Article

Constructing the Child Viewer : A History of the American Discourse on Television and Children, 1950-1980 / R. Butsch.

Authors:
If you want to read the PDF, try requesting it from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... However, it was the rise of the film industry in the early 20th century that gave way to the first organized public reform project. By the 1920s, debate about the movie "problem" began circulating in academic and popular discourse (Luke, 1990). Concerns included the potential effects of exposure to depictions of violence or interpersonal discord, the impact of movie viewing on school performance and attendance, eyestrain, and unsanitary cinema conditions (Luke, 1990). ...
... By the 1920s, debate about the movie "problem" began circulating in academic and popular discourse (Luke, 1990). Concerns included the potential effects of exposure to depictions of violence or interpersonal discord, the impact of movie viewing on school performance and attendance, eyestrain, and unsanitary cinema conditions (Luke, 1990). As Geiger (1923) asserted, these dangers constituted an "unparalleled assault" on society's most valuable assets, namely, "its innocency and its youth" (p. ...
... These concerns led to the Payne Fund studies, the first comprehensive study of the effects of movies on the behaviour of children and adolescents. Initiated in 1929 and published in 1933, the research did not find a direct causal effect between movies and antisocial or criminal behaviour; rather, the influence of the media could only be understood in the context of individual experiences (Luke, 1990). Nevertheless, the study concluded that films contained "too much sex and crime and love" for children (Charters, 1933, p. 60). ...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we look to viewer responses to James Bridle’s TED Talk on children’s YouTube to learn about the discursive landscape of childhood in the digital age. We first situate concerns about children’s use of YouTube within a history of moral panic and then conduct a thematic analysis of online comments to discover what viewers identify as the central concerns. We “unbox” three emergent themes of responsibility—corporate, parental, and societal—to understand how these themes might help us think about contemporary discourses of childhood “at risk,” critical media literacy, and children’s agency as social actors on the Internet.
... Educational discourse consists of textual and spoken statements which are circulated across and within a range of sites: from academic research papers and policy documents, to professional books which commonly set out to translate and explain 'theory' and research to practitioners, to teachers' formal and informal professional exchanges, to documents like teachers' guides and official syllabi (Luke & Luke, 1990). Across these texts are varied constructions of the child subject (e.g., the 'preoperational' child, the child 'author'), of particular skills or competences (e.g., 'reading readiness', 'decoding', 'critical thinking'), as well as of the visible signs to be taken as evidence that such skills or competences have been achieved or not (e.g., 'frustration levels with text', 'miscues'). ...
... However well the body may remember, many literate practices inscribed at the site of the school have little apparent connection to out of school sites (Heath, 1980). Many of the practices of school literacy appear to be simulations -self-referential practices which appear to serve little other than the maintenance of age, authority and power relations within the school (Luke & Luke, 1990). ...
... Yet, like much other school knowledge in postmodern conditions, the resultant narratives are simulations, with few freestanding referents in children's everyday lives, and only occasional intertextual references to Snow White, Ninja Turtles and other figments of popular culture (Luke & Luke, 1990). Further, the representation here is not a mimetic one to experience or background knowledge, but rather to labels and namings in the teacher's head. ...
... Educational discourse consists of textual and spoken statements which are circulated across and within a range of sites: from academic research papers and policy documents, to professional books which commonly set out to translate and explain 'theory' and research to practitioners, to teachers' formal and informal professional exchanges, to documents like teachers' guides and official syllabi (Luke & Luke, 1990). Across these texts are varied constructions of the child subject (e.g., the 'preoperational' child, the child 'author'), of particular skills or competences (e.g., 'reading readiness', 'decoding', 'critical thinking'), as well as of the visible signs to be taken as evidence that such skills or competences have been achieved or not (e.g., 'frustration levels with text', 'miscues'). ...
... However well the body may remember, many literate practices inscribed at the site of the school have little apparent connection to out of school sites (Heath, 1980). Many of the practices of school literacy appear to be simulations -self-referential practices which appear to serve little other than the maintenance of age, authority and power relations within the school (Luke & Luke, 1990). ...
... Yet, like much other school knowledge in postmodern conditions, the resultant narratives are simulations, with few freestanding referents in children's everyday lives, and only occasional intertextual references to Snow White, Ninja Turtles and other figments of popular culture (Luke & Luke, 1990). Further, the representation here is not a mimetic one to experience or background knowledge, but rather to labels and namings in the teacher's head. ...
... Educational discourse consists of textual and spoken statements which are circulated across and within a range of sites: from academic research papers and policy documents, to professional books which commonly set out to translate and explain 'theory' and research to practitioners, to teachers' formal and informal professional exchanges, to documents like teachers' guides and official syllabi (Luke & Luke, 1990). Across these texts are varied constructions of the child subject (e.g., the 'preoperational' child, the child 'author'), of particular skills or competences (e.g., 'reading readiness', 'decoding', 'critical thinking'), as well as of the visible signs to be taken as evidence that such skills or competences have been achieved or not (e.g., 'frustration levels with text', 'miscues'). ...
... However well the body may remember, many literate practices inscribed at the site of the school have little apparent connection to out of school sites (Heath, 1980). Many of the practices of school literacy appear to be simulations -self-referential practices which appear to serve little other than the maintenance of age, authority and power relations within the school (Luke & Luke, 1990). ...
... Yet, like much other school knowledge in postmodern conditions, the resultant narratives are simulations, with few freestanding referents in children's everyday lives, and only occasional intertextual references to Snow White, Ninja Turtles and other figments of popular culture (Luke & Luke, 1990). Further, the representation here is not a mimetic one to experience or background knowledge, but rather to labels and namings in the teacher's head. ...
... All discourses are constantly renegotiated and redefined, partially through institutional mechanisms (Foucault, 1977), but also through "local knowledges" (Foucault, 1997, p. 10) and through our everyday interactions (Foucault, 1972). Furthermore, each of us is subject to not one but multiple discourses (Luke, 1990), making each person a site of discursive struggle (Luke, 1990;Holland et al., 1998). ...
... All discourses are constantly renegotiated and redefined, partially through institutional mechanisms (Foucault, 1977), but also through "local knowledges" (Foucault, 1997, p. 10) and through our everyday interactions (Foucault, 1972). Furthermore, each of us is subject to not one but multiple discourses (Luke, 1990), making each person a site of discursive struggle (Luke, 1990;Holland et al., 1998). ...
... This tying together of English/literacy and young people as a site of anxiety and as the 'pressure point' at which schooling is judged for its effectiveness in preparing future citizens -a kind of acid test of the health of schooling in a way that the pulse rate is a measure of the health of the body (is the issue that is being traced historically. It is not just in the present that such a tying together occurs -in newspapers, for instance, literacy has been a focus for concern about schools and curriculum since world war 2 (Green, Hodgens, & Luke, 1994), and in that period there have been particular panics around the impact of (the then) 'new' texts such as television (Luke, 1990), and comic books (Finnane, 1989;Openshaw & Shuker, 1987) and calls on schools to respond. ...
... The prevalence of technology in the lives of children makes screen time an additional barrier affecting time for their play. The amount of time children spend engaged in screen time has worried parents, teachers and researchers for years (Luke 1990). During the past two decades, American children were active participants in an explosion of mass media. ...
Article
Over the duration of my teaching career I have witnessed the intensification of attitudes devaluing play, and now in my role as a university professor I have visited many school sites that offer little time for child-initiated play. These personal experiences painted a bleak picture for the inclusion of play in the daily lives of children. So while attending The Association for the Study of Play’s conference in 2006, I sought out sessions that focused on issues of play advocacy. As it turned out, a session offered by Fraser Brown titled Children Without Play was just what the doctor ordered. At that presentation I was introduced to the field of Playwork and became intrigued by a profession whose underlying principles were well suited to address the societal factors devaluing children’s play in America.
... Globalisation is a key word guiding these theorisations of New Times, and globalisation is far from unidirectional, stable or even consistent. As a result, New Times involve multiple and complex literacies (Street 1995 and2003;Cope and Kalantzis 2000), multiple and complex notions of citizenship (Kymlicka 1995), multiple and complex notions of constitutional arrangements (Tully 1997), new ways in which consumerism articulates with notions of childhood, such as 'World Kids' (Luke 1990, Luke andLuke 1999). World Kids wear similar clothes, T-shitis that recall the same films; they sing tunes from the same songs, make jokes about the behaviours and personalities of the same sports stars, singers or film celebrities and admire some heroes of youth culture, whether they are in Botswana, Singapore or Bolivia. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper uses three terms that increasingly have relevance for language education. New Times, refers to contemporary life under intense and rapid globalisation; World Kids refers to how childhood is beginning to look similar in many parts of the world, and Third Place is a term that tries to account for what goes on in inter-language encounters where we can observe that speakers engage in compromise, negotiation, and adaptation at the cultural, linguistic and pragmatic levels. New Times aims to capture the widest social context for contemporary language education. World Kids makes us reflect on the idea that young people today know more about each other, regardless of distance and difference, than any previous generation, often independently of any mediation by adults. Third Place (Kramsch 1993) suggests that the models that teachers and curriculum writers have of the target language and culture should provide space to incorporate the learner and his or her cultural and linguistic habitus (Bourdieu 1991 ).
... The first studies, carried out in the United States at the end of the 1940s (Luke, 1990), measured how much time children spent watching television and assessed the effect that this fantasy world had on them. The authors' stances were clear: some considered television to be a villain; others saw it as a baby sitter, while another group thought of it more as a source of learning (De Fleur and De Fleur, 1967). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article analyses the children’s programmes which were made by, and broadcast on, Spanish television channel Televisión Española from the time when programme schedules were first published in the press (1958) until the end of the Franco era (1975). The programming is then linked to the evolution of Televisión Española as an institution, as well as with the social and political context of the nation. The study takes into account the days and times of transmission, programme duration, the number of new shows broadcast per year and the most common content/formats. Each programme’s structure, its characters, the role of the presenter, involvement of children and the values and ideas conveyed are also assessed. We will demonstrate that the dictatorship initially used these programmes to promote patriotic and religious feelings, and later on, to prepare children and young people for the new social and economic realities of the country (such as urbanisation and industrialisation).
... The NVLA was particularly vocal in public regulatory discourse from the 1960s onward, calling for greater restrictions on the distribution of sexual, violent and non-Christian content on television, video, and cinema (Tracey and Morrison, 1979). With respect to broadcast television, much academic research, with the exception of a number of experimental and laboratory investigations, has from the late 1950s onward demonstrated largely that its influence is dependent on the nature of the programme, the psychological development, disposition and cognitive capacity of the child, the social and emotional economy of the family, interpersonal peer relations, and the broader discursive context (Luke, 1990). The US Surgeon General's Advisory Committee on the impact of television violence gathered evidence and deliberated on the matter in the 1970s. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the close of a speech to the Hong Kong Broadcasting Authority and the Office of the Telecommunications Authority in Hong Kong in August 2005, Richard Hooper, Deputy Chairman of Ofcom and Chairman of its Content Board, declared that: The world HAS changed. The regulation of two or three or four channels is fundamentally different to regulating 500. The arrival of the internet platform does introduce regulatory asymmetry. The balance has to be got right, for example, between the traditional British respect for freedom of speech, freedom of religion and the new challenges posed by websites inciting religious and racial hatred. We may also be moving away from a world where a small group of people in society create and distribute content to the rest of us, and towards an era of much greater access to the spot in front of the camera and in front of the microphone. (Hooper, 2005: 8) The changed regulatory landscape painted by Hooper - soon after the setting up of Ofcom (Office of communications) by legislation in the UK in 2003 to provide a converged regulatory agency capable of tackling the changed dynamics - is one that is brushed by many commentators of the immense structural, institutional, and ideological shifts brought about by what are referred to as the 'new disruptive technologies of digital convergence' (ibid.). A central theme of many discussions about the changing environment concerns the reciprocal impact of contemporary media and communications on children and hence the difficult question of how to provide a regulatory framework that both protects children from harm and illegalities, as well as nurturing the creative potential of inventions and new synergies. In an age when there are a plurality of people producing and circulating content, in a system of media abundance, and with an increasing uncertainty to centralised regulatory monopolies, how are the children of that world to be protected? In this chapter, I attempt to take account of these changes and problems, initially looking to the broader historical context and then to contemporary discussions about regulation after sovereignty in conditions of communication abundance. I then provide an overview of some significant aspects of the
... With regard to literacy, researchers have long noted the intersections between literacy learning and children's encounters with signs, symbols and texts inside and outside the home, including those originating in popular and consumer culture. However, the flow of images and signs into the home, facilitated by the advent of television and the rise of consumer culture post World War Two (Kline, 1993;Luke, 1990;Seiter, 1995), has arguably increased in pace and volume since the advent of digital media and the intensification of forms of economic and cultural globalisation (Marsh 2006). In this process, young children and their families have become significant markets as potential consumers of products and services for the home, including those specifically promoted as 'educational' (Nixon, 1998;Scanlon and Buckingham, 2004;Seiter, 1995). ...
... The current era of global history has been described as the New Times. The immense complexity of this phase of integrating history involves multiple literacies (Cope and Kalantzis, 2000;Street, 1995), multiple forms of citizenship (Janoski, 1998;Kymlicka, 1995;Schuck, 1998) and more flexible constitutional arrangements for society (Tully, 1996) all of which percolate across the world through consumerism, mass media and popular culture to link children across the world as 'World Kids' (Luke, 1990;Luke and Luke, 1990). Multiculturalism is both a precursor and a consequence of these new kinds of connections. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The focus of the present analysis concerns the changing fortunes and meanings of the concept of multicultural education in Australia. The paper discusses the concept and activity of multicultural education through analysis of major public policy announcements, programs and reports. It is of course the case that education institutions adapt to social changes other than those deriving from ethnic or racial differences, such as technological change, economic developments, historical events, national identity and the inculcation of citizenship, and such adaptation is also “cultural”. However, the changes that concern the present discussion are confined to those deriving from the demographic diversity of populations.
... The concept of the modern family was formed at this time. According to Carmen Luke (1990), " . . . by the eighteenth century, pedagogues, physicians, parents, administrators, and clerics had isolated children from the general population . ...
Article
Full-text available
This article compares the social representations that elementary school teachers from two different types of schools (traditional and personalized) have of the child (n = 6 from each). We probe the conception that teachers have of the pupil, as well as the most influential sources of formation and information in the determination of the representation of the infant. A Likert-scale questionnaire was used in order to measure the information and attitudes toward the child, and semi-structured, open interviews were conducted, to analyze the field of representation. Differences were found in the way teachers from the two types of school represent the child related to sources of formation and information (academic degrees, training in personalized education, knowledge of theories on child development, among others), as well as in the way the student was conceived. The child is seen in a more integral, less dissected way, by the teachers from the personalized school, which has repercussions in the way the pupil is comprehended.
Article
Full-text available
This publication reviews cross-disciplinary literature on education with the aim of informing the reader of the relation between educational governance and social inclusion/exclusion in policy and research. Various conceptual issues raised in the literature are examined first. Then, two problematics are considered to emphasize how the methods, concepts, and "theories" of social science can produce new ways of thinking, organizing action, and producing results. The section on the equity problematic explores questions of representation and access of individuals and groups to educational and social practices. The section on the problematic of knowledge focuses on the systems of reason whereby identities assigned to actors are "fabricated" in order to organize and divide. It is the authors' hopes to make visible the relation between epistemological assumptions and "real world" practices of research, policy, and schooling. Appendices contain a search of the Educational Resource Information Center (ERIC) database for the Education Governance and Social Integration and Exclusion in Europe project, lists from the ERIC alphabetical descriptor display, and short descriptions of findings by ERIC. (Contains 186 references.) (RT)
Chapter
Over the past few decades broad and deep changes in society have made themselves felt in a succession of curriculum reform movements. Changes in the fundamental technologies of society, in gender relations, in the ethnic, national, linguistic and religious composition of populations sharing the same geo-political space, changes in personal and social values, in mobility across space, in rapidity of communication across great distances, and, not least, in the nature and patterns of work, have found their way into claims that schooling should ‘reflect’ new realities.
Chapter
Some kids are smarter than others. Some are better looking than others. Some are kinder and more sensitive than others. Some are more talented than others. Some are more confident than others. But all these differences pale in comparison with what kids share and kids do not change much at their core over the years. They want to be valued and accepted. They want to be safe. They want to learn and explore. They want to play and have fun. They need to find meaning in their lives and make a spiritual connection (Garbarino, 1995).
Article
From 1839 to 1873 New Zealand was characterised by ideological, religious, economic cultural and social contest. This struggle to order a new society, in which colonists and indigenes were required to co-exist, is captured in the newspapers of the day. These document and attest to a contest over power; power to appropriate and control resources, power to administer, control and institutionalize the colony, and power to ascribe identities. Newspapers published during the initial period of colonization in New Zealand are saturated with instances of ideological work where discourses were deployed that supported the colonial endeavour. In this study therefore I have sought to understand and articulate those racial ideologies, racial formations, and discourses, which emerged from New Zealand’s colonial press archives. How did New Zealand’s colonial press constitute the privileges, entitlements and struggles of the white British colonist in relation to the native? What white British colonial ideologies, discursive formations and discourses can be identified in the colonial press in relation to the native? Are there any patterns or relationships between these discourses? What did these discourses look like over time? A critical discourse analytical approach has been applied to a body of texts extracted from newspapers published in New Zealand between 1839 and 1873. From this analysis three broad discursive formations have been apprehended; the discourses of sovereignty, discipline and paternalism respectively. These discourses were not independent of one another but worked to construct an interlocking network of discourse that provided sound ideological coverage. The discourse of sovereignty provided a broad platform for working out the colony’s ideological and institutional plan; discourses of discipline discursively managed native disruptions to the plan, while discourses of paternalism invested the colonial project with affectations of concern and interest in the progress of the native. Weaving through these discourses are patterns of meaning which worked to constitute white British colonial authority in economic, political, judicial, social, martial and moral affairs. These constitutive repertoires were malleable and adaptable and attached and detached themselves, according to the context, to and from the discourses of sovereignty, discipline and paternalism. Over time it appears that these discourses and the associated patterns of meaning worked responsively and flexibly, bleeding into each other, reconstituting authority and identity across different contexts. Furthermore, these discourses and patterns attest to a complex encounter with a vociferous non-white challenge, which necessitated a flexible reservoir of rhetoric to situate and position the white British colonial incursion favourably in the white settler public arena.
Article
Full-text available
This article is a materialist philosophical and historical analysis of the current policy focus on early intervention programmes for print literacy. It documents the direct impact of economic and cultural globalization and new technologies on the material conditions for adolescence and youth. We argue that educational systems and government policies are struggling with the consequences of these changes: new forms of identity, technological competence and practice, and new life pathways for children and adolescents. The case is made that the current enthusiasm for early intervention programs is a 'rhetorical displacement' that attempts to solve the problems of unruly adolescence and the emergence of the 'techno-subject' through an 'inoculation' model dedicated to the restoration and preservation of print-based early childhood.
Article
Though the development of “public history” as a professional practice and its arrival as an academic field date back only to the mid-1970s, an emphasis on the role of historians as public actors with unique societal responsibilities has punctuated the self-reflective literature issuing forth from the profession throughout much of the 20th Century. In his 1949 presidential address to the American Historical Association (AHA), Conyers Read advised that “history has to justify itself in social terms.” In a postwar world whose grand drama shifted from the defeat of fascism to the crusade against communism, Read instructed historians in their highest role, namely, “education for democracy.” “Total war, whether it be hot or cold,” Read observed, “enlists everyone and calls upon everyone to assume his part.” Read's prescription has remained a canon in the profession. In 1986, for example, AHA former president C. Vann Woodward owned that historians have “obligations to the present.” Recognizing the problematical nature of the “relationship of history to the public realm,” AHA president William E. Leuchtenburg in like manner nonetheless recently observed that “generation after generation, a substantial corps of scholars has insisted that historians should concentrate on contributing to the solution of contemporary problems.”
Article
To assess changes in thematic and value depictions in American magazine advertising containing children from 1940 to 1950, a content analysis coded advertisements for themes/genres, product‐types, and connections of ad‐child to ad‐product. While results indicate significant increases in the number of advertisements containing children in the postwar years, findings also show the majority of those advertisements to be for “adult‐oriented products.”; However, postwar advertising images also hail children in larger amounts as observed through various personalizing aspects. For example, children are increasingly shown in the postwar period “looking at,”; “reaching for,”; or “using”; the ad‐product. There are also significant postwar increases in the favorable reaction of the ad‐child to the ad‐product itself, rather than to product use. As expected there are several inter‐period thematic shifts, particularly those of “war/home front”; and “teen social”;. Finally, image assessments point to postwar shifts in the value associations taking place between ad‐children and ad‐products.
Article
Full-text available
The quintessential image of the television audience is of the family viewing at home—sitting together comfortably in front of the lively set. Accompanying this happy image is its negative—a child viewing alone while real life goes on elsewhere. This article reviews evidence over five decades regarding the changing place of television in children’s lives. It argues that, notwithstanding postwar trends that have significantly changed adolescence, the family home, and wider consumer society, there was time for the 1950s family experiment to spawn the 1960s and 1970s family television experiment, thereby shaping normative expectations—academic, policy, and popular—regarding television audiences for years to come. At the turn of the twenty-first century, we must recognize that it was the underlying long-term trend of individualization, and its associated trends of consumerism, globalization, and democratization, that, historically and now, more profoundly frame the place of television in the family.
Article
Within cultural studies and social constructivist frameworks, this paper argues that media scholars and educators in the United States need to acknowledge what young people already know about mass media, and to learn more about young people's lives. Drawing on ethnographic research conducted in a diverse New York City middle school, young adolescents’ comments about the television they watch everyday is examined using media education standards established by the British Film Institute (BFI). These young people demonstrated a nascent awareness of the constructed and commercial nature of television as categorized by the BFI standards, which provides a baseline for building their critical understandings. The television comments of the young people are also analyzed in relation to the realities of their lives, making links between their informal media knowledge and their sense of possibilities. Such strategies can further the theories and practices of media studies and media education.
Chapter
Die USA sind im Bereich von Medien-, Markt- und Konsumentwicklung ohne Zweifel Vorreiter, und auch die entsprechende Forschung gibt international große Impulse. Aufgrund ihrer Tradition und Philosophie nehmen die USA jedoch keine herausragende Position bei der Konsum- und Werbeerziehung ein. Es gibt keine landesweite Struktur, die jeden amerikanischen Bürger irgendwann im Verlauf seines Lebens mit Konsum- und Werbeerziehung konfrontieren würde. In diesem Beitrag wird das spezifische Verhältnis zwischen Markt und Pädagogik bzw. Schule dargestellt — viele europäische Bildungspolitiker liebäugeln mit dem „amerikanischen Modell“ — und gesellschaftliche Hintergründe einer (mangelnden) Konsumentenerziehung werden beschrieben sowie Regeln, die „kommerzielle Integrität“ gegenüber kindlichen Verbrauchern marktkonform einfordern. Ein Schwerpunkt liegt auf der Darstellung von Entwicklungen im Medien- und Konsumbereich, die u.a. eine Erziehung der Kinder zum kritischen Konsum durch den Markt, nicht durch Pädagogik, ermöglichen. Kinder werden zunehmend als Geschäftspartner, nicht als passive Konsumenten, ernstgenommen und lernen so durch eigenes Handeln, Marktmechanismen zu verstehen. Schließlich werden Perspektiven für Werbe- und Konsumkompetenz entwickelt.
Chapter
Im deutschen Fernsehen wurde im Jahr 1991 Tag für Tag die Ermordung von etwa 70 Menschen gezeigt. Die wenigsten Mordopfer — sechs pro Tag — waren im ARD-Programm zu sehen, die meisten bei PRO 7 mit rund 20 täglich. „Ohne weitere Differenzierungen und als Durchschnittswert auf Tage und Stunden umgerechnet bedeuten die Zahlen, daß im Schnitt im Gesamtprogramm einer Woche 1991 fast 500 Mordszenen (genau 481) ... vorkamen.“1 Auf das Jahr hochgerechnet, kann der Zuschauer im deutschen Fernsehen demnach ca. 25.000 Morde konsumieren.
Chapter
Children's media policy is designed with two primary goals: first, to increase children's access to beneficial content; and second, to decrease their exposure to harmful content. This chapter explores the principles on which US children's media policy has been established. It then outlines current US media policies that address content deemed to be detrimental to children (including junk food advertising and violent content) and seek to improve access to media technology and educational content that is considered beneficial to children (such as E-Rate and the Children's Television Act). In addition to reviewing media policies, the chapter considers research on the implementation and impact of the policies, including the abject failure of the V-chip legislation and the ongoing discourse about privacy protection. The chapter concludes by arguing the need for a more deliberate use of effects research in the development and evaluation of children's media policy.
Article
Full-text available
Dalam penerjemahan film (subtitling), aspek legibilitas memiliki peranan penting yang mencakup beberapa kaidah dalam pengaturan teks alih bahasa (subtitle), baik dalam tampilan maupun durasinya. Kesesuaian dan ketepatan aspek legibilitas sangat mempengaruhi kualitas teks alih bahasa dalam sebuah film sehingga seorang penerjemah film tidak hanya dituntut harus menguasai ilmu terjemahan saja, tetapi juga memahami dan menerapkan beberapa aspek legibilitas tersebut. Tampilan teks alih bahasa pada film James Bond 007 Quantum of Solace, ditemukan bahwa jumlah karakter teks alih bahasa antara 35 sampai 40, walaupun terdapat beberapa jumlah karakter yang masih dibawah 35. Posisi teks alih bahasa dari kiri ke kanan, agak dibawah dengan warna putih pucat dan beberapa dengan warna oranye pada saat terjadinya percakapan dengan bahasa Italia. Selain itu, ada juga yang tercetak miring ketika sumber percakapan berasal dari lawan bicara di telpon. Durasi yang digunakan cukup bervariasi dengan hitungan detik sampai seperdetik, ini sangat penting mengingat durasi tampilan teks alih bahasa harus sesuai dengan durasi tampilan gambar pada layar.
Chapter
Die Historische Kindheitsforschung ist in den vierzig Jahren seit Philippe Ariès’ „L’enfant et la vie familiale sous l’ancien régime” (1960, dt. „Geschichte der Kindheit“, Ariès 1975) zu einem internationalen Forschungsgebiet von beträchtlicher Produktivität und Differenziertheit geworden.1 Von einem Handbuch-Artikel kann erwartet werden, dass er den Stand der Forschung und ihre aktuellen Schwerpunkte darstellt. Diesem Anspruch lässt sich in der expansiven, durch paradigmatische Ansätze relativ schwach strukturierten Historischen Kindheitsforschung weniger durch einen Überblick als durch einen konstruktiven Entwurf entsprechen.
Chapter
Full-text available
In the World Library of Educationalists series, international scholars themselves compile career-long collections of what they judge to be their finest pieces - extracts from books, key articles, salient research findings, major theoretical and/or practical contributions - so the world can read them in a single manageable volume. Readers will be able to follow the themes and strands of their work and see their contribution to the development of a field, as well as the development of the field itself. Allan Luke’s work on critical literacy, schooling, and equity has influenced the fields of literacy education, teacher education, educational sociology, and policy for over three decades. This volume brings together Allan Luke’s key writings on literacy and schooling. Chapters cover a range of topics and theories, including the development and application of a social and cultural analysis of literacy education and schooling; a primer on literacy as a social construction; classroom-based case studies of literacy teaching and learning; major theoretical and philosophic essays; practical programmatic work on school reform and enabling curriculum policies; and classroom approaches to teaching critical literacy and multiliteracies.
Article
Study Objectives Evidence for the association between screen time and insufficient sleep is bourgeoning, and recent findings suggest that these associations may be more pronounced in younger compared to older children, and for portable compared to non-portable devices. However, these effects have yet to be investigated within the beginning of life. Importantly, there are no data for the relationship between screen exposure and objectively measured infant sleep. This study examined the moderating role of age for both touchscreens’ and television’s relationship with sleep, using auto-videosomnography within a big-data sample of infants. Methods The sleep of 1,074 infants (46% girls) aged 0-18 months was objectively assessed using computer-vision technology in this cross-sectional study. Sleep was additionally reported by parents in an online survey, as was infant’s exposure to screens. Results Age significantly moderated the relationship between daytime touchscreen exposure and sleep with a distinct pattern for younger infants, in which screen exposure was associated with decreased daytime sleep, but with a proposed compensatory increase in nighttime sleep consolidation. Compared to touchscreens, television exposure was less likely to be associated with sleep metrics, and age moderated this relationship only for daytime and 24-h sleep duration. Conclusions In young infants, a daytime-nighttime sleep ‘trade-off’ emerged, suggesting that the displacement of daytime sleep by screens may lead to greater accumulation of sleep homeostatic pressure, which in turn facilitates more consolidated nighttime sleep.
Article
Full-text available
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that children over age 2 years spend < or = 2 hours per day with screen media, because excessive viewing has been linked to a plethora of physical, academic, and behavioral problems. The primary goal of this study was to qualitatively explore how a recommendation to limit television viewing might be received and responded to by a diverse sample of parents and their school-age children. The study collected background data about media use, gathered a household media inventory, and conducted in-depth individual and small group interviews with 180 parents and children ages 6 to 13 years old. Most of the children reported spending approximately 3 hours per day watching television. The average home in this sample had 4 television sets; nearly two thirds had a television in the child's bedroom, and nearly half had a television set in the kitchen or dining room. Although virtually all of the parents reported having guidelines for children's television viewing, few had rules restricting the time children spend watching television. Data from this exploratory study suggest several potential barriers to implementing a 2-hour limit, including: parents' need to use television as a safe and affordable distraction, parents' own heavy television viewing patterns, the role that television plays in the family's day-to-day routine, and a belief that children should spend their weekend leisure time as they wish. Interviews revealed that for many of these families there is a lack of concern that television viewing is a problem for their child, and there remains confusion about the boundaries of the recommendation of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Parents in this study expressed interest in taking steps toward reducing children's television time but also uncertainty about how to go about doing so. Results suggest possible strategies to reduce the amount of time children spend in front of the screen.
Article
Despite recent public furor on the matter, the best research on the effects of home television use on school performance suggests but does not establish a small negative effect. The present research considers the effects of television use on growth in reading skills and general ability as well as on classroom achievement among El Salvadoran children in grades seven to nine. We examined the effects of television access (in particular the effect of recent acquisition of a TV set) on each of three separate cohorts of students over a two- to three-year period. There was no obvious effect on short-term achievement. There were, however, consistent negative effects on reading improvement for all three cohorts, and a significant negative effect on general ability growth for one.