Article

Gated Communities in Santiago: Wall or Frontier?

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Abstract

It is a widely held notion, disseminated in particular by the LA school of urban studies, that gated communities are enclaves, which not only maintain segregation but also help increase it. In Chile a more benevolent interpretation has arisen. Sabatini, Caceres and Cerda argue that gated communities help out the poor communities that surround them. If the spatial scale of segregation is reduced - from city to local or neighborhood level - social disintegration should slow, according to their analysis. This article seeks to empirically complement and expand on Sabatini, Caceres and Cerda's position, which seems to be a better interpretation of Chilean reality than the grim picture presented by the LA school. The article is an ethnographic work based on in-depth interviews in gated communities and a surrounding shantytown in the Huechuraba district, a lower socio-economic class area in north-west Santiago: The research concludes that, despite the existence of a wall that promotes community integration among so-called equals, in conditions of spatial proximity sociability between inside and outside groups is not diminished. Thus, in Huechuraba there is no impenetrable wall separating poor and rich; equally, the walls do not seem to promote community integration within. Spatial proximity has encouraged relations mainly in the realm of functional exchange, making the creation of gated communities in poor neighborhoods a socially desirable experience, at least in the case of Santiago.

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... Partisipasi sosial 1. Jumlah masyarakat ungated community yang dikenal 2. Jumlah masyarakat gated community yang dikenal 3. Frekuensi mengunjungi tetangga di lingkungan gated community 4. Frekuensi mengunjungi tetangga di lingkungan ungated community (Salcedo & Torres, 2002); (Stone, 2001); (Baum et al., 2000) 5 ...
... Partisipasi publik (Krishna & Shrader, 1999) 10 Perilaku 1. Mendapat bantuan tetangga lingkungan yang sama 2. Mendapat bantuan tetangga lingkungan yang berbeda 3. Membantu tetangga lingkungan yang sama 4. Membantu tetangga lingkungan yang berbeda 5. Minat bekerjasama (Roitman, 2010); (Salcedo & Torres, 2002); (Stone, 2001); (Onyx & Bullen, 2000). 11 Harapan 1. Alasan membantu warga lingkungan yang sama 2. Alasan membantu warga lingkungan yang berbeda (Stone, 2001) D Integrasi Sosial 12 Pemisahan sosial/spasial 1. Perbedaan yang membagi masyarakat 2. Preferensi keragaman tetangga (Salcedo & Torres, 2002); (Krishna & Shrader, 1999). ...
... Partisipasi publik (Krishna & Shrader, 1999) 10 Perilaku 1. Mendapat bantuan tetangga lingkungan yang sama 2. Mendapat bantuan tetangga lingkungan yang berbeda 3. Membantu tetangga lingkungan yang sama 4. Membantu tetangga lingkungan yang berbeda 5. Minat bekerjasama (Roitman, 2010); (Salcedo & Torres, 2002); (Stone, 2001); (Onyx & Bullen, 2000). 11 Harapan 1. Alasan membantu warga lingkungan yang sama 2. Alasan membantu warga lingkungan yang berbeda (Stone, 2001) D Integrasi Sosial 12 Pemisahan sosial/spasial 1. Perbedaan yang membagi masyarakat 2. Preferensi keragaman tetangga (Salcedo & Torres, 2002); (Krishna & Shrader, 1999). 13 Aksesibilitas terhadap fasilitas 1.Aksesibilitas terhadap Taman di lingkungan ungated community 2.Aksesibilitas terhadap Taman di lingkungan gated community 3. Aksesibilitas terhadap sarana olahraga gated community 4. Aksesibilitas terhadap sarana olahraga ungated community 5. Aksesibilitas terhadap sarana peribadatan ungated community 6. Aksesibilitas terhadap sarana perdagangan ungated community 7. Aksesibilitas terhadap sarana perdagangan gated community (Roitman, 2010); (Salcedo & Torres, 2002). ...
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Dibutuhkan suatu pemahaman utuh terhadap isu-isu sosial yang muncul sebagai dampak dari adanya gated community. Konsep yang dapat mengakomodasi isu sosial tersebut adalah keberlanjutan sosial. Keberlanjutan sosial penting dikaji karena dapat menggambarkan secara utuh isu-isu sosial gated community. Keberlanjutan sosial dalam penelitian ini merepresentasikan kondisi dimensi sosial yang berkelanjutan. Kondisi yang dimaksud merujuk pada kondisi tidak adanya permasalahan sosial akibat keberadaan gated community, terutama segregasi dan ketimpangan. Kondisi ini dapat dicapai dengan adanya modal dan integrasi sosial yang dapat mencegah terjadinya permasalahan sosial tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui karakteristik dan keberlanjutan sosial gated community the Taman Dayu di Kecamatan Prigen, Kabupaten Pasuruan. Keberlanjutan sosial gated community the Taman Dayu dinilai penting dikaji karena sebagai gated community terbesar di Kabupaten Pasuruan memiliki kemungkinan menghasilkan dampak yang lebih besar. Keberlanjutan sosial ditijau dari dua indikator, ayitu modal sosial (jaringan sosial, kepercayaan dan resiprositas) serta integrasi sosial (sudut pandang terhadap pemisahan sosial maupun spasial serta aksesibilitas terhadap fasilitas) yang datanya diperoleh melalui survei primer menggunakan kuisioner. Keduanya dinilai menggunakan metode indeks komposit untuk mendapatkan nilai indeks keberlanjutan sosial. Temuan yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa keberlanjutan sosial gated community the Taman Dayu termasuk sedang. Hasil penelitian ini diharapkan dapat menjadi bahan masukan kebijakan pengembangan wilayah yang terintegrasi dengan pembangunan perumahan untuk mewujudkan pembangunan yang berkelanjutan.
... This state-led urbanisation contrasts with the spaces inhabited by the upper classes. Historically, these have tended to live in condominiums and gated communities, particularly in the north-east of Santiago, occupying new urban spaces that are secure, homogeneous and exclusive (Salcedo & Torres, 2004). Studies of emergent social relations between these groups and their environment have found that functional integration of such real estate projects with their lower-class neighbours focuses on amenity provision and consumerism, but excludes upward social mobility (Ruiz-Tagle, 2016; Sabatini & Salcedo, 2007). ...
... This is not to say that an exclusionary and pro-growth urban development trend did not exist. Following approval of the PRMS in 1994, and with neoliberal urbanism as the governing logic in Santiago, development of the upper foothills was similar to other affluent areas of the city (Salcedo & Torres, 2004). Although homogeneous real estate development in our research area was designed to attract the upper classes, it remains a more socially diverse space in comparison to north-eastern Santiago given the presence of long-standing poblaciones. ...
... A year later, the Metropolitan Regulatory Plan for Santiago (PRMS), the main land use planning instrument that regulates all 52 of the region's comunas, extended the urban limit further east to encompass the foothills (MINVU, 1994). This triggered intense capitalist urban growth as real estate companies densified this formerly rural landscape with high-income residential projects and gated communities, similar to other areas of eastern Santiago (Sabatini & Salcedo, 2007;Salcedo & Torres, 2004). As a result, the semi-rural population of 5,600 people has grown to 25,000 since the late 1980s (INE, 2017;Muñoz, 1990). ...
... The emergence of gated community goes back to late 1960s and 1970s (Blakely, 2007) 19 . The phenomenon of gated community first observed in United States (Blakely & Snyder, 1997;Le Goix, 2005;Low, 1997Low, , 2001Low, , 2004McKenzie, 1994McKenzie, , 2005 and started to spread other places such as Argentina (Roitman, 2005;Roitman & Phelps, 2011;, Brazil (Caldeira, 1996(Caldeira, , 2000Coy, 2006), Bulgaria (Smigiel, 2014), Canada (Grant, 2006), Chile (Salcedo & Torres, 2004), China (Wu, 2006), Indonesia (Leisch, 2002), Mexico (Vilalta, 2011), New Zealand (Dupuis & Dixon, 2010), Portugal (Raposo, 2003), Saudi Arabia (Glasze and Alkhayyal, 2002 ), South Africa (Lemanski, 2006) and United Kingdom (Blandy, 2006;Blandy & Lister, 2005;Manzi & Bowers, 2005). ...
... The qualitative design of this study denotes resemblance with the studies of Lemanski (2006), Salcedo and Torres (2004) in terms of considering gated community and poor neighborhood outside the gated community together. Besides, inquiry on perception of gated community by other people is common in this study and the study of Manzi and Smith Bowers (2005). ...
... In the Turkish literature, different features of GCs, such as the emergence and development, the reasons behind the preference of GCS, demand/supply-side discussions(Güzey & Özcan, 2010), specific characteristics of GCs(Barkul & Ayten, 2011), actors in the development of GCs(Perouse & Danış, 2005), the role of neoliberal policies in the development of GCs(Bartu-Candan & Kolluoğlu, 2008;Geniş, 2007;Güzey, 2014), the advantages and disadvantages(Akgün & Baycan, 2012) and various types of GCs(Baycan-Levent & Gülümser, 2007) are discussed in detail. However, there are only a few studies on the perception and experiences of residents of GCs(Lemanski, 2006;Manzi & Smith- Bowers, 2005;Salcedo & Torres, 2004; in global context and Süzer, 2016;Tanülkü 2013 in the context of Turkey). This study aims to contribute the literature by investigating both the perception and spatial experiences of Park Oran gated community residents and of people outside the gated community (residents of the gecekondu neighborhood) around the issue of spatial segregation. ...
Thesis
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The aim of this thesis is to understand if there is spatial segregation between Dikmen 5th stage gecekondu neighborhood and Park Oran gated community. If so, it will be examined how spatial segregation is observed following the use/ experience and perception of space of the inhabitants. This thesis will also trace if there are differences according to gender, ethnicity and socio-economic status in the use/ experience of two groups. Dikmen 5th stage gecekondu neighborhood and Park Oran gated community residents’ perception and use of space will be analyzed in the light of theory of space of Lefebvre, specifically around his spatial triad and his conceptualization of abstract space.
... The phenomenon has now assumed global significance owing to its presence on almost every continent of the world. They can be found in Latin America (Caldeira, 1996;Coy & Pöhler, 2002;Salcedo & Torres, 2004;Sheinbaum, 2010), in both Western (Blandy, 2006;Gooblar, 2002;Raposo, 2006) and Eastern Europe (Cséfalvay, 2011;Kovács & Hegedus, 2014;Lentz, 2006), in the Middle-East (Glasze & Alkhayyal, 2002;Güzey, 2014;Rosen & Razin, 2009), in Africa (Adetokunbo, 2013;Almatarneh, 2013;Frias & Udelsmann Rodrigues, 2018;Obeng-Odoom, 2018;Obeng-Odoom et al., 2014;, in East Asia (Leisch, 2002;Lu et al., 2019;Pow, 2011), and Australia (Kenna [and] Stevenson, 2013;Rofe, 2006). ...
... In almost every country where they emerge, gated communities generate spirited debates and societies experiencing this phenomenon often seem divided regarding their relevance to urban life. For example, some academics suggest that gated communities can sometimes help deprived communities gain access to basic amenities and physical infrastructure (Sabatini & Salcedo, 2007;Salcedo & Torres, 2004) and help municipal governments raise more property taxes (McKenzie, 2007;Thuillier, 2005). However, others take a critical position, emphasizing how gated communities destroy the public realm (Caldeira, 1996;Low, 2006), segregate urban spaces into rich and poor enclaves (Mycoo, 2006;Smigiel, 2014), deprive people of their right to the city (Harvey, 2008), and break the social contract between the rich and poor . ...
... We now have hairdressing salons, mini supermarket, barbering shops, restaurants and shops selling construction materials. (Interview, 14/02/2018) The positive economic and social externalities uncovered above reinforces findings from other empirical studies in Santiago-Chile (Salcedo and Torres, 2004) and Accra-Ghana (Asiedu and Arku, 2009) which reveal how the presence of gated communities boost local economic activities. ...
Thesis
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From the late 1980s, debates regarding the proliferation of gated communities have progressed from being US-centric to acknowledgement of an international research agenda. Despite their ubiquity globally, there is a dearth of empirical research about how developers of gated communities navigate the processes heralding the commencement of their projects. Previous studies have focused upon the mutually beneficial relationship between developers and fiscally distressed local government authorities. Such studies also reflect exigencies in contexts with privatised land markets, and local planning authorities wield unfettered control over urban planning and residential development. However, in Ghana, where gated communities are rapidly proliferating, the land administration and land-use planning systems are problematic. Hence this research examines how the land administration and landuse planning systems in Ghana have contributed to the proliferation of gated communities following experiences from key actors involved in the development process and residents who move into gated communities. Drawing upon new institutionalism and using a mixed research method, the research presents the case of the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area. It finds that the institutional landscape in Ghana's built environment creates both direct and indirect incentives that benefit developers. Also, the challenges in land administration and land-use planning shape how developers understand gated communities, the typology found in Ghana, and the features that characterize them. Additionally, developers’ engagement with other key actors in the development process reinforces 'practical norms' in the land acquisition, land title registration, and building permit acquisition in Ghana. Finally, the research confirms the hypothesis that land administration challenges in Ghana significantly contribute to why people move into gated communities. Also, residents' demographic and locational characteristics emerged as significant predictors of their likelihood to move into gated communities due to land administration challenges. The research also reflects on implications for theory, future research and policy.
... 'Cities segregated by walls and enclaves', Caldeira argues, 'foster the sense that different groups belong to separate universes and have irreconcilable claims' (ibid.: 334). The other view is that the spatial proximity between enclaves and poor areas has improved class relations (Salcedo and Torres, 2004;Sabatini and Salcedo, 2007;Salcedo and Rasse, 2012). Examining the case of a gated community located near a rural settlement in Santiago, Chile, Salcedo and Torres (2004) find that proximity allows for a degree of functional integration--greater social interaction mainly in the context of employment--that effectively softens class boundaries. ...
... The other view is that the spatial proximity between enclaves and poor areas has improved class relations (Salcedo and Torres, 2004;Sabatini and Salcedo, 2007;Salcedo and Rasse, 2012). Examining the case of a gated community located near a rural settlement in Santiago, Chile, Salcedo and Torres (2004) find that proximity allows for a degree of functional integration--greater social interaction mainly in the context of employment--that effectively softens class boundaries. This is not to say that a sense of shared community develops; only that interaction diminishes 'segregation in the subjective realm' or social distance. ...
... It is not simply proximity driving categorically unequal interaction but proximity and strong social boundaries--so strong that the social group on one side of the boundary is stigmatized. If we understand interspersion as involving both elements, we see that the case examined by Salcedo and Torres (2004) is not really a case of interspersion. There is proximity but no strong social boundaries. ...
... Le Goix (2005) highlights the negative impact on property values of adjacent communities. Other authors refer to the commercial interchange and labour relations between the inside and outside (Salcedo & Torres, 2004;Lemanski, 2006;Boakye Asiedu & Arku, 2009); however, their findings are mixed regarding the intensity of social ties between gated and non-gated residents. ...
... In South Africa, Lemanski (2006) In contrast, Salcedo and Torres (2004) found, in Santiago, that inhabitants from a non-gated neighbourhood had a positive perception of their gated neighbours. They hold that most of non-gated residents were glad because gated communities brought modernity, new infrastructure, services and jobs. ...
Conference Paper
This thesis explores the distribution of fear of crime in neighbourhoods next to gated communities, and their variants, by considering poverty levels and elements of the built environment. Fear of crime is a constant concern in Latin America and gated communities have been spreading rapidly as they are seen as 'shelters' against crime. They are typically walled or fenced, with private security and surveillance devices; their externalities are commonly associated with spatial segregation, socio-economic effects and alterations of the urban fabric. However, there is still a lack of empirical data about the effect of gated communities on the fear of crime at their peripheries. This thesis addresses that research gap by investigating the urban area of Costa Rica (GAM). The research design is a qualitative approach based on eight case studies. These are neighbourhoods bordering gated communities within the GAM and represent a diverse range of poverty. In each neighbourhood, a walking interview was carried out with community members; it was tracked by GPS and audio recorded. Additionally, there were focus groups, observations and in-depth interviews. A set of maps were produced by georeferencing people's comments through qualitative software and GIS. The core of the empirical data was analysed mostly through thematic analysis by a comparative structure of the eight case studies. The findings suggest that the physical presence of gated communities produces an emotional response in people living outside their gates, which is fuelled by features of the built environment, residential segregation and inequalities. This research found that non-gated residents in high and middle poverty feel anxious about gated residents, and self-reported intensity of fear increases next to gated communities’ edges in almost all poverty ranges. It suggests that fear of crime might also operate in the opposite direction, from neighbouring areas to gated communities.
... There are however a smaller group of scholars (Salcedo, Torres, 2004;Manzi and Smith-Bowers, 2005;Sabatini and Cáceres, 2004;Sabatini and Salcedo, 2007;Roitman 2010) and empirical research that suggests that there are potential positive impacts of gated communities on their surrounding neighbours and ability for them to contribute to social integration. Among such cases is Le Goix (2005) study in the United States which indicated that there exists strong functional integration (employment) between gated and non-gated settlements as these gated locations provide employment opportunities for surrounding non-gated settlements. ...
... As a result, this presented an opportunity for an increase in the social mix within these spaces. Similarly, in Salcedo and Torres (2004) study in Chile it is evident that the residents' poorer neighbourhoods which are situated in close proximity to the gated communities are grateful for their presence as they attract modernity and improvements to the area which they also benefit from. This functional integration is evident in South African cities, where Diepsloot informal settlement residents are dependent on Steyn City gated community for informal domestic employment (Ballard, 2019). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Gated communities have become a global phenomenon and a key feature of neoliberal suburbia. Gated communities are typically privatized physical locations whose access is restricted by walls, fences, gates or booms that detach their communities from their surrounds. These private developments have been seen as the only housing option for majority of middle to high income earners in society in response to crime and have been critiqued for deepening social exclusion, residential segregation of the poor and wealthy, deepening social divides and fragmenting the urban form. This has an added dimension in South African cities for such urban trends imitate apartheid's geography of exclusion rather than the transformative agenda of urban integration and inclusion. A growing trend in South African cities in the presence of informal settlements that are located at the periphery of these privatized developments. Literature on gated communities has focused mainly on their negative impacts to the surrounding communities however limited research considers the potential positive impacts these gated communities may have for their surrounding poorer neighbours. The study employed a mixed method approach of quantitative inquiry using questionnaires and qualitative interviews to understand the linkages gated community residents have with communities located outside the gates. This study revealed, contrary to popular belief, gated communities rely heavily on surrounding communities for the labour workforce and the poorer communities in turn need the gated communities for a place of work. This study therefore intends to contribute to this gap in knowledge.
... Gated communities (GCs) have existed in housing, urban design, and planning discourse since the twentieth century. Over the last three decades, GCs have emerged as the prevalent housing development worldwide (McKenzie, 2003), and they are now found in the Americas (Caldeira, 2000;Salcedo & Torres, 2004), Asia (King, 2004;Wu & Webber, 2004), Europe (Gooblar, 2002), Australia (Burke & Sebaly, 2001), and Africa (Kuppinger, 2008). ey are the re-emergence of ancient cities from early human civilization (Low, 2001;Landman & Schonteich, 2002;uintal, 2006), such as Jericho (Dupuis & orns, 2008), the Forbidden City in Beijing (Wu, 2005), traditional cities in the Arab world (Glasze & Alkhayyal, 2002), medieval cities in Europe, and colonial cities around the world (Blakely & Snyder, 1997). ...
... e rise of GCs in the US was caused by escalating racial con ict, urban violence, and social inequalities, and was related to accommodating the exodus of the white middle class in the 1980s (Sandercock, 2003). However, some scholars state that the rise of the neoliberal economy in the same period (Leisch, 2002;Hackworth, 2007;Remali & Salama, 2016) contributed to the mushrooming of GCs all over the globe, including in Argentina ( uillier, 2005), Chile (Salcedo & Torres, 2004), Brazil (Coy & Pohler, 2002), Saudi Arabia (Glasze & Alkhayyal, 2002;Glasze et al., 2006), Ghana (Asiedu & Arku, 2009), South Africa (Breetzke & Cohn, 2013), Bulgaria (Stoyanov & Frantz, 2006), Canada (Townshend, 2006), England (Blandy, 2006), Indonesia (Leisch, 2002), Vietnam (Pow, 2009), Qatar (Rizzo, 2014;Zaina et al., 2016), Lebanon (Glasze & Alkhayyal, 2002), Portugal (Raposo, 2006), New Zealand (Dupuis & orns, 2008), Australia (Gleeson, 2006), and even in communist countries such as China (Lee & Webster, 2006;Pow, 2007aPow, , 2007b and in post-communist countries such as Estonia (Ruoppila & Kaehrik, 2003), Russia (Blinnikov et al., 2006), Bulgaria (Stoyanov & Frantz, 2006;Hirt, 2012), Romania (Negura, 2009), Serbia (Hirt & Petrović, 2011), Poland (Mostowska, 2009), (East) Germany, and Hungary (Bodnar & Molnar, 2010). e existence of GCs as a form of exclusive and segregated neighbourhood has been criticized by various scholars (Low, 2003;Manzi & Smith-Bowers, 2005;Roitman, 2005). ...
Article
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A post-occupancy evaluation study of a mixed-income gated community in Cibubur, West Java, Indonesia Gated communitiess (GCs) have been demonized as a malicious form of urban segregation because they provide a secure neighbourhood and exclusive facilities. e objective of the Indonesian government policy related to balanced housing is to create mixed-income housing in order to foster interaction between social classes in neighbourhoods and reduce the alarming social gap. is study seeks to validate the occurrence of social interaction among diierent economic strata in a mixed-income GC. To understand social interaction among its residents, the reasons why residents from diierent economic strata selected their housing are examined. e research methodology includes a post-occupancy evaluation in a mixed-income GC in Cibubur, West Java, Indonesia, an area known for its high quality neighbourhoods and facilities. is study identiies security as a major housing preference factor for many people living in a mixed-income GC. However, the reduced exclusivity of such facilities decreases their usage frequency, giving rise to trans-cluster social interaction within the same class. is contradicts the objective of the balanced housing policy because the residents interact with others in a similar social class beyond the segregated walls of the housing clusters.
... Critical urban scholars also view GCs as deliberate attempts by the affluent to disengage with harsh urban realities such as increasing crime and poor delivery of urban infrastructure and services (Frias & Udelsmann Rodrigues, 2018;Salcedo & Torres, 2004;Sabatini & Salcedo, 2007). Thus, in a critical urban framing, the walls physically separate the 'haves' from the 'have-nots' (Atkinson & Flint, 2004) and deny them the opportunities to participate in the public realm, including the privatisation of access to natural resources like forests and lakes (Giroir, 2007;Landman, 2004;Rofe, 2006). ...
... This notwithstanding, there may be some merit to this point because comparing both models, buyers of ready-built houses will need to pay a more substantial amount than those purchasing only serviced plots. This situation thus offers a new perspective that not only do GCs create segregation between them and surrounding neighbourhoods as previously suggested (Le Goix, 2005;Salcedo & Torres, 2004), but also create segregation among the residents living within GCs. ...
Article
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This paper examines the functions walls perform in gated communities from the standpoints of both gated community developers and their residents. It posits three types of walls and scrutinises the purpose for each. Drawing empirical data from face-to-face interviews with 11 developers and 20 residents drawn from two gated communities in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area in Ghana, the paper finds that, contrary to received wisdom, internal cluster walls in gated communities are used to segregate residents into different economic and social classes, often under the pretext of offering them different housing choices. It further casts doubts on the widely touted view that gated communities offer a better sense of security as residents express anxieties over suspected criminals living among them. The paper concludes by calling for a re-examination of several features of gated communities , including the meaning of the concept itself and the typolo-gies that exist to bring out more of such nuances. ARTICLE HISTORY
... During this time Santiago's built environment has experienced different phenomena such as peri-urbanization (De Mattos, 2002), fragmentation (Link, 2008), and the construction of gated communities (Salcedo and Torres, 2004). ...
... The issue for Santiago, therefore, is not only the persistent poverty and construction of ghettos (Sabatini and Brain, 2008;Cociña, 2012), but also how the city has changed due to its incorporation into the global economy. The new (Sabatini et al., 2012;Salcedo and Torres, 2004). ...
... Na stanovanjskem, urbanističnem in načrtovalskem področju razprave o ograjenih naseljih potekajo že vse od prejšnjega stoletja. V zadnjih treh desetletjih so ta naselja postala prevladujoča oblika stanovanjskih sosesk na vseh celinahh (McKen- zie,,2003), od Severne in Južne Amerikee (Caldeira,,2000; Salcedo in Torres,,2004), Azijee (King,,2004; Wu in Webber,,2004), Evropee (Gooblar,,2002) in Avstralijee (Burke in Sebaly,,2001) do Afrikee (Kuppinger,,2008). Po zgradbi so podobna starodavnim ograjenim mestom z začetka razvoja človeške civilizacijee (Low,,2001; Landman in Schonteich,,2002;uintal,,2006), kot je Jerihoo(Dupuis in orns,,2008), znamenitosti Prepovedano mesto v Pekinguu ( Wu,, 2005), tradicionalnim arabskim mestomm(Glasze in Alkhayyal,,2002), srednjeveškim evropskim mestom in kolonialnim mestom po svetuu (Blakely in Sny- der,,1997). ...
Article
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Ograjena naselja veljajo za škodljivo obliko urbane segregacije, saj so to varovane stanovanjske soseske z ekskluzivno infrastrukturo. Cilj indonezijske vladne politike, povezane z zagotavljanjem cenovno uravnotežene sta- novanjske oskrbe, je ustvariti stanovanjske komplekse ali naselja z ekonomsko mešano sestavo prebivalstva, ki spod- bujajo interakcijo med družbenimi sloji in zmanjšujejo čedalje večje socialne razlike. Namen članka je potrditi pojav družbene interakcije med socialno-ekonomskimi sloji v naseljih z ekonomsko mešano sestavo prebivalstva. Za boljše razumevanje družbene interakcije med stanovalci so avtorji najprej proučili razloge za izbor tovrstne stanovanjske soseske, in sicer za vsak socialno-ekonomski sloj posebej. Za to so uporabili metodo vrednotenja po vselitvi na primeru ograjenega naselja v Cibuburju v Zahodni Javi, ki je znan po dobri kakovosti stanovanjskih sosesk in infrastrukture. Izsledki raziskave kažejo, da je varovanje še vedno glavni razlog za to, zakaj se ljudje od- ločijo živeti v tovrstnem ograjenem naselju. Zaradi manjše ekskluzivnosti naselja pa je čedalje manjša tudi pogostost uporabe tamkajšnje infrastrukture in površin, pripadniki posameznih družbenih slojev pa se raje kot s stanovalci istega stanovanjskega kompleksa v naselju družijo s pri- padniki istega sloja v drugih stanovanjskih kompleksih, kar se ne ujema s cilji politike cenovno uravnotežene stanovanjske oskrbe.
... In Global South cities, slums cannot be described as socially isolated in the same way. Scholars from Perlman (1976) to Gilbert (2012), Salcedo and Torres (2004), and Veloso (2010) have emphasized the extent of interaction across the housing divide. This interaction is mainly functional, which is to say, it occurs within the context of employment. ...
Article
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In American sociology, segregation is usually conceived in terms of spatial concentration, social isolation, and the consolidation of race, place, and poverty. This conceptualization fails to capture the reality of segregation in many of the largest cities in the Global South. Studying segregation in these places presents an opportunity to “open up” the concept and reimagine it more expansively. In the paper, I compare segregation in Manila, Philippines, to the standard model. The case challenges the model in significant ways. First, we see a form of segregation characterized not by the concentration of poor black neighborhoods but by the interspersion of slums and enclaves, and thus are led to view segregation as relational. Second, we are led to emphasize not the isolation of people living inside segregated spaces but their unequal interactions with people outside them. Third, we are better able to identify the role of segregation in constituting, not merely consolidating, group difference through a process of spatialization. These aspects also apply to American segregation but tend to be overlooked. By looking at segregation in Manila, however, they come into focus. We are led to think about segregation in different ways and see American segregation in a new light.
... On top of this, in itself it is not problematic if authors stress potential risks, as long as follow-up research studies the varied realization of such risks. In an example of such research, Salcedo and Torres (2004) stress that community development in gated communities in Chile differs from the expectations of the enclave urbanism literature. The problem is, however, that this type of research is not common enough. ...
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This chapter discusses the urban structure of China’s post-reform cities arguing that it constitutes a form of enclave urbanism: an urban structure with high degrees of cultural, functional and economic sorting of groups and activities over distinct areas, separated by physical, legal and/or social boundaries. Reproducing forms of in- and exclusion, this structure has many similarities with the structure of cities elsewhere. However, criticizing five often-implicit assumptions of the enclave urbanism literature, this chapter employs Manuel DeLanda’s (2016) assemblage theory to understand enclaves as assemblages of heterogeneous elements that are themselves part of multiple assemblages operating on various ‘scales’. The resulting relational comparative view guides attention to both similarities and differences between enclaves in different locales. Applying this view, this chapter first presents the literature on China’s urban enclaves, before discussing consequences of China’s enclave urbanism for the access to and exclusion from urban services, and for social networks respectively. Observing inadequacies in the Anglophone urban China literature, the chapter culminates in a research agenda.
... Les travaux de Roitman et Phelps (2011) sur les espaces périurbains à Buenos Aires révèlent quelques éléments communs aux villes latinoaméricaines qui peuvent être interprétés comme faisant partie de la post-suburbia. Ils soulignent que, dans les dernières années, l'installation de grands lotissements fermés dans les franges métropolitaines de la métropole semble être accompagnée du développement d'activités, telles que des activités commerciales, de loisirs, hôtels, cinémas etc. Par ailleurs, des études récentes portant sur l'étalement urbain en Amérique Latine (Salcedo et Torres, 2004) ont particulièrement situé les gated communities comme étant le fruit de différents processus de suburbanisation, périurbanisation et postsuburbanisation. ...
... Jerusalem bears an important nationalist, geopolitical, and religious significance and is segregated along Jewish-Arab and religious-secular lines, while Tel Aviv is a 'modernized' global financial center and staunchly secular metropolis, where economic polarization and ethnic segregation are reflected in the urban social structure. While much work has shown how national histories and conditions shape the production of gated communities (Leisch, 2002;Kuppinger, 2004;Salcedo and Torres, 2004), little attention has been paid to how politically-charged religio-national goals can be advanced by city-specific gated developments. ...
Article
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Recent scholarship on gated communities has challenged assumptions about the homogeneity of aesthetics and motivations for enclosure, emphasizing the place-bound origins and meanings attached to exclusionary devel-opment. It has also called for a conceptual shift in classifying gated communities from the ‘hard’ boundaries of a gate or wall to more ‘soft’ boundaries that achieve a similar outcome of limited or discouraged access. In this article, we examine urban luxury gated communities in Jerusalem and Tel Aviv to demonstrate three main points. First, we explore how the unique and vastly different socioeconomic contexts and built characters of Jerusalem and Tel Aviv influence the aesthetics, marketing techniques, and residents of their respective gated communities. Second, we demonstrate how ideological and neoliberal interests have converged in new luxury gated communities, while emphasizing the diverse manifestations of exclusionary development within a single country. Third, luxury gated communities in downtown Jerusalem and Tel Aviv illustrate the need to shift attention away from an increasingly outdated notion of ‘hard’ gatedness towards accounting for the diversity and range of ‘soft boundaries’ that enclose and serve to privatize space while relying upon and perpetuating both local and national social and economic polarization.
... The fact that all PBSP operate almost entirely in wealthy zones, with access to well-kept sidewalks and parks, and vital commercial zones, reflects (and reinforces) and exemplifies this situation. This, in turn, intensifies the well-documented segregation that characterizes Santiago [51][52][53]. ...
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Background: Public bike-sharing schemes have gained enormous popularity worldwide. However, so far most of the research has focused on issues regarding the functioning of these schemes in cities, with little attention on how these systems are perceived and managed by urban planning authorities, which is the aim of this paper. Methods: The analysis is set in Santiago, a highly segregated city composed of 37 independent districts. Two focus groups with urban planning authorities belonging to districts with and without functioning bike-sharing schemes were conducted. Information was processed using a thematic analysis framework, which permitted to reduce, reorganize, and analyze these testimonial data. Results: The main results show that bike-sharing schemes are perceived as being part of a larger phenomenon related to the city’s socio-economic differences. A series of issues emerged that are related to urban planning authorities limitations in terms of governance and availability of planning instruments and strategies to cope with contrasting realities of the city. It was noted that bike-sharing schemes are helping to improve a neighborhood image, while, at the same time, promoting contemporary and cosmopolitan lifestyles. However, the functioning of bike-sharing schemes also is a reminder of the fragmented and dysfunctional governance of Santiago.
... Hence, we need them [outsiders] and they need us [insiders] too' (JGCR3). This economic relationship for the provision of services has also been identified in Santiago de Chile (Salcedo & Torres, 2004). Although it might encourage social interactions between insiders and outsiders, this operates on strong power disparities between the employer (insider) and the employee (outsider). ...
Article
Income inequality continues to increase worldwide and is highly visible in cities. This rising income inequality, along with the growing upper-middle class, has accelerated the development of gated communities (GC) as a desired housing for the ‘successful’ groups and a manifestation of how the city reproduces inequality. We analyze GC development in Jakarta and Yogyakarta, Indonesia, and offer a typology for this housing option in that country where income inequality has been growing and is now a serious government concern. Although the early 2000s saw isolated GC in only a few cities, now they are developing vigorously. This article contributes twofold. First, it provides evidence on the emergence and features of GC. Second, it shows a relationship between income inequality, social differences and GC development for upper-middle class residents in Indonesia. We argue that there is a mutually reinforcing relationship between inequality and GC: increasing income inequality leads to higher number of GC and this material artefact entrenches ‘emplaced inequality’.
... Les travaux de Roitman et Phelps (2011) sur les espaces périurbains à Buenos Aires révèlent quelques éléments communs aux villes latinoaméricaines qui peuvent être interprétés comme faisant partie de la post-suburbia. Ils soulignent que, dans les dernières années, l'installation de grands lotissements fermés dans les franges métropolitaines de la métropole semble être accompagnée du développement d'activités, telles que des activités commerciales, de loisirs, hôtels, cinémas etc. Par ailleurs, des études récentes portant sur l'étalement urbain en Amérique Latine (Salcedo et Torres, 2004) ont particulièrement situé les gated communities comme étant le fruit de différents processus de suburbanisation, périurbanisation et postsuburbanisation. ...
Article
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Dans la littérature urbaine portant sur les villes brésiliennes, on analyse toujours les marges des agglomérations avec regard binaire, qui oppose le centre et les périphéries. Pourtant, dans les dernières décennies l'on signale un éclatement des modèles classiques des périphéries urbaines, qui va de pair avec une diversification socio-spatiale des marges des villes et un renforcement des dynamiques de ségrégation et de fragmentation. Ces constats appellent à un renouvèlement du regard sur les marges des villes brésiliennes, faisant l’hypothèse que les métropoles des semi-périphéries ont aujourd’hui des trajectoires comparables à celles des villes du Nord. Cet article a pour but de discuter la question de l’étalement urbain dans les métropoles brésiliennes et la construction d’un cadre d’analyse des franges périphériques dans la recherche urbaine, en s’appuyant sur l’étude de la métropole de Belo Horizonte. Cette métropole, la troisième en population du Brésil, offre un terrain d’étude intéressant du fait de son étalement rapide et des nombreuses transformations observées dans ses franges périphériques depuis les deux dernières décennies : de l’expansion du marché immobilier formel, en passant par le desserrement des activités, à l’arrivée des classes moyennes et aisées, les franges périphériques de Belo Horizonte témoignent d’un important processus de diversification qui traduit les dynamiques à l’œuvre dans nombreuses métropoles brésiliennes et d’autres pays du Sud.
... Teleférico Bicentenario was designed to connect the mentioned centres in two municipalities: Providencia and Huechuraba. Although Providencia is one of the areas with the highest income in the whole country, Huechuraba contains traditionally poor neighborhoods such as Villa La Esperanza and Población La Pincoya, separated by a few hundred meters from rising businesses, gated communities and malls(Salcedo & Torres 2004).Inan expression of these contrasts, in 2011 the mayor of Huechuraba delivered a letter to the Minister of Public Works with 18,000 neighbour's signatures asking the extension of the cable car lines into the poorer neighbourhoods (UPI 2011). It did not receive a positive answer. ...
Thesis
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This dissertation discusses the role of the state in infrastructural urbanisation in metropolitan areas. It focuses on recent Latin American state-building processes in the context of the urbanisation of the majority of the continent’s population. New constitutions in Colombia, Bolivia and Chile are here linked to cable car projects in Medellín, La Paz and Santiago. The main findings are summarised in the concept of the ‘connecting state’, which is discussed in terms of the processes of metropolitan governance and the products that sustain the legitimacy of state sovereignty in metropolitan areas.
... Esta proximidad confronta dos realidades distintas y puede ser considerada como una forma de segregación efectiva y de violencia simbólica (Rasse 2015). De igual forma, la proximidad no representa alguna garantía de contacto o la formación de vínculos sociales de amistad entre los distintos estratos, por lo general los vínculos que se forman se reducen solo a relaciones laborales de las que se ven mayormente beneficiados los estratos socioeconómicos bajos (Salcedo y Torres 2004;Sabatini y Salcedo 2007;Saraví 2008; Pérez y Roca 2011; Bayón y Saraví 2018), la coexistencia de dos mundos aislados (Saraví 2008). ...
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En los últimos años, el crecimiento demográfico acelerado y la rápida urbanización de las ciudades producto de distintas fuerzas económicas, políticas y sociales, ha venido acentuando la distribución diferenciada de los distintos estratos socioeconómicos sobre su territorio. Así, la concentración geográfica de los individuos acorde a su estatus socioeconómico se relaciona con el acceso a recursos y con las reglas a las que están sometidos para acceder a estos. En este sentido, la concentración geográfica homogénea de los estratos poblacionales con estatus socioeconómico bajo se asocia con espacios física y socialmente devaluados que acentúan y reproducen de forma intergeneracional las condiciones de pobreza que afecta al desarrollo de las ciudades. Consecuentemente, las políticas públicas e intervenciones urbanas han buscado mitigar el fenómeno de la distribución diferenciada de los grupos sociales sobre el territorio, conocido como segregación socioespacial. Sin embargo, ya sea por omisión o por falta de capacidad, gran parte de las políticas anti segregación en el caso de la región latinoamericana han tendido a reforzar los patrones de desigualdad existentes desde la época colonial. Por tal motivo, el objetivo de esta tesis doctoral consiste en analizar las tendencias y efectos en las dinámicas socioespaciales causadas por las políticas urbanas de la ciudad de Guadalajara, México con la finalidad de establecer propuestas de mitigación y mejora. El estudio realiza un análisis de la estructura socioeconómica de la ciudad y su relación con los mercados de suelo, con la oferta diferenciada de bienes públicos, así como con el gasto de obra pública realizado por la administración gubernamental local. El estudio ha realizado diversos análisis estadísticos, como el análisis de componentes principales, el análisis de conglomerados y el análisis de regresión considerando el carácter composicional de los datos. En este sentido, considerar la naturaleza composicional de los datos en el análisis estadístico ha significado una aportación de esta tesis a la literatura existente en estudios urbanos. Los resultados obtenidos muestran una distribución diferenciada de los estratos socioeconómicos sobre el espacio que responden en gran medida a los resultados del análisis realizado a los mercados de suelo. De igual forma, se ha encontrado un déficit en la existencia y accesibilidad del espacio público ofertado en la ciudad. Por otra parte, se han encontrado asimetrías en la localización y distribución del arbolado urbano, así como una relación significativa con el estatus socioeconómico de los hogares. Por último, se ha detectado que el gasto en obra pública se ha realizado de forma diferenciada y que ha beneficiado a los estratos socioeconómicos altos de la ciudad. Con la finalidad de comprender las dinámicas territoriales, los resultados del estudio se muestran a través de cartografía generada haciendo uso de Sistemas de Información Geográfica a nivel de colonia y distrito urbano. Finalmente, se pretende que los resultados obtenidos y las propuestas de intervención elaboradas sirvan a la administración gubernamental en la consecución de una Guadalajara resiliente y sostenible. Palabras clave: análisis de datos composicionales; log-ratio; segregación socioespacial; segregación residencial; justicia espacial; justicia ambiental; espacio público; verde urbano; gasto público; obra pública; Guadalajara
... A year later, the Metropolitan Regulatory Plan for Santiago (PRMS), the main land use planning instrument that regulates all 52 of the region's comunas, extended the urban limit further east to encompass the foothills [79]. This triggered intense capitalist urban growth as real estate companies densified this formerly rural landscape with high-income residential projects and gated communities, similar to other areas of eastern Santiago [80,81]. As a result, the semi-rural population of 5600 people has grown to 25, 000 since the late 1980s [68,82]. ...
Article
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Rather than one-time events, disasters are processual phenomena driven by multiple drivers of disaster risk and that leave a myriad of traces on affected areas. Remembering such traces can help local communities to deal with disaster impacts. Memorialisation is not neutral, however, as memory by definition selects certain symbols and excludes others, rendering this a contentious process. By focusing on the politics of disaster memory, I show how these processes reveal divergent interpretations of ‘ongoing’ disasters. Based on ethnographic methods, I analyse post-disaster memorialisation in a marginal area of the foothills of Santiago, Chile, where on 3 May 1993, a rain-induced landslide destroyed 300 houses and left almost 4,000 victims including 26 people killed. Since then, a particular landscape of memory consisting of symbols, memorials and practices has emerged. Drawing on a notion of landscape as an ‘arena’, I describe how this memorialisation perpetuates the 1993 disaster and produces contested interpretations of it. Besides contrasting the views of state and non-state actors, as well as long-time residents and newcomers, I expand on a more explicit confrontation between two local groups. While both parties agree that the disaster is not a past ‘event’ but a processual phenomenon, they differ in the content of their interpretations: for some, memory is anchored in the past and their responsibility is to be united in commemoration; for others, remembrance practices can support calls for justice regarding ongoing disaster vulnerability. As such, disaster memory has different political implications: symbols and practices can prescribe ways of either maintaining the status quo or addressing the root causes of disasters. I show that post-disaster landscapes of memory are not only multiple and diverse, but also open and remade through practices and discourses that can directly contest disaster risk creation.
... The answer is that it contributes to bridging two phenomena that are so central to the current development patterns of many Latin American cities: informality and enclavism. These two phenomena have almost always been studied discretely, without grasping the different possible points of connection (for an exception, see Salcedo & Torres, 2004). Informality of the rich in Bogotá is an opportunity to move towards a more comprehensive and relational understanding of both informality and enclavism. ...
Article
While research has put the spotlight on analysing informality of the urban poor in the global South, informal housing practices of affluent urbanites have been almost completely overlooked. This article contributes to filling this research gap by investigating illegal housing for upper-income residents in the protected forest area of the eastern hills of Bogotá. More precisely, it quantifies and localizes this phenomenon and, subsequently, it identifies its main geographical, physical, and morphological features. Three interrelated strategic features of such a phenomenon are then recognized – clustering, isolating, and concealing; these can serve as a conceptual guideline for analysing other cases of elite informality in Latin America. They simultaneously underline the existence of a connection between (upper-income) informality and enclave urbanism (gated communities, in particular).
... Far from being oppressive and exclusionary, estates that are established near to working-class areas may be welcomed by those who do not live within their confines. They bring a degree of respectability and social stability (Salcedo & Torres, 2004) and provide work opportunities. They are not entirely impermeable and while there might not be full social integration, there is at least some interaction which may be beneficial for those living outside the perimeter (Srivastava, 2015). ...
Article
In 2015, the billionaire Douw Steyn launched a mixed-use megaproject 27 km north of downtown Johannesburg. Plans for Steyn City include 10,000 high-end residential units along with private hospitals, schools, a golf course, an equestrian centre and 2000 acres of parkland behind a 3-m-high perimeter wall. The launch attracted some critique in the media for the exclusive environment that the development sought to create, an ambition that seemed particularly incongruous given its close proximity to the poor settlement of Diepsloot. In response, the developers argued that the project had created more than 11,000 jobs and that wealthy people should invest close to places that need work and livelihood opportunities. This paper is based on interviews with workers who live in Diepsloot and travel each day into Steyn City to work for subcontractors building infrastructure, housing and social facilities. The empirical material shows that although these workers acknowledge the opportunity of employment, they are aware these jobs are uncertain, mostly low-skilled and insufficient to cover the basic costs of everyday life in Diepsloot.
... However, in China, due to its long history of walled cities and collectivism, gated housing forms have been widely accepted and shared by people from all classes (Liao et al., 2018, Breitung, 2012, Qian, 2014, Huang, 2006. More strikingly, a study in Santiago (Salcedo and Torres, 2004) suggested that the rich concentrated in specific areas of the city in the past; however, gated compounds help bring the affluent and underprivileged people closer. People living inside and outside of the gate did not see each other as enemies. ...
... Más allá de la poca claridad conceptual, los estudios han demostrado que en las últimas décadas se ha producido una complejización de la segregación en las ciudades (Ortiz & Escolano, 2013). La ciudad dual ha tendido a ser remplazada por una estructura de segregación a pequeña escala, en la cual los grupos socioeconómicos opuestos tienden crecientemente a vivir en condiciones de proximidad (Sabatini, Cáceres, Cerda, 2001), ya sea por efecto del mercado inmobiliario que coloniza zonas periféricas pobres (Sabatini & Salcedo, 2007;Salcedo & Torres, 2004) o bien por la nueva política de vivienda de integración impulsada por el Ministerio de Vivienda y Urbanismo de Chile (Siclari, 2009;Vergara, Romano & Maturana, 2016) . ...
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Este trabajo busca analizar el impacto que la vivienda social ha tenido sobre los procesos de segregación socio-espacial en la ciudad de Angol, una ciudad pequeña. La metodología empleada fue mixta, utilizando el índice de disimilitud y aislamiento, registros de permisos de edificación municipales y entrevistas semiestructuradas a habitantes de conjuntos de vivienda social. Los resultados indican que la vivienda social en Angol ha contribuido a aumentar la segregación espacial, sin embargo, su manifestación ha adquirido una escala espacial reducida, situación que ha permitido que grupos socioeconómicos disímiles habiten en condiciones de proximidad espacial. Paralelamente, la vivienda social no ha estado asociada a procesos de desintegración funcional o formación estigmas territoriales que afecten a los habitantes de estos barrios. Se concluye que aunque segregada espacialmente, la vivienda social en una ciudad pequeña como Angol ha sido capaz de motivar dinámicas de inclusión, al menos en el plano funcional, sobre esta situación la escala de la ciudad y de los barrios tienen un rol significativo.
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Esta investigación intenta vincular la urbanización de la población en Sudamérica con las nuevas formas del Estado definidas por constituciones elaboradas recientemente. En la primera parte, el artículo realiza una discusión teórica respecto a dos formas de soberanía del Estado, la primera basada en el derecho a matar, y la segunda en el deber de conectar. En la segunda parte se analizan los casos de teleféricos en Medellín, La Paz y Santiago, junto a las constituciones de Colombia, Bolivia y Chile, respectivamente. Se propone el concepto del Estado Conector para explicar procesos políticos que condicionan diferentes productos en cuanto a la infraestructura de transporte y la integración de pobres urbanos a través de ella. La libertad para conectarse emerge como un valor fundamental que el Estado debe producir para sostener su legitimidad democrática.
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Resumo Se as periferias das cidades latino-americanas foram historicamente caracterizadas por significativas desigualdades de mobilidade, hoje em dia se constata uma reestruturação dos deslocamentos dos indivíduos. O presente artigo visa a analisar as desigualdades de mobilidade às quais os habitantes das periferias da Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte são submetidos, procurando-se compreender como as recentes transformações das periferias urbanas contribuíram com a reestruturação dos comportamentos de mobilidade quotidiana. Para tanto, são associadas análise quantitativa, baseada na pesquisa de origem e destino, e entrevistas qualitativas realizadas com os habitantes das periferias, através das quais propõe-se identificar as principais estratégias de mobilidade dos moradores dos espaços em questão.
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El texto corresponde a un análisis de los diferentes discursos sobre el desarrollo económico y la urbanización en América Latina. Un especial énfasis es dado a la Teoría de la Dependencia.
Article
Purpose This paper aims to classify major elements in a typology of gated communities and develop a framework that can be used to promote international comparison of this built form. Design/methodology/approach The paper draws on a survey of 77 gated housing estates in Hong Kong and interviews with major stakeholders to develop and order a classification of elements of a typology of gated communities. Principle component analysis and regression analysis are used in conjunction with insights from 20 in-depth and about 70 open-ended face-to-face interviews. Findings This paper explores Hong Kong’s gated communities to evaluate the relationships between the four main elements of a typology of gated communities: supply, demand, features of gated estates and characteristics of built form. It is suggested that there is a hierarchical relationship between the elements, i.e. supply and demand are higher-order elements and features of gated housing and characteristics of the housing stock are lower-order elements. The paper additionally highlights the impact of definitional and conceptual drift in key concepts, such as security, privacy, prestige and lifestyle, on developing robust typologies. Originality/value The paper reviews the many and varied typologies of gated communities in the international literature, classifies the elements into four main groups and posits a hierarchical relationship between these elements. This paper proposes a robust methodology for further comparative research into gated communities.
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The colonial heritage and its renewed aftermaths – expressed in the inter-American experiences of slavery, indigeneity, dependence, and freedom movements, to mention only a few aspects – form a common ground of experience in the Western Hemisphere. The flow of peoples, goods, knowledge, and finances have promoted interdependence and integration that cut across borders and link the countries of North and South America together. The nature of this transversally related and multiply interconnected region can only be captured through a transnational, multidisciplinary, and comprehensive approach. The Routledge Handbook to the History and Society of the Americas explores the history and society of the Americas, placing particular emphasis on collective and intertwined experiences. Forty-four entries cover a range of concepts and dynamics in the Americas from the colonial period until the present century: • The shared histories and dynamics of inter-American relationships are considered through pre-Hispanic empires, colonization, European hegemony, migration, multiculturalism, and political and economic interdependences. • Key concepts are selected and explored from different geopolitical, disciplinary, and epistemo-logical perspectives. • Highlighting the contested character of key concepts that are usually defined in strict disciplinary terms, the Handbook provides the basis for a better and deeper understanding of inter-American entanglements. This multidisciplinary approach will be of interest to a broad array of academic scholars and students in history, sociology, political science, cultural, postcolonial, gender, literary, and globalization studies.
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Resumo Neste artigo, propõe-se indagar se existem maiores oportunidades de integração socioeconômica da população dos bairros populares Calabar, Vale das Pedrinhas e Bate Facho (Salvador, BA), dada sua inserção em uma região habitada pelas classes média e alta. Examinando o efeito-território nas dimensões material, social e simbólica, à base de entrevistas semiestruturadas, destacam-se quatro fatores que caracterizam essas configurações urbanas: as oportunidades empregatícias tendo em vista a demanda dos moradores dos condomínios por serviços pessoais; o acesso segmentado aos serviços urbanos; a evitação social excetuando-se os vínculos empregatícios; a estigmatização territorial. Concluindo, a variabilidade entre os locais concernentes à integração socioeconômica do indivíduo atrela-se à capacidade de os espaços compartilhados viabilizarem trocas mercantilistas e à interferência da criminalidade na organização social do bairro.
Chapter
In this chapter, the authors consider how access to resources can be taken into account in understanding the production of inequalities and more general urban social dynamics, with a discussion based on the international literature. They undertake qualifying urban services, which are differently defined in the literature. Then, the authors analyze the relationship between urban services and socio‐spatial inequalities, focusing on the changes and transformations observed in recent decades. The growth of segregation and the strengthening of urban inequalities are felt not only in access to the labor market, but also in all urban services. In the peri‐urban outskirts of metropolises, multipolar models are emerging that bring new mobility systems into play. In contrast, low‐income households have much more limited access to recreational facilities. In urban contexts where access to services is increasingly shaped by car mobility, access to a car often represents a burden that is incompatible with household budgets.
Article
Social mix, in general terms, denotes the social diversity of a certain geographic area, being this economic, racial, ethnic, cultural, etc. Social mix is an old and persistent ideal of planning (marked by normative pretensions), has been achieved through different means, has been proposed to reach a wide variety of goals, and has been used interchangeably to refer to concepts like 'integration', 'mixed-income communities', 'poverty deconcentration', 'balanced communities', etc. There has been abundant literature from the 1990s, to the extent that it is one of the most researched topics in urban studies. At present, the discussion on social mix revolves around five key concepts: contact hypothesis, social networks, social control, role models, and geographies of opportunity. In Chile, from 2006 there have been social mix policies, with the expectation that physical proximity between different social groups could facilitate integration. In this article we review the concept of social mix from a historical and comparative perspective, and then we study Chilean policies under the five mentioned concepts, showing the low efficacy that these projects have had in meeting the proposed goals.
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Gated communities, one of those originally Western developments, have suddenly been found in cities in the Global South. “Gated communities”, often defined on the basis of their physical form, have been criticized for disconnecting residents from their neighbors outside the gates and reducing social encounters between them. Focusing on cities in the Global South, a large body of research on social encounters between the residents of gated communities and others outside has used case studies of the middle class living in gated communities versus the poor living outside in slums, squats, or public housing. The assumption that gated communities are regarded as enclosed residential spaces exclusively for the middle class, while the poor are found solely in “informal” settlements, may have an effect of stigmatizing the poor and deepening class divisions. It is rare to find studies that take into account the possibility that there also exist gated communities in which the poor are residents. This article examines who the residents of gated communities are, and at the same time analyzes the extent to which people living in gated communities socialize with others living outside. Based on the results of qualitative research in Bangkok, Thailand, in particular, the article critically studies enclosed high-rise housing estates and shows the following: Walls and security measures have become standard features in new residential developments; not only the upper classes, but also the poor live in gated communities; the amenities which gated communities provide are available to outsiders as well; and residents living in gated communities do not isolate themselves inside the walls but seek contact and socialize with outsiders. This article argues that the Western concept of “gated communities” needs to be tested and contextualized in the study of cities in the Global South.
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En los últimos años, la segregación urbana se ha impuesto como un tema central de debate de las ciencias sociales en América Latina, en particular en los estudios urbanos. Independientemente del enfoque de análisis, los autores interpretan este fenómeno como una injusticia espacial. Por otro lado, la resistencia barrial frente a la presión inmobiliaria es vista como una lucha por el derecho a la ciudad y, por lo tanto, como un proceso justo y necesario. A partir de una revisión de literatura en y sobre Chile y de un estudio de caso en Santiago de Chile, el artículo quiere mostrar que la resistencia barrial puede también ser interpretada como una forma de segregación en la ciudad. Se busca así discutir e interrogar la idea de segregación urbana en sus concepciones tradicionalmente clasistas y materialistas.
Conference Paper
There is growing research and policy interests in the impacts of the neighbourhood design on well-being since 1980s. Despite the well-documented significance of urban form and social dimensions of sustainability, it is still unclear on how different types of neighbourhood and its association with socio-economic status affect residents' well-being, particularly on sense of community and fear of crime. The central objective of this research offers an in-depth analysis employing a mixed-method cross-sectional study in Bangkok, Thailand to evaluate the impact of neighbourhood design and socio-economic status as well as the mechanism of the associations between these factors and well-being, and to understand how interested factors mediate residents' sense of community and fear of crime, and also in which direction. Bangkok makes an interesting case study for the city has experienced the emerging trend of gated communities for four decades, yet their ramifications to the wider society remain understudied. Six communities across Bangkok were selected to represent different types of neighbourhood and levels of socio-economic status. A background study began from 2012 to 2018 using satellite imaginaries and author's observations, whereas the cross-sectional study took place from 2012 to 2013 using self-report questionnaires (N = 743, n = 499, response rate 67 per cent) and interviews. Results were statistically analysed by Two-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation, Two-sample t-Test and Levene's Test. Findings showed that Bangkok had 2,816 gated communities in 2018 in which the most important reason for moving into a gated community was 'security'. Results from the cross-sectional study revealed positive correlations between neighbourhood design and sense of community as well as fear of crime. Interestingly, socio-economic status only had a positive correlation on sense of community but not fear of crime, and that there had no correlation between sense of community and fear of crime as many believe
Article
Since residents' sense of safety relates to residential welfare, it has been a primary reference for land use, planning, community policy, etc. This paper focuses on whether enclosed rural communities can improve residents' sense of safety. We distinguish and contribute to existing research through an empirical analysis of gated communities in a rural area of Beijing (gated villages). With quantitative data acquired from a questionnaire survey of 3480 respondents, a logistic model was employed to estimate the effects of gating on residents' perceptions of safety. The results demonstrate that gating itself does not contribute to improving residents' sense of safety. However, the construction of facilities resulting from gated village policy significantly improves residents' sense of safety. The findings reveal the potential mechanism for safety provision in rural area. First, the booming migrant population has broken the tight social relations that used to act as the key element in guaranteeing rural safety. Instead, gated villages have now emerged as an alternative – to maintain safety by establishing a series of facilities and organisations. As a result, a shift from social-relation-based safety provision to facilities-based safety provision is visible.
Conference Paper
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O fenômeno dos condomínios fechados está hoje presente em muitas cidades no mundo inteiro – e não apenas no capitalista, mas também no socialista como demonstra o caso da China. Ou chama-se “gated communities” nos EUA; ou “barrios cerrados” ou “urbanización cerrada” nos países de língua espanhola na América Latina. Como bem descreve esse último termo em castelhano para o caso de áreas maiores que reúnem um conjunto de prédios residenciais com vários apartamentos e concentram um elevado número de moradores, esses condomínios não só restringem o acesso através de muros e entradas vigiadas, mas contam, em grande parte, com toda uma infra-estrutura e serviços internos. Entretanto, apesar dessa disseminação pelo mundo afora, há uma diversidade significativa de formas como essa “urbanização fechada” é implantada em diferentes lugares; inclusive, ao lado de condomínios altamente verticalizados encontram-se, em muitos casos, áreas mais ou menos extensas e densamente ocupadas por condomínios de casas unifamiliares dependendo dos tamanhos dos lotes e da ocupação do terreno permitido. Ha uma vasta bibliografia que procura dar conta tanto dessas suas características mais gerais como de suas particularidades locais que não vamos discutir aqui. O objetivo do nosso trabalho é identificar uma nova característica desse processo de urbanização a partir de uma perspectiva que ultrapassa os limites das próprias regiões metropolitanas e que só recentemente está sendo contemplada nos estudos sobre o fenômeno dos condomínios fechados.
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This study examines the morphological transformation of the Gokturk neighborhood in urban and architectural interfaces, and supports the study through the perspective of gated housing settlements due to its prevalence in the built environment. In this context, a typological classification proposal has been developed to define the identity and character of gated housing settlements which differ based on form and quality. As a representative of typo-morphological approach on urban morphology, Italian architect and urbanist Muratori’s principles are referred as revealing the morphological layers of urban development in Gokturk neighborhood through the housing types. In this development process, evolution of the built environment from rural characteristic to an urban fabric consisting of mostly gated housing enclaves in the current chronological layer is discussed also the quantity and quality changes experienced and the factors of this process. After identifying the cases that created gated housing enclaves in Gokturk neighborhood, typological study was conducted to understand the form and the characteristics of these settlements. To achieve this purpose, typological method of Grant and Mittelsteadt (2004) which consists of physical outcomes and aiming to developed a broader typological method of Blakely and Snyder's (1997) is used. First of all, 102 samples, which conform to the definition of gated housing enclaves within the scope of Gokturk neighborhood, were evaluated on parcel morphology, block order, block type, building type, parcel and building mass composition, building mass and ground composition, in order to filter a diverse subject group for the typological study and 18 of these subjects have been processed. As a result of the morphological study, it has been determined that the parameters of the amenities and services, also user class, which are defined according to the income groups are distinctive. Furthermore, some parameters on typology of Grant and Mittelsteadt (2004) are not distinctive in a specific location which also has a specific policy context or tenure such as Gokturk neighborhood. In this context, typology of gated housing enclaves within the Gokturk neighborhood is proposed as differing three types called ‘basic dwelling’, ‘shared leisure’ and ‘semi-private leisure’
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Grounded on semi-structured interviews, we seek to examine the impact of neighborhood effects on the individuals’ living conditions in four shanty-towns of Salvador, Brazil, addressing the question of under what conditions the proximity to affluent gated communities fosters their socio-economic integration. The research demonstrates that the relationship between spatial proximity and socio-economic integration is conditioned by the capacity of public space to promote (non)employment cross-class interactions, the impact of crime, and the gated communities' degree of securitization. Whereas in Calabar, large opportunities of socio-economic participation in its surroundings mitigate the negative impact of neighborhood effects, (non-)employment relationships sharply decline in the less centrally located Vale das Pedrinhas and Bate Facho, where the informal proletariat has been excluded from using the public space for commercial activities. The construction of the highly isolated gated community Alphaville II has neither fostered cross-class interactions nor benefitted the economic integration of the Vila Verde inhabitants. In all neighborhoods physical boundaries have been internalized by a similar discourse that emphasizes class-hierarchized opportunities for upward socio-economic mobility, particularly regarding the access to schools and public security. The study urges to reflect on a more holistic approach to social inequalities, comprising socially more integrative labor and housing policies.
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The Gated Communities are being assumed as Residential Territories, in which fences and gates restrict accessibility for the non-residents to such environments. These areas are being under control by a variety of security systems and instruments. Such territories could be established in small or large areas for a permanent or non-permanent residence. Furthermore, the burden of management in gated communities could be in the hands of private or public gatherings. However interior management of the facilities in the Gated territories by the residents is the specific characteristic in most of these communities. Since 1970, the universe has been encountered with the wider formation of Gated Communities all over the developed and undeveloped countries. In the northern province of Iran Mazandaran, due to the impressive tendency of the affluent residents of Tehran for lodging and temporary residence specially in coastal areas, such Gated Communities have been founded in the fortieth decade (1340) and rapidly developed. Darya-Kenar has been evaluated as an important case study for the mentioned Gated Communities located in coastal areas. Meanwhile, a form of environmental segregation between the residents and people of the surrounded areas has been appeared. Moreover, based on this segregation, the land price has encountered with some high levels of changes and caused an especial land speculation. According to the rise of this phenomenon, many gated communities have been constructed, and because of existence in the Babolsar city environs, and in the lack of clear legislations’ existence, a huge number of deficiencies and problems have been appeared. Due to these issues, a comprehensive approach or special procedure is required for coincident evaluation of interior and exterior environment. In this article, the improved SWOT method has been applied for the evaluations. Some of the important strategies in this article include: A revision in the legislations about surrounding rules and instructions as a way of settlement development configuration; elimination of multi decisional administrations and creation of a concentrated responsible unit; applying existed spatial potentials to set a connection between internal; and external residences (to prevent of uncontrolled development of gated communities according to increase of the investment attractions). Initially it is necessary to identify the position of Gated Communities in the integrated Coastal zone management; moreover, changing the land use of agricultural territories in coastal areas must be prevented in coordination with local organizations, and also occupying the periphery of the coasts should be prohibited and an appropriate access of people be provided. For eliminating of the problems in the Darya-Kenar Gated Community, a comprehensive development document has to be proved to change the development capacity into an appropriate reduction of shortages in this community. The Correction of legal resources based on the revision in residential community development regulations and against the occupation of coastal peripheries and approving new laws related with social development can have an appropriate influence in prevention of future social problems. Legitimating of the Darya-Kenar Gated Community and withdrawal of this residential complex from BABOLSAR City’s periphery and solving the claims with the Constructor & developer firm in courts can effect on the reduction of numerous occurred problems. Abundant deficiencies at the present situation of the Darya- Kenar Gated Community during our own time, is emanating from fever of land trade, lack of public facilities, absence of comprehensive systematic statistical regulations, none distinguished management structure, multi and parallel decisions units, and etc. It will be mentioned that, based on the following strategies a proper confrontation with these kinds of deficiencies occurs: An appropriate attendance and participation of residents in exploitation and maintenance of Gated Community in some internal management systems. Census Population and habitation based on economic, social, physical configuration of gated communities in correlation with its function. The amendment of multi decisions and parallel units and founding a concentrated and intensified decision about the gated communities to correct and vanish the influences emanating from such decision units. Configuring a follow up unit in order to recognition and acquiring necessary documents. Legitimating the kind of operating and constructional activities based on the creation of legal suitable resources. Necessitating the urban government specifically in appropriate applying of coastal integrated management and development system and revision in residential complex construction regulations, and approving new laws based on the especial type of such gated communities. Revision in the approach and method and structure of gated community management with the aim of elimination of existent legal deficiencies and obstacles. And also managing the relationship in accordance with other urban and rural communities.
Article
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Gated communities are the new concept of urban planning in the field of housing development and urban ecology in Iran. There has been a lot of research done on this topic in eastern and western counties. However, in Iran, especially in Tehran, this topic needs to be more discussed and research to be initiated at different regions. This review, firstly, tries to discuss about the concept of gated communities in the entire world with some specific example of England, United States, South America, and Africa. Secondly, four types of gated communities (utopian social, security, state and special gated communities) in Iran were explained. Methodology of this review is based on qualitative data from librarian source. The study contains some examples in Tehran such as, Sobhan and Kohestan residential complex for utopian social groups, Sahar residential complex for security groups, Shahid Beheshti and Taxirani residential complex state groups and Garrisons as the special gated communities. We found the main factors that shape every aspect of categories and design of gated communities as social, economic and cultural factors that hiding the basis of gated communities in Iran, and it depends on cultural attitude, built environment and delivers significant benefits of the cities.
Article
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A construção de condomínios fechados de elite nas áreas periféricas das cidades latinoamericanas instigou um debate controvertido centrado na questão se este desdobramento favorece a integração socioeconômica das camadas baixas habitando estas regiões. Neste trabalho, visa-se investigar sob quais condições o efeito-território, acometendo a população pobre do bairro central Calabar e do bairro periférico Vila Verde, Salvador, Brasil, se vê influenciado pela proximidade aos condomínios da classe alta. À base de entrevistas, evidencia-se que existem tanto mecanismos que prejudicam o indivíduo, como a influência do tráfico de drogas, quanto mecanismos que beneficiam sua vida, como a mobilização coletiva da comunidade. Discute-se que as articulações funcionais entre os grupos socialmente distantes sofreram importantes alterações dentro da trajetória de expansão da classe média e alta, sendo que a relação entre proximidade e integração socioeconômica se vê condicionada pela existência de espaços públicos, pela autonomia funcional do bairro e pelo impacto do crime. Conclui-se que a recente construção do condomínio Alphaville 2 não ampliou as possibilidades de articulação social com os segmentos mais pobres morando no bairro Vila Verde, dada sua maior autonomia funcional e seu maior grau de isolamento espacial. Tampouco criou externalidades positivas para a população do seu entorno geográfico em termos de acesso a serviços urbanos e de segurança pública, em contraste com o bairro de Calabar.
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RESUMO A recente transformação espacial das regiões periféricas das cidades latinoamericanas induzida pela construção de condomínios fechados de elite instigou a discussão se este desdobramento favorece a integração socioeconômica das camadas baixas. Visando contribuir a um debate ainda incipiente no Brasil, neste trabalho indaga-se sob quais condições o efeito-território, acometendo as populações dos bairros Calabar, Bate Facho e Vila Verde – Salvador, Brasil – se vê mitigado pela proximidade aos condomínios de elite. À base de entrevistas, identificam-se três mecanismos – as alterações no sistema de suporte, o impacto do crime e a estigmatização da população – que explicam a variabilidade do efeito-território nestes três locais. Discute-se que as oportunidades de participação socioeconômica do indivíduo vis-à-vis seu entorno geográfico estão condicionadas à existência de espaços públicos e ao impacto do crime. O efeito mitigador das externalidades positivas declina nos bairros periféricos Bate Facho e Vila Verde, onde os condomínios fechados fisicamente isolados produzem efeitos excludentes.
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El patrón de segregación residencial de las ciudades chilenas se está transformando en dos sentidos principales: está cambiando su escala geográfica y está aumentando su malignidad. Estos cambios parecen estar afectando a la mayoría de las ciudades latinoamericanas. Están vinculados con las políticas de liberalización de los mercados de suelo y con los procesos de globalización económica y cultural de las últimas décadas. En el artículo se entrega información empírica sobre los efectos de estos cambios en tres ciudades chilenas (Santiago, Valparaíso, Concepción); y se discute teóricamente la relación entre desigualdad social y segregación espacial, rechazando el enfoque usual que ve a la segunda como un mero reflejo en el espacio de la primeraThe pattern of residential segregation is undergoing two crucial changes in Chilean cities: its geographical scale is shifting, and segregation’s malignancy is increasing. Seemingly, these changes are affecting most of Latin American cities. They are linked to the land markets’ liberalization policies and to the processes of economic and cultural globalization of the past decades. This paper presents empirical data showing the effects of these changes for three Chilean cities (Santiago, Valparaíso, Concepción); and theoretically discusses the relationship between social inequality and spatial segregation, rejecting the usual approach that considers the latter as a mere spatial reflection of the first
Article
First Published in 2003. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
Article
This paper is about the re-engineering of the public realm. Its purpose is to encourage balanced debate about the rising numbers of residential schemes in British and other European cities that supply collectively consumed neighbourhood goods and services exclusively to households within the 'gates'. It reviews the wider global trend towards gated developments and comments on the academic debates arising. It sets out reasons--offered as testable hypotheses--why we should expect to see many more gated developments in the future. Drawing on theories of collective consumption, the efficiency of gated communities is discussed. The polarisation of the private and public realms is re-interpreted and a third category defined--the 'club realm'. The stance of the paper is neither strongly protagonist nor antagonist. It makes the assumption that the club realm is here to stay and that private developers and town planners alike need to design and plan with it just as they have traditionally designed and planned with public and private realms. The conclusion sets out an empirical research agenda.
Article
Gated communities—enclaves of homes surrounded by walls, often with security guards—are becoming increasingly popular in America. This article introduces and analyzes findings of a Fannie Mae Foundation—sponsored panel on gated communities held at the 1997 Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning annual conference. A key finding is that many people choose to reside in gated communities because they believe that such places reduce risk, ranging from the mundane (e.g., unwanted social exchanges) to the high stakes (e.g., declining home values).In many ways, gated communities deliver what they promise, by providing an effective defense against daily intrusions. However, some of their benefits entail a high social cost. A sense of community within gated communities comes at the expense of a larger identity with the region outside. Gated communities manifest and reinforce an inward‐focused community culture, where the tension between the individual and society tilt toward self‐interest.
Article
Across America, middle-class and upper-middle-class gated communities are creating new forms of exclusion and residential segregation, exacerbating social cleavages that already exist (Blakely and Snyder 1997; Higley 1995; Lang and Danielson 1997; Marcuse 1997). While historically secured and gated communities were built in the United States to protect estates and to contain the leisure world of retirees, these urban and suburban developments now target a much broader market, including families with children (Guterson 1992; Lofland 1998). This retreat to secured enclaves with walls, gates, and guards materially and symbolically contradicts American ethos and values, threatens public access to open space, and creates yet another barrier to social interaction, building of social networks, as well as increased tolerance of diverse cultural/ racial/social groups (Davis 1992;Devine 1996;Etzoni 1995; Judd 1995; McKenzie 1994).In this paper, I explore how the discourse of fear of violence and crime and the search for a secure community by those who live in gated communities in the United States legitimates and rationalizes class-based exclusion strategies and residential segregation. I examine whether residents of cities experiencing increasing cultural diversity are fleeing neighborhoods because they have experienced a "loss of place" and therefore feel unsafe and insecure (Altaian and Low 1992). Some people are responding to this loss by choosing to buy into a defensive space, a walled and guarded community that they can call home, [gated communities, United States, urban fear]
Article
Three key developments are described: (a) the transformation of the earlier racial ghettos into excluded ghettos, class/racial ghettos of the excluded and abandoned, resulting from a combination of hyperpauperization and racism; (b) a qualitatively new phase of the totalizing suburb, in which “edge cities” are created combining residential, business, social, and cultural areas that are removed from older central cities and overlaid on earlier patterns of suburbanization, representing a dramatic and expanded form of the exclusionary enclave; and (c) the parallel transformation of luxury and upper-class residences (and, increasingly, businesses and social and cultural facilities—thus similarly totalizing) into separate areas, appropriately called fortified citadels, each again separated from the other parts of the city by social, economic, and often physical barriers. The three developments are intimately connected with each other and mutually reinforcing.
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“Public” life once meant that vital part one’s life outside the circle of family and close friends. Connecting with strangers in an emotionally satisfying way and yet remaining aloof from them was seen as the means by which the human animal was transformed into the social – the civilized – being. And the fullest flowering of that public life was realized in the 18th Century in the great capital cities of Europe. Sennett shows how our lives today are bereft of the pleasures and reinforcements of this lost interchange with fellow citizens. He shows how, today, the stranger is a threatening figure; how silence and observation have become the only ways to experience public life, especially street life, without feeling overwhelmed ; how each person believes in the right, in public, to be left alone. And he makes clear how, because of the change in public life, private life becomes distorted as we of necessity focus more and more on ourselves, on increasingly narcissistic forms of intimacy and self-absorption. Because of this, our personalities cannot fully develop: we lack much of the ease, the spirit of play, the kind of discretion that would allow us real and pleasurable relationships with those whom we may never know intimately.
Article
Suburbanisation in the extended metropolitan area of Manila has produced new middle-class consumer landscapes of exclusive suburbs -- alongside tower blocks, offices, residential estates,shopping malls, and golf courses -- linked by freeways and flyovers.Economic growth, the emergence of a new and mobile middle class, and thelack of public planning have emphasised individualism and privatisation.Enclosed homogeneous suburbs, designed and marketed as fragments of Europein a global era, enhance security, exclusivity, and isolation. Suburbanvillage associations regulate community life through private legal regimesand strengthen class divisions. Malls and freeways are further forms ofprivatisation and social segregation as the city has become more fragmentedand divided whilst public space diminishes. Social divisions are particularly acute in cities like Manila where uneven development is considerable,the public sector is weak, and metropolitan government is absent.
Bourgeois utopias: the rise and fall of suburbia. Basic Books Public goods and private communities: the market provision of social services
  • R Fishman
Fishman, R. (1987) Bourgeois utopias: the rise and fall of suburbia. Basic Books, New York. Foldvary, F (1994) Public goods and private communities: the market provision of social services. Edward Elgar, London.
Discipline and punish: the birth of the prison. Vintage Books ÐÐ (1980) Power knowledge: selected interviews and writings 1972±1977
  • M Foucault
Foucault, M. (1977) Discipline and punish: the birth of the prison. Vintage Books, New York. ÐÐ (1980) Power knowledge: selected interviews and writings 1972±1977. Pantheon Books, New York.
City of quartz: excavating the future of Los Angeles Relationships between the residents of an ideological gated community and shantytown dwellers of a nearby area
  • M Davis
  • Ferna
  • G Ândez
  • R Salcedo
  • A Torres
Davis, M. (1990) City of quartz: excavating the future of Los Angeles. Verso, New York. Ferna Ândez, G, R. Salcedo and A. Torres (2003) Relationships between the residents of an ideological gated community and shantytown dwellers of a nearby area. Paper presented at the 51st Congress of the Americanistas, Santiago, 14±18 July.
Fortress America: gated communities in the United States City of walls: crime, segregation and citizenship in Sao Paulo Comunidades enrejadas en el Santiago de los '90: hacia un nuevo patro Ân de segregacio Ân residencial
  • E Blakely
  • M Snyder
Blakely, E. and M. Snyder (1997) Fortress America: gated communities in the United States. Brookings Institution Press, Washington, DC. Caldeira, T. (2000) City of walls: crime, segregation and citizenship in Sao Paulo. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. Campos, D. and C. Garcõ Âa, (2002) Comunidades enrejadas en el Santiago de los '90: hacia un nuevo patro Ân de segregacio Ân residencial. Serie Talleres de Titulacio Ân, Instituto de Sociologõ Âa, P. Universidad Cato Âlica de Chile, Santiago.
Gated communities in Madrid. Origins and causes of the actual expansion
  • R Wehrhahn
Wehrhahn, R (2002) Gated communities in Madrid. Origins and causes of the actual expansion. Paper presented at the second International Conference on Private Urban Government, Mainze, Alemania, 5±9 June.
Relationships between the residents of an ideological gated community and shantytown dwellers of a nearby area
  • R Fernandez
  • A Salcedo
  • Torres
Ferna Ândez, G, R. Salcedo and A. Torres (2003) Relationships between the residents of an ideological gated community and shantytown dwellers of a nearby area. Paper presented at the 51st Congress of the Americanistas, Santiago, 14±18 July.
Upper class settlements in marginal sectors under the form of gated communities: an external look
  • F Selles
  • L Stambuck
Selle Âs, F and L. Stambuck (2002) Upper class settlements in marginal sectors under the form of gated communities: an external look. BA thesis, Department of Sociology, Pontificia Universidad Cato Âlica de Chile, Santiago.
Los que ganaron: la vida en los countries y barrios privados
  • M Svampa
Svampa, M. (2001) Los que ganaron: la vida en los countries y barrios privados. Biblos, Buenos Aires.
Comunidades enrejadas en el Santiago de los '90: hacia un nuevo patro Ân de segregacio Ân residencial. Serie Talleres de Titulacio Ân
  • D Campos
  • C Garcõ Âa
Campos, D. and C. Garcõ Âa, (2002) Comunidades enrejadas en el Santiago de los '90: hacia un nuevo patro Ân de segregacio Ân residencial. Serie Talleres de Titulacio Ân, Instituto de Sociologõ Âa, P. Universidad Cato Âlica de Chile, Santiago.