1990, 1993). They presented two views of the implementation of an educational innovation. ...
Full-text available
Article
In this paper, we argue that even if empirical studies of collaborative technology and learning represent a diversity of research, the cases that have successfully used collaborative technology share one very crucial thing, namely, instead of focusing intensively only on the technology, a great deal of effort has been put into collaborative use of technology and designing learning oriented infrastructure. We propose that the distinction between collaborative technology and collaborative use of technology is useful for the future development of technology‐supported collaborative learning.D’une technologie collaborative à une utilisation collaborative de technologie: Des infrastructures orientées vers un concept de formation. Cet exposé démontre que même si les études empiriques de la technologie et formation collaboratives représentent une diversité de recherches, les personnes qui ont utilisé la technologie collaborative avec succès ont une chose très cruciale en commun, c’est‐à‐dire qu’au lieu de se focusser intensivement sur la technologie, un grand effort est porté sur l’utilisation collaborative de la technologie et sur l’infrastructure orientée vers un concept de formation. Nous pensons que pour le futur développement de la formation collaborative supportée par la technologie il est très utile de distinguer entre la technologie collaborative et l’utilisation collaborative de la technologie.Von Kooperationstechnologie zu ihrer kooperativen Verwendung: Entwicklung lernzielorientierter Infrastrukturen. In diesem Papier behaupten wir, dass, obwohl es vielfältige empirische Studien über Kooperationstechnologie und Lernen gibt, die Fälle, in denen diese Techniken erfolgreich genutzt wurden, alle etwas Entscheidendes gemeinsam haben: nämlich statt sich intensiv nur auf die Technik zu konzentrieren, viele sich hauptsächlich bemühen, die kooperative Verwendung der Technik für die Herstellung lernorientierter Infrastruktur zu nutzen. Wir schlagen vor, dass zukünftig zwischen Kooperationstechnologie und kooperativer Verwendung der Technologie bei der Entwicklung technikunterstützten kooperativen Lernens unterschieden wird.
... Yet, although millions of computers are now used daily in schools, they have not done so. Perhaps the main reason for this is that, like any innovation, their use is strongly conditioned by the goals, beliefs, practices, and social structure existing in the environment in which they are used (Cohen, 1988;DeJean, Miller, & Olson, 1995;Rubin & Bruce, 1990). Not surprisingly, research suggests that teachers will not use computers unless they see some need for them (Schofield, 1994). ...
Article
The impact of computer use on classroom structure and functioning is examined. The most consistently found effect is an increase in motivation and closely related constructs. Computer use also appears to foster peer interaction, typically of a cooperative and mutually supportive nature. In addition, teachers often shift from whole group instructional methods emphasizing lecturing to interacting more with individuals or small groups of students in a more individualized and student-centered way. Although such outcomes appear common, the article also warns against thinking of computer use as a unitary independent variable with readily predictable effects. It points out that teachers' construal of and decisions about the use of software are vitally important in influencing outcomes, as are the existing culture and social structure of the school and classroom. It also suggests that unanticipated changes in classroom structure and functioning often are coincident with computer use and may account for some of the effects commonly attributed to it.
Research
DELILAH aimed at deepening understanding of educational innovations and, on the basis of such an understanding, gathering empirical evidence of innovative education and learning arrangements and developing specific methodologies and guidelines for learning. In other words, the DELILAH project sought to achieve a threefold aim, namely: [1] to develop a new approach to ‘innovations in education and training’; [2] to carry out research on ‘innovations in four education and training sectors’ on the basis of such an approach; and [3] to draw from the research results and approach policy implications and recommendations for action in the form of guidelines. The approach developed by the project was constituted around a specific view of innovations in education and training based on the idea of learning patrimony and the impact upon the latter of a set of social, cultural and above all political and economic factors.
Book
Suggestions are constantly being made, both in the popular media and the academic literature, about the kinds of changes schools should make. While there are many books that discuss internal change processes in schools, there has been little attention to the interaction between schools and the larger society. The research in this book shows that schools are primarily inward-looking organizations, and would benefit from better ways of understanding the changes surrounding them and the pressures on them. Schools need to understand that there are no formulas or recipes for this activity; they must stop looking for ready-made answers and focus instead on their own situations and the very real limits on their ability to respond. This book offers theoretical discussion of the issues and a set of suggestions for further reflection based on detailed examination of several issues: changes in the labour market; changes in information technology; child poverty; changes in families; and changes in politics.
Full-text available
Article
The purpose was to explore the educational potential accessible with the aidof international communications networks and computer-mediated communicationmainly as seen by the participating Finnish students. This wasassociated with students attitudes and preferences to teaching practices andteaching tools. A more general purpose was to examine gender sensitivity ofe-mail and the question of equality education.
This paper discusses school responses to changes in information technology based on survey data and four case studies of school districts in a Canadian province. Financial, administrative and political issues appear to have dominated the agenda and debates over priorities, costs and expectations of teachers have been central. Information technology has not, as yet, been integrated into people's thinking about teaching and learning. The authors argue that schools would benefit from better intelligence about the impact of such technology and from a wider repertoire of responses to it.
Article
When an educational innovation is implemented in a classroom setting, it is re‐created by the teachers and students who actually use it. This recreation is an essential element in the process of educational change. In this article we analyze the implementation of ENFI, an innovation that uses computers and local‐area networks in the teaching of writing. We present first its idealization in terms of its technological features and original visions for its use, and then its realizations. We identify 16 distinct realizations, and discuss 2 of them in detail, relating each to characteristics of the setting in which it appeared.
Article
Using an approach to classroom research that D. Newman (1990) has termed a formative experiment, a study investigated the effects of engaging elementary school students in creating computer-based multimedia reviews of books they read independently. Formative experiments are designed to investigate how an instructional intervention can be implemented to achieve a pedagogical goal in a particular educational environment. Creating multimedia book reviews was the intervention; increasing the amount and diversity of students' independent reading was the pedagogical goal. Diverse quantitative and qualitative data were gathered during 2 academic years in 9 4th-grade and 5th-grade classrooms across 3 schools. Consistent with the intent of formative experiments, results are presented guided by the following questions: (1) What factors in the educational environment enhance or inhibit the intervention's effectiveness in achieving the pedagogical goal?; (2) How can the intervention and its implementation be modified during the experiment to achieve more effectively the pedagogical goal?; (3) What unanticipated positive or negative effects does the intervention produce?; and (4) Has the educational environment changed as a result of the intervention? Results indicated that the multimedia book review activity contributed to achieving the pedagogical goal of increasing the amount of children's independent reading; and school environments and teachers' roles to some extent shaped the effects of the activity. Findings suggest that formative experiments can address the limitations of conventional research methods previously used to study computer-based literacy activities in classrooms. (Contains 64 references, and 4 tables and 11 figures of data. Appendixes presents parent and teacher questionnaires.) (Author/RS)
Full-text available
Article
A study of writing in a sixth-grade classroom using QUILL software highlighted the value of ethnographic observation, showed that the most important impact of computers on writing may be on the classroom "writing system," and revealed how reading and writing are social actions--communication between social actors. published or submitted for publication is peer reviewed
Article
In the beginning, criticism is simple. Do I like it? My judgment is personal and intuitive. I answer to myself alone, and consider only the immediate object of my attention. Soon, however, something more is needed; taste must be justified. Others challenge our opinions and counter with their own, and even personal development eventually requires us to grapple with our reasons. The LOGO community faces the challenge of finding a voice for public dialogue. Where do we look? There is no shortage of models. The education establishment offers the notion of evaluation. Educational psychologists offer the notion of controlled experiment. The computer magazines have developed the idiom of product review. Philosophical tradition suggests inquiry into the essential nature of computation. Each of these has intellectual value in its proper place. I shall argue that this proper place is a conservative context where change is small, slow, and superficial. The crucial experiment, to take one example, is based on a concept of changing a single factor in a complex situation while keeping everything else the same. I shall argue that this is radically incompatible with the enterprise of rebuilding an education system in which nothing shall be the same.
Article
QUILL, a set of microcomputer-based writing activities for students in grades two through twelve, is based on the recent research on the composing process. To help students become more experienced writers, QUILL includes two tools for writing: a planner, which helps students plan and organize their pieces, and a writer's assistant or text editor, which facilitates the revision process by making the addition, deletion, and rearrangement of text easier. QUILL also provides students with two contexts for writing. The first is an electronic mail system with which students can send messages to individuals, to groups, or to an electronic bulletin board. The second is an information management system in which writing is accessed by title, author, or keyboards. Observations from more than 150 classrooms showed children could use QUILL for genuine communicative purposes if they were provided with the right opportunities. However, QUILL's effectiveness depended on the attitudes teachers conveyed to their students about it, and on the teachers' decisions about how students were allowed to use it. (Included are six lessons on how best to use QUILL that were created during two years of field-testing in second through eighth grade classrooms.) (HOD)
Article
Includes bibliographical references (p. 25-29) Supported in part by the National Institute of Education under contract no. NIE 400-81-0030 and by the Department of Education under contract no. 300-81-0314
Problem solving and the cognitive process of writing Writing: The nature, development and teaching of written communication
  • L S Flower
  • J R Hayes
Flower, L. S., & Hayes, J. R. (1981). Problem solving and the cognitive process of writing. In C. H. Frederiksen & J. F. Dominic (Eds.), Writing: The nature, development and teaching of written communication (pp. 39-58). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Microcomputer-based environments for Writing: A writer's assistant
  • J A Levin
  • M J Boruta
  • M T Vasconcellos
Levin, J. A., Boruta, M. J., & Vasconcellos, M. T. (1983). Microcomputer-based environments for Writing: A writer's assistant. In A. C. Wilkinson (Ed.), Classroom computers and cognitive science (pp. 219-232). New York: Academic Press.