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The Role of Anomalous Data in Knowledge Acquisition: A Theoretical Framework and Implications for Science Instruction

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Understanding how science students respond to anomalous data is essential to understanding knowledge acquisition in science classrooms. This article presents a detailed analysis of the ways in which scientists and science students respond to such data. We postulate that there are seven distinct forms of response to anomalous data, only one of which is to accept the data and change theories. The other six responses involve discounting the data in various ways in order to protect the preinstructional theory. We analyze the factors that influence which of these seven forms of response a scientist or student will choose, giving special attention to the factors that make theory change more likely. Finally, we discuss the implications of our framework for science instruction.
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... Anggoro et al. created the Reflective Conceptual Change Model (RCCM) with the help of visual multimedia (Anggoro et al., 2019). This model was created based on a number of results studies (Aydeniz & Brown, 2010;Chinn & Brewer, 1993;Herrenkohl & Cornelius, 2013). RCCM employs a cognitive conflict strategy that begins with students losing their beliefs through conflicting learning experiences that allow them to replace misconceptions with scientific concepts (Anggoro et al., 2019;Bani-Salameh, 2017;Hadjiachilleos et al., 2013). ...
... Posner et al. (1982) were the first to discover a conceptual change model. Many researchers then developed and expanded on their ideas (Anggoro, et al., 2019;Aydeniz & Brown, 2010;Baser, 2006;Chinn & Brewer, 1993;Hadjiachilleos et al., 2013aHadjiachilleos et al., , 2013bKural & Kocakulah, 2016;Niaz and Maza, 2012). ...
... The Reflective Conceptual Change Model (RCCM) was created by Anggoro et al. (2019). This model was created based on the findings of research conducted by Chinn and Brewer (1993), Aydenis & Brown (2010, 2017, Hadjiachilleos et al. (2013), Lee and Yi (2013), Lee (2014), andLee et al (2003). RCCM employs a cognitive conflict strategy that begins with students losing beliefs through conflicting learning experiences that allow them to replace misconceptions with scientific ones (Anggoro, et al., 2019;Hadjiachilleos, Valanides, et al., 2013;Kang et al., 2010;Kang et al., 2004Kang et al., , 2005Tuningsih et al., 2020). ...
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Students and even teachers, particularly in elementary schools, continue to have misconceptions about free fall. When using traditional learning methods, it is difficult to change these misconceptions. The purpose of this article is to reconstruct elementary school students' conceptions using a reflective conceptual change model (RCCM) aided by visual multimedia. The research design is quasi-experimental. The participants in this study were grade 4 elementary school students, 20 of whom were female and 10 of whom were male. A four-tiered test and an observation sheet were used as research instruments. Using data analysis, the findings revealed that all students had a new perspective on free fall. Male students improved their conceptual revisions better than female students. There are 90% of male students experiencing a conceptual change from misconception to scientific conception, compared to 15% of female students. RCCM assisted by visual multimedia can improve students' conception to a higher level
... -if the data found do not match learners' expectations, some learners assume an error in their own experiment (Ludwig et al., 2019;Wahser & Sumfleth, 2008;Chinn & Brewer, 1998); -many learners ignore data that do not fit with their expectations (Chinn & Brewer, 1993;Gauld, 1986;Kuhn, 1989;Schauble et al., 1991;Watson & Konicek, 1990); ...
... -A lot of young learners, as well as many adults, tend to stick to their hypotheses and try to confirm them (Chinn & Brewer, 1993;Klayman & Ha, 1989;Wason, 1960). ...
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Differentiation is an important teaching principle. However, existing schemas on differentiation according to achievement mainly concern content-based competencies, reading, writing, and mathematics. Differentiation in relation to procedural competencies, such as generating hypotheses, planning and conducting experiments, and drawing conclusions, has hardly been developed so far. Here, a combination of assessment and scaffolding can strongly support differentiation when teaching procedural competencies. For this purpose, this book presents a Differentiation Tool for experimentation in the sense of inquiry-based learning at secondary school in biology, chemistry, and physics. Examples and teaching material are provided to illustrate the Differentiation Tool. This book is available in different languages. The German version is available (open access) from the publisher Beltz Juventa: Baur, A., Baumgartner-Hischer, N., Lehtinen, A., Neudecker, C., Nieminen, P., Papaevripidou, M., Rohrmann, S., Schiffl, I., Schuknecht, M., Virtbauer, L. & Xenofontos, N. (Hrsg.). (2022). Differenzierung beim Inquiry-based Learning im naturwissenschaftlichen Unterricht: Ein Differenzierungstool für das Experimentieren im Sinne des Forschenden Lernens. Beltz Verlagsgruppe.
... • Viele Schülerinnen und Schüler ignorieren Daten, die nicht zu ihren Vorstellungen passen (Chinn & Brewer, 1993;Schauble et al., 1991;Watson & Konicek, 1990;Kuhn, 1989;Gauld, 1986). ...
... Hypothesen beizubehalten und diese zu bestätigen (Chinn & Brewer, 1993;Klayman & Ha, 1989;Wason, 1960). ...
Book
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Differenzierung ist ein wichtiges Unterrichtsprinzip. Konzepte zur Leistungsdifferenzierung existieren jedoch hauptsächlich für inhaltliche Kompetenzen, Lesen, Schreiben und mathematische Kompetenzen. Differenzierung in Bezug auf prozedurale Kompetenzen wie Hypothesen aufstellen, Experimente planen, Experimente durchführen und Schlussfolgerungen ziehen wurde bisher kaum entwickelt. Dabei kann eine Kombination von Diagnostik und Scaffolding die Differenzierung beim Vermitteln prozeduraler Kompetenzen sehr gut unterstützen. Im Buch wird für diesen Zweck ein Differenzierungstool für die Sekundarstufe zum Experimentieren im Sinne von Inquiry-based Learning (Forschendes Lernen) für die Fächer Biologie, Chemie und Physik vorgestellt und mit Beispielen und Unterrichtsmaterial veranschaulicht. open access - download: https://www.beltz.de/fachmedien/erziehungswissenschaft/produkte/details/48363-differenzierung-beim-inquiry-based-learning-im-naturwissenschaftlichen-unterricht.html
... Several scholars have shown that content knowledge affects the quality of reasoning (Flemming, 1986;Sadler & Zeidler, 2004;Tytler et al., 2001), with more content knowledge leading to a higher level of reasoning (Hogan, 2002;Sadler & Zeidler, 2004). Moreover, research has shown that young adults find it challenging to use theories in their reasoning that contradict their own beliefs (Chinn & Brewer, 1993;Kuhn, 1991). The use of social scientific concepts, models, and theories are distinct from reasoning in other school subjects. ...
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This study aims to describe components and levels of upper secondary social science students’ reasoning about social problems. We consulted conceptualizations of social scientific reasoning in sociology textbooks and social science education literature, analyzed student papers, and conducted focus groups with social science teachers and teacher educators to define social scientific reasoning by proficiency levels and identify common flaws in students’ reasoning. The papers were written by upper secondary social science students from eight schools in the Netherlands. We defined social scientific reasoning in terms of three components (describing, explaining, and solving problems) and five reasoning activities (causal analysis; use of social scientific concepts, models, and theories; use of evidence; use of perspectives and reflections on them; and comparing). We described these reasoning activities in three proficiency levels supported by practical examples and rubrics for students’ reasoning. These insights can inform teachers and teacher educators in monitoring students’ progression and designing teaching materials and activities that can promote students’ social scientific reasoning.
... We selected two types of incorrect answers: a) pseudoscientific (incomplete) (referring mostly to microscopic entities, but these notions are used inappropriately) and b) empirical, where notions of the visible (macroscopic) world are projected onto a strictly microscopic context. These correspond to the two ways of the formation of non-scientific concepts: verbalisms (pupils connect scientific conceptions with each other in an incorrect manner) and synthetic concepts (pupils project notions and phenomena of an everyday empirical level onto theoretical notions) (see Chinn & Brewer 1993, Kikas 2000, Vosniadou 1994, Vygotsky 1997. ...
... Wenn eine Hypothese die durch erhobene Daten nicht gestützt wird, dürfen keine Gründe zur Verteidigung der Eingangshypothese aufgeführt werden (C. Chinn & Brewer, 1993;C. A. Chinn & Brewer, 1998). ...
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Das vorliegende Kodiermanual regelt die Kodierung von - nach Unterrichtsphasen vorstrukturierten - Videodaten bezüglich Qualitäts- und Situationsausprägungen von Merkmalen von Erkenntnisprozessen, die durch eine Lehrperson im Unterricht gesteuert werden. Die Vorstrukturierung umfasst die Kodierung wissenschaftlicher Denkweisen im Prozess der Erkenntnisgewinnung, die durch die Lehrkraft induziert wurden. Die dabei ereignisbasiert kodierten Unterrichtsphasen der wissenschaftlichen Denkweisen sind Fragestellung(en) entwickeln, Hypothese(n) entwickeln, Planung, Durchführung, Auswertung und Reflexion über den Prozess der Erkenntnisgewinnung und werden als Ereignisse bezeichnet. In einem Unterrichtsvideo (Doppelstunde; 90 Minuten) können entweder nur Teile eines Erkenntnisprozesses, ein vollständiger oder mehrere vollständige bzw. unvollständige Erkenntnisprozesse vorkommen. Die Denkweise Durchführung ist nicht Teil dieses Kodiermanuals, da während dieser Denkweise vor allem manuelle Fertigkeiten der Schüler*innen beobachtet werden können und der Fokus dieses Kodiermanuals auf den von der Lehrperson zur Verfügung gestellten „Lerngelegenheiten“ zu Erkenntnisgewinnung liegt.
... Our model currently responds to anomalies by changing its concepts, but people have other responses. Chinn and Brewer (1993) identify a taxonomy of human responses to anomalous data, most of which involve avoiding conceptual revision. Similarly, Feltovich et al (2001) identified strategies called knowledge shields that people employ to avoid conceptual change. ...
Article
Understanding conceptual change is an important problem in modeling human cognition and in making integrated AI systems that can learn autonomously. This paper describes a model of explanation-based conceptual change, integrating sketch understanding, analogical processing, qualitative models, truth-maintenance, and heuristic-based reasoning within the Companions cognitive architecture. Sketch understanding is used to automatically encode stimuli in the form of comic strips. Qualitative models and conceptual quantities are constructed for new phenomena via analogical reasoning and heuristics. Truth-maintenance is used to integrate conceptual and episodic knowledge into explanations, and heuristics are used to modify existing conceptual knowledge in order to produce better explanations. We simulate the learning and revision of the concept of force, testing the concepts learned via a questionnaire of sketches given to students, showing that our model follows a similar learning trajectory.
... Onderzoek naar het reviseren van kennis heeft vooral gefocust op hoe ervoor gezorgd kan worden dat lezers onjuiste kennis tijdens het lezen reviseren en laat zien dat de in de theorie beschreven principes inderdaad kunnen leiden tot minimaliseren van misconcepties. Uit dit onderzoek blijkt dat zogenaamde weerleggingsteksten (refutation texts) het meest effectief zijn (Braasch et al., 2013;Broughton et al., 2010;Chinn & Brewer, 1993;Diakidoy & Kendeou, 2001;Guzzetti et al., 1993;Hynd & Alvermann, 1986;Maria & MacGinitie, 1987;Mason & Gava, 2007;Van den Broek & Kendeou, 2008). Dit soort teksten bestaan over het algemeen uit drie componenten: 1) een expliciete beschrijving van de onjuiste kennis, 2) een expliciete weerlegging van de misconceptie, gevolgd door 3) een beschrijving van de correcte kennis (Hynd, 2001;Kendeou et al., 2013. ...
Chapter
Een belangrijk doel van onderwijs is dat leerlingen teksten begrijpen en op basis van deze teksten conceptuele kennis opbouwen over nieuwe onderwerpen en hun bestaande kennis uitbreiden. Met andere woorden: dat ze leren van teksten. De achtergrondkennis van de lezer speelt hierbij een cruciale rol. Lezers hebben achtergrondkennis nodig om een tekst te begrijpen, maar wanneer ze een tekst begrijpen, levert dit de lezer ook nieuwe kennis op-kennis die ingezet kan worden om volgende teksten te begrijpen. Binnen het onderwijs is er een algemeen besef van het belang van achtergrondkennis voor lezen en leren, maar vaak is niet bekend hoe achtergrondkennis precies een rol speelt en welke cognitieve processen hierbij betrokken zijn. Dit hoofdstuk beschrijft waarom dit juist voor de onderwijspraktijk nuttig is om te weten en welke consequenties hier voor de praktijk van het onderwijs in begrijpend lezen uit voortvloeien. https://www.lezen.nl/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/De_zeven_pijlers_van_onderwijs_in_begrijpend_lezen-digitaal2022.pdf
... Diese Präkonzepte müssen mit den Lernenden im Rahmen einer Diskussion sowohl über die Grenzen und Unsicherheiten von durchgeführten Experimen-ten als auch der Naturwissenschaft allgemein angesprochen werden. Über den planvollen Umgang mit unerwarteten Daten (Chinn & Brewer, 1993) oder die Besprechung von Untersuchungen, welche nicht erwartungskonform verliefen (Nott & Wellington, 1996) (Meier & Mayer, 2012;Wahser & Sumfleth, 2008). Insgesamt haben die Lernenden Schwierigkeiten bei der adäquaten Berücksichtigung von Störvariablen, Messdauer sowie Messwiederholungen (Arnold, Kremer & Mayer, 2012). ...
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In dieser Studie werden zwei längerfristig konzipierte Lehrkräftefortbildungsformate (sog. individualisiert-konstruktiv und kokonstruktiv) zum geöffneten Experimentieren hinsichtlich der Änderung des Unterrichtshandelns untersucht. Es soll damit ein Beitrag zur Aufklärung der Wirksamkeit kokonstruktiver Elemente in Fortbildungen geleistet werden. Literaturbasiert werden Kategorien des Unterrichtshandelns zum effektiven Experimentieren zusammengestellt, die in keinem bestehenden Rating- oder Kodiermanual zusammengeführt worden sind. Das Manual wurde in einer quasi-experimentellen Videostudie zur Lehrkräftefortbildung eingesetzt. Die Lehrkräfte wurden bzgl. ihres Unterrichtshandelns beim Experimentieren vor sowie nach der Fortbildung videografiert. Die Studie zeigt mit Blick auf das Unterrichtshandeln beim Experimentieren zwei wesentliche Änderungen: die Lehrkräfte setzen nach der Fortbildung weniger kochrezeptartige Experimentieranleitungen ein und Experimentierphasen - begleitet von Unterstützungsangeboten - werden geöffnet. Außerdem regen Lehrkräfte nach der Fortbildung Lernende stärker zu wissenschaftsorientiertem Arbeiten an ('Minds on' statt 'Hands on'). Der Transfer von Fortbildungsinhalten findet nur von einigen Lehrkräften, individualisiert und differenziell, in das Unterrichtshandeln statt. Das Unterrichtshandeln scheint auch gegenüber längerfristigen Interventionen robust: In der Mehrzahl der Aspekte des Unterrichtshandelns zeigen sich keine signifikanten Änderungen.
... Yet, the students' re-examination of the given problem allows them to (re)construct a critical understanding of the Pythagorean theorem. As Chinn and Brewer (1993) suggested, conceptual progress occurs when students identify inconsistencies between old and new information, seek connections among new knowledge and develop conflicting hypotheses to reconcile cognitive conflicts. In this way, students would realize the importance of rigorousness in tackling mathematical problems, improving their thinking patterns as active learners. ...
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As a critical component of China’s school education, math is a heavy-weight subject in decisive nation-level examinations. To improve students’ performance in those high-stakes tests, various strategies have been adopted in the realm of mathematics when young learners embark on their primary education. Amid those practical methods for enhancing students’ math scores, a type of test item - “trap question” is designed to hone students’ sensitivity and ability to address easily-confused mathematical issues, which may involve traps on the conceptual, cognitive and lexical level. Drawing on these three dimensions for designing trap questions, three types of trap questions are often adopted in China’s primary education, including conceptual, cognitive and reading traps. This article focuses on, among others, the adoption of trap questions in China’s primary mathematics education, gleaning a comprehensive analysis of the Chinese stylized pedagogical tool for math subject. Invoking a philosophical account of constructivism, this analysis suggests that trap questions can be harnessed to shape students’ rigorous thinking patterns. However, this article argues that the popularity of trap questions vis-à-vis China’s mathematics teaching reflects an intention of nurturing young learners’ sensitivity towards particular test items in examinations as a test-taker rather than rigorousness as a mathematician. The pedagogical implication of the trap questions is also discussed.
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There is an asymmetry in the procedures used by natural scientists to account for `correct belief' and for `error'. Correct belief is treated as the normal state of affairs, as deriving unproblematically from experimental evidence, and as requiring no special explanation. Errors are seen as something to be explained away, as due to the intrusion of non-scientific influences. An elaborate repertoire of interpretative resources is employed in accounting for error. Asymmetrical accounting for error and for correct belief is a social device which reinforces the traditional conception of scientific rationality and which makes the community of scientists appear as the kind of community we, and they, recognize as scientific. These conclusions are based on a detailed analysis of interviews with researchers in an area of biochemistry.
Chapter
Platinum metals are depleted in the earth's crust relative to their cosmic abundance; concentrations of these elements in deep-sea sediments may thus indicate influxes of extraterrestrial material. Deep-sea limestones exposed in Italy, Denmark, and New Zealand show iridium increases of about 30, 160, and 20 times, respectively, above the background level at precisely the time of the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinctions, 65 m.y. ago. Reasons are given to indicate that this iridium is of extraterrestrial origin, but did not come from a nearby supernova. We suggest a hypothesis which accounts for the extinctions and the iridium observations. Impact of a large earth-crossing asteroid would inject about 60 times the object's mass into the atmosphere as pulverized rock; a fraction of this dust would stay in the stratosphere for several years and be distributed worldwide. The resulting darkness would suppress photosynthesis, and the expected biological consequences match quite closely the extinctions observed in the paleontological record. One prediction of this hypothesis has been verified: the chemical composition of the boundary clay, which is thought to come from the stratospheric dust, is markedly different from that of clay mixed with the Cretaceous and Tertiary limestones, which are chemically similar to each other. Four different and quite independent estimates of the diameter of the asteroid give values that lie in the range 10 ± 4 km.
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Previous research indicates that our initial impressions of events frequently influence how we interpret later information. This experiment explored whether accountability-pressures to justify one's impressions to others-leads people to process information more vigilantly and, as a result, reduces the undue influence of early-formed impressions on final judgments. Subjects viewed evidence from a criminal case and then assessed the guilt of the defendant. The study varied (1) the order of presentation of pro-vs. anti-defendant information, (2) whether subjects expected to justify their decisions and, if so, whether subjects realized that they were accountable prior to or only after viewing the evidence. The results indicated that subjects given the anti/pro-defendant order of information were more likely to perceive the defendant as guilty than subjects given the pro/anti-defendant order of information, but only when subjects did not expect to justify their decisions or expected to justify their decisions only after viewing the evidence. Order of presentation of evidence had no impact when subjects expected to justify their decisions before viewing the evidence. Accountability prior to the evidence evidence also substantially improved free recall of the case material. The results suggest that accountability reduces primacy effects by affecting how people initially encode and process stimulus information.
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This paper reports an experiment in which groups of four subjects attempt to solve two related rules when they know that 0–20 per cent of the feedback they receive may be in error. Groups were randomly assigned to one of three strategy conditions: confirmatory, in which subjects were urged to propose experiments consistent with their hypotheses; disconfirmatory, in which subjects were encouraged to propose experiments at variance with their hypotheses; and a control strategy, in which subjects were merely urged to test their guesses by proposing more experiments. In a previous study using the same rules and strategy conditions, but no error, Gorman et al. (1984) found that disconfirmatory groups performed significantly better than groups in other conditions. In the study described here, this performance difference did not arise. About 60 per cent of the time groups immunized their hypotheses against disconfirmation by classifying disconfirmatory results as error. About 40 per cent of the time groups correctly recognized that there was no error, but spent so much of their time replicating experiments to make sure that there was no error that they failed adequately to test their hypotheses. The few successful groups used a strategy that combined disconfirmation with replication. Detailed examples of how groups handled error are discussed, as are the implications of these results for future research.
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The study described in this paper investigates the combined effect of certain variables on student achievement in classical mechanics. Our purposes are (1) to describe the preinstructional knowledge of mechanics, mathematical skills, and reasoning skills of a sample of college physics students, (2) to correlate these variables with the student's success in learning classical mechanics, and (3) to develop an hypothesis about the relationships between these variables and student achievement in mechanics. We also offer some proposals for improving the teaching of classical mechanics.
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The present study investigated development in the ability to sample and use data about probabilistic relationships in order to test causal hypotheses. Third-grade, seventh-grade, and college students were asked to sample cards representing observations of two potentially related events and then to judge the causal relationship between those events. Overall accuracy of causal judgment was low (67–70% correct), with more errors on the noncontingent than on the two contingent relationships. Causal judgment accuracy improved with age across problem types. Biased information sampling was associated with poor accuracy of causal judgment in a pattern which suggested that subjects judged causal relationships according to the rate of the target outcome when the possible cause was present, with little attention to the same proportions when that cause was absent.
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By direct observation, 203 fourth-graders confirmed the conservation of combined weights of sugar and water as measured before and after dissolving. Prior to this confirmation, experimental group subjects were required to choose one of three alternatives of a conservation problem and were presented with a fictitious choice response distribution with conflicting reasons. Control group subjects were given only the multiple-choice problem. Experimental group subjects showed (a) stronger curiosity for confirmation by observation, (b) greater progress in generalizing the principle of weight conservation to a variety of situations, and (c) higher positive correlation between curiosity and amount of progress.